ADVERTISING THE SURVIVAL STRATEGY OF MASS MEDIA ORGANIZATION: (A STUDY OF NTA ABAKALIKI)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For centuries, people have regarded advertising as old as man marry animals use sound to convey message and other basic information but they cannot communicate ideas in the way human do. Communication is the key through which man leans action that arose his emotions and feelings, that indeed is an important difference between man and other animals where action are almost instinctive or bem.
This is known through the discovery that the early men did advertise through unconsciously. According to a school of thought as seen as man could talk or empress, he stunts to advertise to his companion of his presence indicating happiness or discomfort through lengthener crying.
So, an individual or company an use advertising as pant of the marketing mix advertising is important during entertainment or to morke known products or services to culture or advice.
Though people have been communicating their ideas and desires through advertisement. Advertising could be for the target audience.
Though people have been communicating their ideas and desires through advertisement. Advertising could be for the target audience who are segment of the population for when the product or secure has a define appeal. There are many target audiences that could be defined. In another way consumer advertising, is tanyeted at the people who buy goods and sources for personal use. For example, Campbell’s (known for its soups) uses consumer advertising to direct its ads to the adults and children mostly likely to buy somp at the grocery steer. Most of the advertising people are exposed to falls into this category. Business-to-business advertising is aimed at people who buy products for business use. Industrial, trade and professional –as well as agricultural- advertising are all pant of this category.
Berelesen (1999:87), weirs communication as the process of creating, transmitting and interpreting ideas, facts, opinions and feeling by linking people together in any social environment to achieve a common purpose
Among human being, music and language are the main aspect of our need to communicate. As it is times of language and music affects our reaction and influence our emotional make up. And of what marketing benefit is it to the Nigerian televeision authority NTA Abakaliki?
Therefore, the salient paint in the above definition is that advertising is a form of communication. It is pored for, it is persuasive, it is about products and sources and must be passed through a charnel.
Mass medias researchers all over the would have agreed that music has the power to create feedings emotions in quick and effective manner. In a book of human communication Stewart and Sylvia pointed out that there is a closer relation between learning and emotional arsenal. The writers illustrated this relation by ginning an instance that say seeing a grounded animal or a suffering person who is salient may produce little maternal response to the obscener. Apparently, response to the music help to connect words or ideas with emotions.
Horace, Nigerian Television Authority NTA Abakaliki’s Advertisement is presented with persuasive language, picture and emotionally changed musical accompaimentinally. The aim of advertisement is to make buying, propaganda, learning etc on emotional response rather than a logical one no wonder (1999, Oct 8, Awake) in an exposition entitled
“the power of music” the Awake claimed that advertising might have an undesirable effect on the public.
What then is advertising?
The advertising practitioner council of Nigerian (APCON) Defined Advertising as a communication in the media pared for by am identified sponsor and direct at a target andicnce with the aim of impacted information about a product, services, idea or curse.
According to Aliede (2012) “Advertising is the non-personal communication of information, usually peril for and usually persuasive in nature about products and services or ideas by identified sponsors through various me advertising is directed to groups of people not individuals that is, it is non-personal. It could be segmented as it could be for youths, the aged or the adults. It is not face-to communication.
Most advertising is paid for, example MTN and GLO with pride amongst others only few advertisements are not paid for such ads are disseminated in form of public services announcements in the interest of the general public or charitable organizations. Some advertisements are persuasive in nature so as to win comets who are lured to patronize goods, services or ideas oftentimes, it could be to convince people about a particular product that will benefit them.
In his book “the power of advertising” Onyeka (2001:230) states that advertising is a fool of marketing promotion used together with other tools of promotion including publicity, public relations etc to achieve the promotion goals of the relevant client organization and project for advertiser.
Ifezue (1990:13), defines advertising as any form of non-personal presentation and emotion of ideas good and services by identified Spenser to attract attention, command interest, create desire, inspire conviction and provoke action.
A repent entitled “A drift in a sea of Advertising” by the Awake (August 1999:4) stated that advertisement, goal and concepts of when we are and when we should be
Stewart and Sylvia (1991”156) describe advertising as one of the most powerful socializing force in man’ enctaral manifestation.
According to Arens as a consumer you are expend to lurdreds and maybe even thousands of commercial message everyday. They may appear in the form of bill bocirds, like the Altoids comparing, or in the form of newspaper ads TV commercials, campus, sale letters, publicity event sponsorships telemarketing calls, or even e-mails these are just a few of the many communication tools that companies and originations use to tunicate and maintain contact with their customers, clients, and prospects, you may simply referc to then all as” advertising but in fact, the correct tem for these various tool is marketing communications. And advertising is just one type of marketing communication so, the, what is advertising?
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Albert lasker, who is today is generally regarded as the father of modem advertising owned a prominent advertising ageruy, lenland thermals. At the time, he defined advertising as “salesmanship in print, driven by a reason why. But that was long before the ardent of rancho, television, or the internet. The nature and scope of the business world, and advertising were quite limited. A century laten our planet is for different place the nature and needs of business have danged and have the concept and practice of advertising. And the functional definition of advertising is that,
Advertising is the structured and composed ally pared for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods, services, and ideas) by identified sepses through ramous media.
Let’s take this definition apart and analyze its components Advertising is, first of all, a type of communication, employing both verbal and nonverbal elements time formats determined by the Spenser.
Secondly, advertising is typically directed to grumps of people rather than to individuals it is therefore no personal, or mass, communication. Those people could be consumers, who buy products like Altords for their personal use or they might be business people who would buy large quantities of Altoids for resale in their steres.
Mcann-erckson, the ad agency for coca-Well and master and, says that advertising is “Truth well fold”. This means that ethical advertisers and the agencies they employ work as a team to discover and use the best methods possible to tell their story truthfully and certainly to the market place. To succeed, they must understand the elements of the advertising communication process, which is derived from the basic human communication process.
Dominick (2004:p12) “Advertising is any form of nonpersenal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services usually pared for by an identified Spenser. Note three key words in the above definition. Advertising is non personal, it is directed toward a large group of anonymous people. Even Email advertising, which may be addressed to a specific persons, is prepared by a computer and signed by a machine.
Second, advertising typically is paid for. This fact differentiates advertising from publicity, which is not usually purchased. Spenser’s such as coke and delta pay for time and the space they use to get their messages across. (Non profit organizations, such as the parry for time or space they used. Broadcast stations run these ads free as a public services?
Third, for obvious reasons, the sponsor of the ad is identified in fact, in most instarues identifying the Spenser is the prime purpose behuod the ad-otherovise, why advertise? Perhaps the only situation in which the identity of the advertiser may not be self-endent is political advertising because of this, broadcasters and publisher will not accept political and without a statement identifying those responsible for it
Television commercials began in September 22 1995 the was no shortage of consumer product when the war ended. The nations manufacturing capacity had been greatly expanded to meet the needs of war, and new that manufacturing capability was lured toward the production of consumer produces for people who found themselves with more leisure and more money.
Television seen became the primary national advertising medium. Advertiser bought and 19 million in television time in 1949, 2 years later, they spent and 128 million television commences by virtue of the fact that consumers could see and hear the product in action, were different dorm the advertising of all other media. The ability to demonstrate the product to do the feature best for time watches to smoothly shave sand paper with Gillette foaury-ted to the hinge selling proposition (U.SP) that is highlighting the aspect of a product that scats it apart from other brand in the same product category
Eluwa, (2004:83), with televising artiune in Nigeria is still about shouts (4pm-12) midnight and the lest of advertising ins television is comparatively more expensive than radio, which operates between (5:30am012 midnight) The income or revenue to these stations came from advertisement. And the limit of their patronage also depends on how well they package their progammes, since advertiser most of the time prefer to Spenser some programmes rather relying on just on the spot announcements.
Meanwhile, the money spent on advertising in Nigerian television authority (NTA) Abakaliki channel 43, the sunrise station becomes income to them because they have sells their tangible airtime and space to facilitate the communication of the advertising is both a major source of rescue and services to their audience.
Nigerian television Authority (NTA) channel 43 Abakaliki is an inmerative and popular mass media among the classes of television broadcasting anymore who is familiar with or all of its outlets the constant interruption during pregramme for commercial in between before or after each pregramme are slots for commercial advertisements which usually occupy a significant pestering in the station prgrammes.
How would one determine the revenue generation ability of these commercial advertisement to Nigerian television Authority (NTA) Abakaliki channel 43 considering the seemingly, endless variety of advertising media which ranges from billboards to television magazines, pester and handbills.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Advertising apart from the function of airing, marketing also generates reverence for the media organization.
Hence, thus study will investigate and if the revenue gerurated by commercial advertisement for Nigerian television Authority (NTA) Abakaliki, channel 43 is adequate enough for its capital and recurrent expenditures. This confirming the statement that advertisement is the life wire of media organizations.
Ebo (1994:48-49), says when consider economic impact of advertising in Nigerian broadcasting station it would be interesting to note, that Ibrahim former director of Nigeria television Authority (NTA) Stated that 40% subvention comes from the government. An NTA relies on advertising for it fund. 60% of Nigeria television Authority revenue comes from advertisement this is the position of Nigerian Authority (NTA) Abakaliki channel 43 the sunrise station, which is what the research tends to study.
Therefore, the problem is to fund out how advertising has contributed to the survival of Nigerian television Authority (NTA) Abakaliki channel 43 in other word to ascertain their other ways of generating income to the station apart from government subvention.
1.3 objectives of the study
The objectives of thus study are:
- To determine if media organizations depend on advertising reverence for their survival.
- To find out whether there are other source of revenue for the Nigeria television authority (NTA) Abalaliki.
- To discover if advertising proceeds by Nigerian television Authority Abakaliki determines its income level.
- To ascertain whether the proceeds from commercial advertising are enough to sustain the functioning of Nigerian television Authority channel 43 Abakaliki in the absence of the 40% subvention from the federal
1.4 Research questions
(1) Do media organization depend on advertising revenue to their survival?
(2) Can advertising be said to be the major source of income to Nigerian television?
(3) Does the survival of (NTA) Abakaliki depend on advertising?
(4) D commercial advertising are enough to sustain the functioning of Nigerian television Authority channel 43, Abakaliki in the absence of the 40% subvention from the federal government?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
(1) Ho Media organization does not depend on advertising revenue to their survival.
H1 Media organization depend on advertising revenue to their survival
(2) Ho There is other major source of revenue for the Nigeria television Authority (NTA) Abakaliki.
H1 There is no other major source of revenue for Nigerian television Authority (NTA) Abakaliki.
(3) Ho Advertising proceeds by Nigeria television Authority Abakaliki does not determined its income level.
H1 Advertising proceeds by Nigeria television Authority Abakaliki does not determined its income level.
(4) Ho commercial advertising does not sustain the functioning of Nigeria television Authority channel 43, Abakaliki in the absence of the 40% subvention from the federal government.
H1 commercial advertising sustain the functioning of Nigeria television Authority channel 43, Abakaliki in the absence of the 40% subvention from the federal government.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great importance to the Nigerian television Authority (NTA) Abakaliki channel 43, management in its full potential to enhance the revenue greatening capacity of advertising.
Furthermore, it is intended to contribute to the existing pool of knowledge in advertising serves as a resources maternal and open avenue for further studies in the dynamic and fast growing field of advertising and communication.
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