AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF POOR HUMAN WASTE (FAECES, URINE) DISPOSAL AT OKWO MARKET IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE.
It is well known that good sanitation improves the quality of life, reduces death and increases life expectancy. Against this background, improvement of the sanitary condition of our traditional urban markets reflects in the improvement of the well being of the populace (Obemeta J.O, Olueande P.A, Akinbola J.O and Soetan J.O 1991). Therefore, proper disposal of human waste should be considered a front burner in a bid to achieving sanitary environment. Human waste in this context is excreta, which is made up of faeces, Urine. Vaughan and Glanville (1981) said that ineffective organisms for many diseases are expelled from the human body in faeces and urine. This informs the reason for proper disposal of human excreta, to avoid sickness in the community. Proper excreta disposal involves the isolation of it from contact with disease vectors like flies, rodents and vermin’s. It should also be isolated from human contact, to avoid transfer of these pathogens to food, consumed by humans. Furthermore, unsanitary human waste disposal result in objectionable odour and the destruction of the aesthetic appeal of the environment. when excreta are disposed of by water, it is referred to as sewage. The pipes that channel sewage from building and apartments are called sewers, while the network of sewers in the community is called sewerage. Much water is required for is called community sewage disposal which is made up of 99.9% water and 0.1% organic and in organic matter, (West Africa Health Examination Board 1991). Water is generally scarce in most communities in Ngbo.
Akpofuru (2009), omodu (2007) and Miller (1992) have said that 97% of earth’s volume of water is found in the oceans and seas. The remaining 3% only is fresh water, out of which 2.99% is locked up as ice and glaciers in the poles, or as ground waters, too deep and expensive to harness. It means that only 0.03% of earth’s water is available to humans, in lakes, soil moisture, exploitable ground water, atmospheric water, stream and rivers, in other words, if the world’s water were only 100 liters, our useable amount of that fresh water would only have amounted to 0.03 liter, which is just a half tea-spoonful, for all mankind (Miler, 1999), this is the reason that faecel disposal by water is a difficult task, especially in market environment.
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA
The area of study is Okwor Ngbo market environment in Ohaukwu Local Government Area, Ebonyi State. Okwor Ngbo market is owned by eight (8) communities in Ngbo. These communities are: Okposhi-Eshi, Emezaka, Ukwagba, Ekwashi, Umuogudu-Akpu, Umuogudu Oshia, Amoffia and Okposhi-Eheku. The market day is normally every five days. People from different parts of the country come to buy and sell their commodities. Over one thousand, five hundred people gather in every Okwor market day to buy and sell. The eight (8) communities that own Okwor market have some portion of land in the market. All classes of buying and selling ranging from grocery items to farm products are being sell in Okwor market. Okwor Ngbo market is situated at northern part of Ebonyi State. The major occupation of the people is farming. The main crops produced in the area any others. This influence the type of waste people generate at home and market environment, Ohaukwu Local Government is hot and humid and this encourage quick oxidation of matter, especially excreta deposited on the ground. Proper human waste disposal should be considered a front burner in a bid to achieve sanitary market environment.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years attempts have been made at gathering and evacuating solid waste in Okwor Ngbo market, low level of success were achieved. Unfortunately, provision and maintenance of toilets is not given attention as the other aspect of solid waste in Okwor Ngbo market. By observation traders in Okwor market. Stay at the market from 10 to 12 hours in business on a market day and other days. It is then of most necessity for adequate toilet facilities to be provided in Okwor market. The deleterious content of excreta or the pathogens dangerous to health that are contained in the miry bulk of excreta are the eggs of intestinal helminthes e.g. hook worm, tape worm and round worm, the viruses of polioadhepatitis and pathogenic bacteria egg vibw cholera are major problems of poor human waste disposal in Okwor Ngbo market.
- STATEMENT OF THE PURPOSE
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research is limited to Okwor Ngbo market environment in Ohaukwu Local Gvernment Area of Ebonyi State.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The researcher considered the following as the significance of this study: the study will help government to formulate good policy on the field of study. (2) the study will equally help other researchers in the related area.
- BROAD OBJECTIVE
The broad objective of this study is to appraise the effects of poor human waste disposal in Okwor Ngbo market of Ohaukwu Local Government Area.
- SPECIAL OBJECTIVE
The research is vital in the following ways:
- To find out reasons why they are poor human waste disposal in Okwor Ngbo market
- To determine the damage caused by poor human waste disposal in Okwor market among traders.
- To know if there are effective human waste (faeces, urine) disposal in Okwor market.
- RESEARCH QUESTION
- What are the reasons for poor human waste (faeces, urine) disposal in Okwor Ngbo market?
- What are the harzard associated with poor human waste (faeces, urine) disposal in Okwor market?
- To what extent does Okwor Ngbo market environment has polluted by human waste (urine, faeces)?
- Are there adequate toilet facilities in Okwor Ngbo market?
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following are the research hypothesis of the study:
- Most traders in Okwor Ngbo market do not know the meaning of poor human waste (urine, faeces) disposal.
- Most traders in Okwor market do not know the hazard associated with poor human waste (urine, faeces) disposal.
- Okwor Ngbo market environment has been polluted by human waste (faeces, urine).
- Okwor Ngbo market does not have adequate toilet facilities.
- OPERATIONAL DEFINITION TERMS
- Sanitation: this is a process of removing, treating waste.
- Market: A place where people meet to sell and buy goods.
- Human wastes: These are the faeces, urine from human body.
- Excreta: This is the liquid form of waste from human body (faeces, urine).
- Disposal: This is a system of getting rid of wastes.
- Poor: Ineffective and inefficiency of doing things.
- Proper: Effectiveness and efficiency of doing things.
- Traders: People who sell and buy goods in the market.
- Waste: This is an unwanted and rejected materials (liquid or solid form)
- Environment: This is the surrounding of an area.