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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF UDARA LEAF

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF UDARA LEAF

ABSTRACT

Chrysophyllum albidium G in a tropical plant and commonly found in Nigeria A leaf extract of Chrysophyllum albidum G. were tested using the agar diffusion method on three bacteria strains staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Coliform bacteria phytochemical screening shows that the chrysophyllum albidum G leaf extract contains sapon and no Alkaloid. The chrysophyllum albedum G extract was effective against the text bacteria. The inhibitional zone observed ranged from 1cm to 9cm: the animals in the treatment category were respectively with 500, 1000 and 1500mg of extract and distilled water for.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

          The search for healing power from plants in as old as man people in all continents of the world have long applied poultices and imbibed infusions of hundreds (if not thousands) of indigenous plants dating back to prehistorically period (Duke and Wain 1981: Nostro et al, 2000). Till date, natural plant of various hyper are used in traditional African medicine for providing healing to various ailments even before and after the spread of modern and scientific basis the practice of Africa traditional medicine. Hence some active components of medicinal plants often used which producer certain antimicrobial properties have been identified among there plants in chrysopyllum albidum G.

1.1    ORIGIN OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM

Though the exact area of origin in unknown, the while star apple in believed native to tropical America, per harps in southern Mexico and neighboring Central America.

Chrysophyllum albidum in commonly called Udara or white star apple and it is native to tropical countries. The negative part of white star apple plant have enormous medicinal using in various parts of Africa. The cotyledons in form the seed of C albidum are use in the treatment. Of vaginal and dermatological infections in Western Nigeria. The fruit pulp in rich in vitamin C and iron and an excellent source of raw material for industries (Adisa, 2000, Akubugwo 2007). Tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, proteins, carbohydater and resins are the phytochemicals that have been reported in C albidum (Akeneme 2008). Bioassay guided fractionation of the seeds of C albidum led to the isolotaion of eleagnine was found to be the main compound responsible for its antimicrobial activity (Idown et al, 2003)

Because of these, information on the safety potential of this plant in lacking, thus. There will be need to evaluate the toxicity potential of this popularly used medicinal plant. The study therefore in aimed at providing information on the effects of the ethanolic leaf extract on biochemical and haematological parameters in albino wistar rats.

1.2    TAXONOMY

Family: Sapotaceac

Accepted name: Chrysophyllum albidum

G.: Don.

Synonyms: Gambeya albide

Pellegr.: Planchonella albide

COMMON NAMES

White star apple

African star apple

1.3    BRONCHITIS

The leaf of C. albidum is a good remedy for respiratory problem especially helping to thin the blood (antiplatelet effect) as well as regulate the sugar level in blood sugar

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF UDARA LEAF

1.4    ALZHEIMER’S OR ARTHRISTIC

  1. albidum is effective for the cure of Alzheimer’s or arthristis, prepare as for bronchitis the dosage in half a glass twice daily

1.5    BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION OF UDARA GROWTH HABIT

It is a medium sized decidous tree growing to 15-20 feet mt all, with a trunk up to 60cm diameter, and a crown with many slender branches the bark trunk of mature trees in thick, dark red-brown and deeply furrowed. The branching is sympodial. The shoots are bright yellow green at first with mucilaginous bark, turning reddish brown and in two or three years being to show shallow tissues. The leaves are alternate, green to yellow-green, ovate or abovate, 10-16cm long and 5- 10cm broad with a short, slender, slightly grooved pethole. The come in three different shapes all of which can be on the saw branch, three lobed leaves, rarly there can be more than three lobe. In fall, they turn to shads of yellow, tinged with red the flowers are produced in loose, dropping few floweredrucemer appear; they are yellow to greenish yellow with five or six tepals. The fruit in a dark blue black drupel cm long. Containing a single seed borne on a red fleshy club-shaped pedical 2cm long. It is ripe in late summer with the seeds dispersed by brids. The catyledons thick and fleshy. All parts of the plant are aromatic and spicy. The roots are thick and frequently produce root sprouts which can develop into new trels.

         USEFUL

It has a demonstrated usefulness as a liver protector, pain reliever in the control of high blood pressure and as a good contraceptive and infections.

1.6    FOLIAGE

The dark green obovate droping leaver grow up to 5 inches long, giving the Udara an interesting tropical appearance. The leaves turn yellow and begin to fall in mid autumn and leaf out again inlate spring after the tree has bloomed

FLOWERS

Dormant, velvety, dark brow flowers buds develop in the axits of the previous years. The produce maroon, upside down flowers up to 2 inches across. The normal bloom period consists of about 6 weeks during March to May depending on variety latitude and ultimate conditions. The blossom consists soft 2 whorls of 3 petals each and the calye has 3 sepals each flower contains several ovaries which explain why a single flower can produce multiple fruits.

FRUIT

The Udara edible fruit nutine in America. Individual fruit weight 1 to 1 hours and 2 to 3 inches in length. The larger size will appear plain similar to the mango; the fruit usually has 3 to 4 seed inside. The are brownish in color and shaped like beans, with a length of 1 to 2 inches

Udara fruits often occur as clusters of up to nine individual fruits. The ripe fruit is soft and then skinned leaves dislike strong winds overall the tree in an excellent edible landscape addition.

  • LITERATURE REVIEW

MICROBES THAT ARE USED ESCHRICHIA COLI     

Escherichia Coli (E. coli) are gram negative bacteria that can survive in an environment with or without air (facultive anaeroben) and depending on the environment may or may not produce thin air like structure (flagella or piti) that allws the bacteria to move and to attack the human cells. These bacteria commonly live in the intestines of people and animals world wide. They are mainly strains (over 700 zero tipper) of E. Coli most of the E Coli are normal inhabitants of the small intestine and color and do not cause disease in the intestine (non-pathogenic).

Nevertheless, these non pathogenic E.Coli can cause disease if they spread outside the intestine, for example into the urinary tract (where they cause bladder of kidney infection) or into the blood stream (sepsis). Other E.Coli strains (enterovialent E. Coli strains) cause poisoning or diarrhea, even though they usually remain within the intestine by producing toxins or intestinal inflammation.

SOME RELATED DISEASE OF E.COLI

  • Diarrhea
  • Nose bleed
  • Kidney infection
  • Nausa and vomiting and sepsis
  • Gastroentherctis
  • Amernia
  • Unary infection
  • Kidney failure

CHARACTERISTICS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

Escherichia Coli in a gram negative non spore forming rod. It may or may not be mobile. (some rods are flagevated and some are not). The organism in a facultative anaerobe and fermented simple sugars such as glucose to form lactic, acetic and formic acidic. The optimal condition for growth are a temperature of 98-60f, with a range of 45 to 1140k. the optimum PH for growth in 6,0 to 8.0. however, growth can occur as low as Ph 4-3 and as high as 9 to 10 PH (Bantvart 1983. Mitscherilich and Menth 1984). Esch Coli 0157:N7 can survive in ground best at – 47 for several months without change in numbers (Doyle and Schoeur: 1984

Escherichia Coli is a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract of man and worm blooded animals. Most strains of E.Coli are harmless and are part of the normal intestinal micro flora. These strains serves as useful function in the body by suppressing the growth of harmful bacteria and by synthesizing appreciate amounts of vitamins

DISEASE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

  • HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME (HUS): is a disease in blood clots within the capillary
  • TRAVELERS DIARPHEA: is generally contracted by eating contaminated ford or drinking contaminated water
  • SEPTIC ARTHRITIS OR INFECTION ARTHRITIS: is infection of one or more joints by bacteria virusin of fungi
  • GASTROENTERITIC (VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS): is an infection caused by a variety of viruser that result in vomiting

USES AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

  • The bacteria enrich the soil in various ways example nitrogen fixing bacteria take nitrogen gas from the atmosphere and convert it to a form (nitrate) that green plants uses for growth.
  • Bacteria are important industrially in the product of cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, vinegar, in the preparation of antibiotics such as streptonyoan.
  • The bacteria create fertilizer by breaking down compost leafs made of soil and dead plant matter.
  • They are useful and also dangerous to human

Bacteria E.Coli that exist on our stomach is very usefully to make our meal rest become spoil. It there is no E. coli in our stomach then we will fasces out as what we eat.

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

  1. aureus is a gram-positive, cluster forming coccus non motile, non spore forming facilitative anaerobe

Staphylococcus aureus can cause a range of illness from minor skin infection, such as pimples, boils, impetigo callititer folliculate, carbumder, scalded skin syndrome an abscesses to like threatening disease such as pneumonia, meningitis ostgeonyditis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome bacteria and separs. It incidence is from skin, soft tissue, and respiratory bone joints endova scular to wound tions. It is still one of the five most common causes nosocomial infections often causing post surgical wound infection.

CHARACTERISTICS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS

staphylococcus aureus

FAMILY: staphyloccuceae

SPECIE: S aureus

Staphylococcus aureus have a golden yellow colony on agar normal flora of humans found on nasal passages, skin and mucus membranes pathogen of humans causes a wide rang of suppurative infections, as well as food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

Staphylococci from streptococci. Streptococci are slightly oblong cell that usually grow in chains because they devided in one plane only.

Staphylococcus aureus forms a fairly lococci aureus can grow at a temperature range of 15 to 45 degrees and at all as high an 15 percent. Staphylococcus are perfectly spherical cell about 1 micrometer in diameter.

ECONOMICS IMPORTANCE AND USES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AEREUS

  • It is used to kill pathogens infection
  • Staphylococcus is important pathogenic bacterial responsible for avariety of disease in humans other animals.

Staphylococcal genetic bring together the expertise

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF UDARA LEAF

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