WHY ANNE ROE’S VOCATIONAL THEORY IS ROOTED IN MASLOW’S THEORY
According to Roe, a Childs future Occupational choice depends upon how she was treated by her parents.In 1956, Ann Roe, a clinical psychologist, developed a theory related to parenting styles and occupational choices. Using Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, roe theorized that a person is disposed to certain occupations based upon the way he is raised. Roe broke parenting styles down into three major categories, “emotionally concentrated”, “avoidance prone”, and “accepting”. While series flaws in her theories have been identified, her model was the first to link childhood events and psychological needs with career choices.
1. EMOTIONAL CONCENTRATION: Parents in this category are overprotective or too demanding. The over protected child learns to follow the rules and becomes dependent upon the approval of others for self-esteem. The child with too-demanding parents learns that high standards must be met to receive approval and therefore tends to become a perfectionist
2. AVOIDANCE: Parents in this category range from those who neglect their children to those who reject them. believe they lack value because their basic needs are ignored.
3. ACCEPTING: These are parents who accept their children as they are and meet both their physical and psychological needs. These children learn that they have intrinsic value, which is not dependent upon their performance.
CATEGORIES OF OCCUPATIONS
Roe also developed a new system for classifying occupations. She identifies eight occupational group. Survive, business contact, organization, technology, outdoor, science, general culture, and arts and entertainment. She further identified six occupational levels based upon degree of responsibility, capacity and skill. These levels are; professional and managerial with dependent responsibility, professional and managerial, semiprofessional and small business skilled, semiskilled and unskilled.
WEAKNESSES OF THEORY
Many felt that roe’s theory was premature, lacking adequate research over a long enough period of time to show whether career choices could be clearly linked to parenting styles. In 1990, roe herself determined that there is no direct link between parent child relations and occupational choice. Other weaknesses of her theory include failing to provide an explanation of how socio-demographic variables affect career choice and roe’s disinterest in determining how her theory could be used in practical application.
VALUE OF THEORY
While the theory that parent-child relations direct impact a person’s future career choice was subsequently kind to link childhood factors to future career choices and therefore put roe ahead of he time. She also identified a number of other variables affecting career choice and assigned them weights of importance. These variables included gender, the state of the economy, family background, education, physical impairments, friends and chance. This was significant in that it recognized that there are many different variables affecting a person’s choice of occupation and that these variables carry different weight over time.
CRITICAL OVER VIEW OF ANNE ROE’S THEORY OF VOCATION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO MASLOW’S THEORY.
Anne Roe is trained as a clinical psychologist, Anne Roe began her development of a theory of personality career choices through observation of artists and research scientists focusing on “possible relationship between occupational behaviour (not just choice) and personality” (Roe and Lunenburg, 1990, p. 68). In looking at previous studies, roe identified and categorized a list of needs involving person’s feelings concerning work. Common threads in these studies were bodily well-being, a need for food, a need for activity, and a need for self-realization through a work.
Roe (1956) agreed that people do not work just to earn a living but that “much more is involved in and expected of a job than a pay check (p.23). From these studies and he own work, Roe determined that one’s occupation forms a major focus through thoughts and activities. As part of her own theory, roe turned to maslow’s (1946) hierarchy of needs including: physiological needs safety needs, need for belongingness and love, need for importance, respect, self-esteem, independence, need for information, need for understanding, need for beauty and a need for self-actualization. Maslow’s theory indicated people feel more urgency to satisfy the basic needs of food, shelter, and safety before they are capable of expressing needs on the higher levels and consequently, these other needs remain unachievable to the average individual until those basic needs are satisfied.
Roe (1956) decided her use of maslow’s hierarchy was fairly obvious, i.e., “in our society there is no single situation which is potentially so capable of giving some satisfaction at all levels of basic needs as is the occupation (p. 29) of the person involved. Roe (1956) emphasized the interaction of heredity and environment as the focus of her work. Roe (shart, 1992) decided intelligence and temperament were limited in development by heredity, but interest and aptitudes tended to be determined by satisfaction or frustration through how well individual needs are fulfilled during interactions with others. Needs that are easily satisfied will not become motivators, but needs which are difficult to satisfy, or frustrated, may indeed become motivators. For example a person may seek information about a certain subject. If that subject is introduced during school class time, student may develop further interest if information is presented in such a way as to stimulate that interest, but if the student become frustrated by inability to grasp the information or difficult with absorption of the information, interest may not develop. If satisfied with the effort made, the student will work harder to learn more about the subject. If rewarded when meeting this inmost need, the student may be further motivated by seeking additional praise or higher grades.
General childhood development theory led roe (1956) to theorize the psychchological climate of the home: I.W., concentration on the child, avoidance of the child, or acceptance of the child brings about certain types of personalities within the child. Parental concentration on the child can be overprotection which encourages dependence within the child, restricting curiosity and exploration, or over demand from the child which seeks perfection and sets high standards of behaviour.
Parental avoidance of the child can be emotional rejection by lack of love and affection or by criticism, or neglect when the child is ignored due to parental concern with their own affairs, work, other children, and such. Parental acceptance of the child can be casual in which a minimum of love is offered, or loving with a warmer attitude while not fostering dependency. Roe further stated the parental attitudes of concentration or avoidance within homes caused children to be self-centered, aware of others views of themselves. These same children grow to be people who wish to be in positions of strength when dealing with others and may develop aggressive or defensive attitudes towards others, preferring to deal with data or thing in their choice of occupations rather than people. Children growing up in accepting homes are not as likely to be aggressive or defensive, but more interested in working with people rather than data or things in their occupations (roe, 1956).
In support of Reo, Dawis (1997) stated that needs interacting with parent/child practices and attitudes produce a basic personality orientation, toward persons or toward non-persons, influencing the development of the work personality and vocational behaviour of the individual. Based on this, Roe;s theory (OsiPow, 1973), Walsh and Osipow, 1983, Roe, 1956, Roe and Lunnebory, (1990) posted.
1. Limits of potential development are set by genetic inheritance, including intellectual abilities, temperament, interests, and abilities.
2. General culture background and socio-economic position of the family affect the unique experiences of the individual.
3. Individual experiences which are governed by involuntary attention determine the pattern of development of interests, attitudes, and other personality variables that have not need genetically controlled.
a. Early satisfactions and frustrations as evidenced by the family situation, particularly relations with the parents, i.e, over protectiveness, avoidance or acceptance of the child are evidence of individual experiences.
b. Degrees of needs satisfaction determine which of Maslow’s needs will become the strongest motivators
4. The eventual pattern of psychic energies; i.e attention directed, is the major determinant of interests.
5. The intensity with which an individual feels (Maslovian) needs and the satisfying of these needs determine the degree of motivation to accomplish.
Dissatisfied with available classifications of occupations, Roe (1956) also developed a listing of eight occupational groups including service, business contact, organization, technology, outdoor, science, general culture and arts/entertainment. These groups were further divided into six levels based on degree of responsibilities capability and skill needed to perform at each level, ranging from unskilled to professional and managerial levels.
Descriptive research conducted by roe on artists and research scientists prior to her theory development was “primarily a series of investigations into personality characteristic, background factors, aptitude, and intellectual abilities as theory related to vocational choice” (Osi pow, 1973, p. 24). Brown (1990b) felt roe demonstrated little interest in practical application of her own ideas, doing little research following pronouncement of her theory.
Brown, lum and voyle (1997) argue that Roe’s theory has been too easily abandoned through misconstrued, invalid empirical tests of her hypotheses about parent/child interactions and their relation to career choice behaviour. Additionally, brown and voyle (1997) state that Rose’s theory provides the only available model for linking early childhood experiences, development of an individual’s need structure, and volational behaviour
Although Rose (Rose and lanneborg, 1990) developed only one measurement device, the parent-child relations questionnaire (PCRQ), used to explore basic orientations of people based on their early childhood experiences, other parishioners have developed many instructions base on Roes theory. Examples of instruments based on Roes theory include the career occupational preference system COPS and the computerized vocational information system CVIS.
Osipow 1973 and Walsh and Osipow 1983 criticized the lack of empirical support of her theory work by Kinnane and pable 1962 supported parts of Roes theory but did not rule out other theories. Studies conducted by Levine 1963, switzer, crigg, miller, and young 1962,and utton 1962 supported Roes theory of person and non person orientation, but provided no support on how or if background factors described by Roe influenced the development or no development of these preferences. Studies conducted by Belz and geary 1984, cairo 1982, Erb and smith 1984, and Gordon and Avery 1986 use roes occupational groups and levels successfully in predicting target occupations, change within adjacent work fields and job perceptions. Forty years later, roe’s theory and classification of occupations is still the subject of research with Tracy and rounds (1994) study of interest fields and meir, esforms and friedland’s (1994) use of the course interest inventory based on roe’s classification to investigate holland’s constructs of congruence. Brown et al. (1997), Dawis (1997) and lunnebory (1997) called for additional research to more accurately test roe’s theory as a means of better understanding early childhood experiences as they may relate to the development of an individuals need structure.
Lunneborg and Roe (1990) agreed with Walsh and Osipow (1983) that Roe greatest achievement may lie not empirical research but in career conusellors use of the two-way job classification system and obtain(ing) a family history from their clients (based on roe’s dimensions of people vs. ideas” (Walsh & Osipow, p. 60). Roe (1956) herself felt more attention should be paid to the role of occupation in the life of an individual and that occupations should be open to all, particularly women and minorities, since appropriate work can be satisfying not only to society but to the individual.
NO 2 QUESTION
THREE EXAMPLES OF HOW ANNE REO’S THEORY CAN BE APPLIED IN MY LOCAL COMMUNITY (I.E UMUIRE OMOBA COMMUNITY)
1. Any counselor using this theory in my local community (i.e. Umuire Omoba Community) could use it as a spring board for guidance programme in the schools for young ones can easily identify their needs.
2. Secondly, the counselor will know that the first major thing in vocational guidance should be to find out the clients life orientation, interest and abilities before thinking of matching career. The counselor in my local community should use the inherent qualities in the theory which provides the framework for identification of personality characteristic and potentialities in relation to environmental characteristics in his/her work.
3. Lastly, the theory could be used by the counselors in my local community to assess the client’s family background in relation to the problems exhibited by the client.
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