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Infertility is defined as an inability to conceive a child despite trying for one year. The condition affects about 5.3 million Americans, or 9 percent of the reproductive age population, according to the American society for reproductive medicine of the 80% of cases with diagnosed cause, about half are based at least partially on male problems (referred to as male factors), usually that the man produces no sperm, a condition called azoospermia, or

that he produces too few sperm, called Oligospermia. (www.hon.ch/Dossier/motherchild/gynae). Physicians defined infertility as the inability to get pregnant after a year or more of well-timed, unprotected vaginal intercourse of sperm insemination. Women are also considered infertile if we are unable to carry a pregnancy to term overall, about 10 percent of Americans of reproduction age experience some kind of infertility.

An average women experiences peak fertility in her twenties with a 20 t0 30 percent chance of conceiving each menstrual cycle. Fertility beigns to drop slowly in the early thirties, and more steeply in the late thirties. By age forty, a woman’s chance of getting pregnant without medical assistance is approximately 5 percent each cycle. Women over forty who undergo assisted reproduction using our own eggs have pregnancy rats from 5 to 15 percent per cycle

depending on the type of technology used. Infertility may be a temporary or a permanent condition, this depends on the cause, the available treatments, and the infertility to the partner at any particular point in time. About 15 percent of women in the child bearing years have received some kind of infertility service, with the proportion much greater among high than low – income women.

Many insurers do not cover advanced infertility treatments, or they offer only a limited benefit, making infertility treatments too expensive for the average person. Approximately 50 percent of couples who are treated for infertility become pregnant. Even after giving up fertility treatments, many couples may still become pregnant, sometimes even years after treatment ends.

The use of birth control pills does not kill a woman’s eggs, no has it caused an infertility epidemic. But it may give women an illusion of control over fertility, whereas both control is really only some measures and kinds of chemicals and toxins in the environment may be interfering with men’s and women’s fertility.

Even though age-specific infertility rate in the united states do not seem to be changing markedly, the number of infertility visits has skyrocked due to women delaying child bearing for economic, professional, or personal reasons, as well as the broader social acceptance of  infertility treatments and the increasing number of technologies available.



Infertility is often considered “the women’s problem”, but that is just not so. Both the man and the woman should be evaluated, and treated if necessary, to improve the couple’s chances of conceiving a child together. In straight couples who underwent an infertility evaluation in 2001, female factors contributed to nearly 50 percent of cases, and male factors were involved in 34 percent, in the remaining 16 percent, infertility was either unexplained or due to other factors.

The problems of infertility cannot be over emphasized as most marriage have come to an abrupt end as a result of childlessness. Some cases on polygamy is also as a result of inability of the wife to conceive. Cases of infertility is as old as man himself and the problems. Associated with it have not changed much even with civilization. Infertility in most culture is seen as a problem from females and many harmful traditional practices are melted out on the woman as a result.

But researches have revealed that about a third of infertility cases are as a result of male causes. A third are due to female causes and the last third due to male of and female causes. The guest man to overcome the problems of infertility has lead to the topics incorporation as integral part in the study of obstetrics and gynecology. In a significant percent with sophisticated dicignostic devices.

Modern medical care has reduced the cases of infertility through the prevention of preventable cases eg infections and prompt treatment of treatable cases.


The study; infertility in human beings would create infacts in the society, especially Nigeria where the study was carried out. In Oraukwu, Anambra state wehre the research hads, infertility has become a common problem. Thus, the study would go a longway in providing the causes of infertility and solution making the victims to be endowed with information so that they won’t be deformed.

Moreover, the people would imbibe preventive measures to avoid infertility. It would provide an avenue for training of doctors and other health specialist in the area of prevention and cure of infertility. The study would also ensure the building of healthy couples and families. Hence, the study would be of grave benefit  to Oraukwu people in particular Nigeria and the world in general.

1.4: Methodology

          Scope of the study and Area of coverage.

The scope of this research covers issues concerning infertility in man and woman. Topic like meaning of infertility, causes of infertility (in male and female respectively), dangers of infertility and solution, (preventive and curative measures) are under study.

Source of data:

The two broad sources of data for this research are primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of data are interviews gathered from people who have thorough knowledge of the issues underlying infertility in human beings. The secondary sources of data are books, publications, Internet materials, articles and seminar papers. The books are collected from Ebonyi State library, Enugu State University library and National Library Enugu.

Research Design:

The type of research is qualitative it is a qualitative data in the sense that information are gathered from field survey and documental in nature, statistical methods of data analysis are not to be used.


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