Guide to Research Project Writing

Guide to Research Project Writing

In all tertiary institutions in Nigeria and beyond, research project writing is required of all undergraduate students. As an undergraduate, you are expected to carry out a research project.

Through research, you are able to identify a problem in your community and be able to proffer solution after considering some factors and effects. The first thing you need to do as a research student is to send a research proposal to your supervisor if demanded for.

In your proposal, you will state your research interest. Here, you let your supervisor know how you intend conducting the research, the research instruments you intend using.

The proposal for the topic should also include a brief description, justification for the work, aims and milestones, assumptions to be made, the methodologies involved and the references.

Developing the content of your report writing is very important, in doing this, there are certain guidelines that would be beneficial.
As a rule, the work is usually divided into five chapters excluding the preliminary pages.

SAMPLE OF RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT CONTENT

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content
  • List Of Tables
  • List Of Figures
  • List Of Symbols/ Nomenclature (Where Applicable)
  • The Body/Content (Chapter One To Five)
  • References
  • Appendices (Where Applicable)

Research Project Writing Title page Sample:

Here, the name of the institution is put, the title of the report, the name of the Author, then the reason for the report (this is why it is required that students add that it is ‘in partial fulfilment of the course requirement required for the award of the B.Sc degree.’ Then the date is added. It is advised that you use same fonts type and size as used in the body of the work. Times New Roman, 14 font size and single line spacing will be fine and normal for most departments and schools. The month and year to be used should be the tentative/fixed date/month of your defence, not the month you finished the work as there’ll be different months and year of completion for different students in same department and school.
Below is a good example.

Research Project Writing Title Page SAMPLE
Research Project Writing Title Page SAMPLE

 

Research Project Writing Approval page Sample:

The name of the institution and department, then a statement signifying approval for the work by the supervisor, head of department and external supervisor. Space should be reserved for signatures of all listed parties as well. See example below.

Research Project Writing Approval Page Sample
Research Project Writing Approval Page Sample

 

Dedication page: This is where you dedicate your work to anyone you like, it could be dedicated to God, your parents, your brother or sister, it could also be to your friends, dead or alive. Note: This is different from the acknowledgement.

Acknowledgement: The researcher here writes to appreciate all that contributed, (technical, financial, moral and otherwise) to the success of the research.

Abstract: This is the synopsis of the research work. It is often written last with the tense in past. Usually less than 100 words summarizing the problem statement, the methodology employed, the findings, conclusion and recommendations. This should be in a single paragraph and the word limit not exceeded.

Table of content: The main heading s and sub-headings and page numbers are listed. This allows for easy page identification and reference. The table of content should be edited at the final stage as well, to correctly capture the reflections in the work.

List of tables/figures/symbols: The list is to aid the reader in locating tables/figures/symbols. It should contain the tag numbers, tag which reflects the content and the page numbers. It should be well-numbered and unambiguous. In the main content, the figure/table should be well-labelled.
(The body of the work)

Chapter One: This is usually the introduction.
This describes the background, scope and purpose of the research. The rest of the report should be tied to the information supplied. The researcher should strive to present sufficient details regarding why the study was carried out.

Chapter two: This is usually the literature review.
This presents basically, the work done by others. It is on the ground work done by others that the current research is to be based, hence the review.

Chapter three: This is usually the research methodology.
Here the language used should be in past tense. It is a sum-up of the research design, procedures, the area and population of study. The data sampling and data sources are detailed as well.

Chapter four: This is usually for data presentation and analysis (results and discussion).
The results obtained in the research are presented her, usually, tables are used or any other visual aid like graph or charts.

 

Chapter five: This is the conclusions and recommendations.
From the results of the research, conclusions are made, then suggestions for improvement for other researchers with similar interest. Based on the whole happenings, recommendations are proffered.

References: This is a list of all the relevant journals, books and all sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print. The researcher can select any format to use, it could be MLA referencing format, APA, HARVAD etc

Appendices: This is for all extra materials that were not added to the body of the work.

Don’t forget the page number. The final submission should be very clear, error-free(to a large degree) and as required by standard.

Guidelines for writing a literature review

Guidelines For Writing A Literature Review

 

A literature review is a common genre for many types of writing you’ll have to do as a graduate student and scholar. Many a time, students find it very difficult to develop a good literature review. This post is intended to lessen your burden and fear.

What is Literature Review?

You cannot carry out a research successfully without a review of some related studies which helps you to understand what has been done before and scholars that had in the past undertaking related studies. This is because there is nothing you will research on that an individual somewhere have not done a work on or a related topic.

To get a wilder knowledge of your research, you need to look at what they have done. There are two basic importance of reviewing related literature, first it gives you more knowledge about your research topic, and secondly, if you don’t review literature, you will end up duplicating someone else’s work without filling any gap in study. This act is a serious one and can be labelled “academic theft

Literature review is not copying people’s work and pasting it in chapter two of your research report. Literature review simply provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to show your readers how your research fits within a larger field of study.

Importance Of A Good Literature Review

A literature review is simply reshuffling of information in a way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem.
While reviewing your literature, you must give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretation.
There is always an intellectual progression of the field and major debates too, you must trace them.

It is very important to note here that you need to identify where gaps exist, how a problem has been researched to date in the concluding part of your literature review. This can come in the sub-heading “Summary of the Reviewed Literature” or “Summary of Review of Related Study”

What is the purpose of a Literature Review

While reviewing related literature, you will actually be placing each work in the context of it contribution to the understanding of the research problem being studied.
In literature review, you look at the relationship between works by different scholars. One of the relevances of literature review is that it

  1. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration.
  2. Reveal gaps that exist in the literature.
  3. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.

Types of Literature Review

There are different types of literature review, you can choose to use any of them depending on what you intend finding out.

There are:

  • Argumentative Review: You use this when you want to selectively examine literature in order to support or refute an argument.
  • Integrative Review: This is when you want to review or critique literature on a topic in an integrative way in order to generate new perspective on the topic. This is commonly used in the social sciences. You simply review related literature in an integrative manner in such away that you generate a brand new topic from those integrated literatures.
  • Historical Review: One thing you need to understand as a researcher is that few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. If you intend doing a historical literature review, it means you will focus on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, you then trace its evolution just to know the direction of previous researchers.

Other Types of Literature Review  include:

  • Methodological Review
  • Systematic Review
  • Theoretical Review.

 

Structure and Writing Style in Literature Review

You don’t just pick your pen and start writing a review of literature. Literature Review has a structure and writing style which you as a researcher must follow if you want do a good, valid and reliable findings.

I. Thinking About Your Literature Review

The first thing you do when developing your literature review is to think. I mean think critically, think about the topic, the structure and the writing style.

A good literature review should have the following:

  • An overview of the subject you are studying and the objectives
  • Division: works that support a particular position, those against and those offering alternative approach should be grouped differently
  • Explanation: explain the similarities and differences in the findings of the literatures you reviewed.
  • Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research.

Please consider the following while doing your review (this is very important)

  • Provenance — are the author’s authority in those areas? what are the author’s credentials? Do they have evidence for their claims?.
  • Methodology –Is the methodology they used in data generation, analysis and so on appropriate?
  • Persuasiveness — which of the author’s theses are most convincing or least convincing?
  • Value — are the author’s arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject?

Guidelines for writing a literature review – How to develop a good Literature Review

You as a researcher or a prospective researcher must follow these four stages of developing a literature review.

  1. Problem formulation — which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues?
  2. Literature search — finding materials relevant to the subject being explored.
  3. Data evaluation — determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic.
  4. Analysis and interpretation — discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature.

When writing your literature review, there are a lot of things you must consider.

They are as follows

  • Clarify: always ask your supervisor question for clarifications.
  • Find Models: as you read through your related literature, look at how authors in their respective discipline compose the literature review sections from there you are able to develop a model.
  • Narrow the Topic: when you narrow your topic it will limit the number of sources you need for your work.
  • How Current is your source: you must review current literatures, this is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences.

 

Guidelines for writing a literature review -Writing Your Literature Review

Once you’ve settled on how to organize your literature review, you’re ready to write each section. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues.

  • Use Evidence: A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid.
  • Be Selective: Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review.
  • Use Quotes Sparingly: Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased.
  • Summarize and Synthesize: Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review
  • Keep Your Own Voice: While the literature review presents others’ ideas, your voice should remain front and center. For example, weave references to other sources into what you are writing but maintain your own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and wording. (Very important)
  • Use Caution When Paraphrasing: When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author’s information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Even when paraphrasing an author’s work, you still must provide a citation to that work.

 

Use the comment box to ask us any question as related to Guidelines for writing a literature review, we’ll be glad to respond to it.

 

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Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

PROJECT TOPIC- Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Education is a human right that should be given to all human beings. There are lots of international human right instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right, which include the universal declaration of human right (1948), international convention on economic, social and cultural right (1960), etc. The relationship between education and development is well established, such that education is a lay index of development.

Research has shown that schooling improves productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as child labour. This is why there has been a lot of emphasis particularly in recent times for all citizens to have access to basic education. It has however been established by researchers that improving female education is crucial for national development (UNESCO, 2007). Education is a basic human right and has been recognized as such since the 1948 adoption of the universal declaration of human rights.

Since then, numerous human rights treaties have reaffirmed these rights and have supported entitlement to free compulsory primary education for all children. In 1990 for example, the education for all (EFA) communication was launched to ensure that by 2015, all children particularly girls, those in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.

 According to UNESCO (2007), about 90 million children are not in school and majority of them are girl- children. Most girls do not have access to education despite the fact that it is their rights. The child is often saddled with responsibilities, which may make him or her not to have access to quality education. A 2007 UNESCO and UNICEF report addressed the issue of education from a rights-based approach. Three interrelated rights were specified and must be addressed in concert in order to provide education for all. The three interrelated rights are:

  • The right of access to education. That is, education must be available for, accessible to and inclusive of all children.
  • The right to quality education: Education needs to be child-centred, relevant and embrace a broad curriculum and be appropriately resourced and monitored.
  • The right to respect within the learning environment: Education must be provided in a way that is consistent with human rights, equal for culture, religion and language and free from all forms of violence.

Beyond the basic needs for education to support one’s self and family in later years, many social ills occur in the vacuum of free and accessible education. UNICEF underscored the link between child labour and a lack of education in their 2008 education for all global monitoring reports, over 100 million children was account for 70 percent of all child labourer, work in agriculture in rural areas where access to schools, availability of trained teachers and educational supplies is severely limited.

Though, the education gap runs much deeper than a rural-urban divide. Even in urban areas, poor and marginalized children are not able to benefit from greater access to school facilities because of cost, culture, etc.

It is true that many governments make provision for the education of their citizens, but the provisions most of the time do not take into cognizance the peculiarities of the girl. In that case, the girl-child may not have access to education, which is a fundamental human right. Research has shown that millions of girls do not have access to schools, despite the concerted efforts to push the cause forward.

Okeke, Nzewi and Njoku (2008) identify child labour, poverty and lack of sponsorship, quest for wealth, bereavement, truancy, broken home, engagement of children and house helps as factors or the clog in the wheel of children’s access to education. Abdulahi in Maduagwu and Mohammed (2006) notes that the importance of education in the life of an individual cannot be over emphasized. Central to the most basic problems facing the child is access to qualitative education. This is because without education, the realization of all other rights- socio-economic and political rights becomes impossible.

According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, child labour refers to the employment of children at regular and sustained labour. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations and is illegal in many countries. Child labour was employed to varying extents through most of history, but entered public dispute with the advent of universal schooling, with changes in working conditions during the industrial revolution, and with the emergence of the concepts of workers’ and children’s rights.

In many developed countries, it is considered inappropriate or exploitative if a child below a certain age works (excluding household chores, in a family shop, or school-related work). An employer is usually not permitted to hire a child below a certain minimum age. This minimum age depends on the country and the type of work involved. States ratifying the Minimum Age Convention adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1973, have adopted minimum ages varying from 14 to 16.

The incidence of child labour in the world decreased from 25 to 10 percent between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank. During the Industrial Revolution, children as young as four were employed in production factories with dangerous, and often fatal, working conditions. Based on this understanding of the use of children as labourers, it is now considered by wealthy countries to be a human rights violation, and is outlawed, while some poorer countries may allow or tolerate child labour. Child labour can also be defined as the full-time employment of children who are under a minimum legal age.

According to UNICEF, there are an estimated 250 million children aged 5 to 14 in child labour worldwide, excluding child domestic labour. The United Nations and the International Labour Organization consider child labour exploitative, with the UN stipulating, in article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child that: States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Although globally there is an estimated 250 million children working.

Children living in the poorest households and in rural areas are most likely to be engaged in child labour. Those burdened with household chores are overwhelmingly girls. Millions of girls who work as domestic servants are especially vulnerable to exploitation and abuse. Labour often interferes with children’s education. Ensuring that all children go to school and that their education is of good quality are keys to preventing child labour. It is therefore in line with the above that the researcher intends to find out the role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.

PROJECT TOPIC- Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM      

Education is seen as the process of acquiring skills, knowledge, etc, which will help an individual to perform better in a society. It is the process of transmitting values, cultures, etc, from one generation to the other. Education is seen as a human right that should be given to all human beings. The issue is about the child. The child is the dawn, the bedrock and the future of any nation or society aspiring for sustainable development. However, the predicaments of children in Kaduna South are better imagined.

Today, throughout the world, around 215 million children work, many full-time. They do not go to school and have little or no time to play. Many do not receive proper nutrition or care. They are denied the chance to be children. More than half of them are exposed to the worst forms of child labour such as work in hazardous environments, slavery, or other forms of forced labour, illicit activities including drug trafficking and prostitution, as well as involvement in armed conflict.

Child labour is still common in some parts of the world today, including Kaduna South Local Government Area and it can be factory work, mining, prostitution, quarrying, agriculture, helping in the parents’ business, having one’s own small business (for example selling food) or doing odd jobs. Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants (where they may also work as waiters).

Other children are forced to do tedious and repetitive jobs such as: assembling boxes, polishing shoes, stocking a store’s products, or cleaning. However, rather than in factories and sweatshops, most child labour occurs in the informal sector, “selling many things on the streets, at work in agriculture or hidden away in houses—far from the reach of official labour inspectors and from media scrutiny.”

And all the work that they did was done in all types of weather; and was also done for minimal pay. As long as there is family poverty there will be child labour. Against this backdrop, it becomes pertinent to ask: how can education be used to curb child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.          Thus, the problem this study seeks to investigate is the issue of child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.     This forms the basis for the study.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

          The broad objective of this study is to assess the role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Specifically however, the study aims at:

  1. Finding out the extent to which the children have access to education in Kaduna South Local Government Area.
  2. Finding out the factors (if any), which impede the effective education of children in Kaduna South Local Government Area.
  3. Finding out the sex that is more engaged in labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area
  4. Determining how education can be used to curb child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

          Based on the problem and the objectives of the study stated above, the following research questions will be drawn to guide the study:

  1. To what extent do children have access to education in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
  2. What are the factors that hinder the effective education of children in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
  3. What sex is more engaged in labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area?
  4. Can education be used to curb child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area?

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

          The following is the statement of hypothesis for the study:

Ho1:   There is no relationship between education and child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.

H1:     There is relationship between education and child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area.

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study cannot be over emphasized. It is hoped that the study will reveal how education can be used to curb child labour, not only in Kaduna South Local Government Area, but across the country. Furthermore, it is also hoped that the result of the study and the re-commendations will in a large measure assist the entire local government and the entire government educational policy makers to formulate policies that will favour the child, especially the girl-child.

The study serves as a reservoir of knowledge where future researchers can easily tap knowledge as the work will be documented. The study is significant in the sense that it looks at how child labour can negatively affect the child and the nation at large.

1.7     DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          The study is restricted to education as a means to curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area. Geographically however, the study is limited to Angwan Muazu, Tudunwada and Kakuri.

1.8     OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERM

          The following key terms are defined:

Education: Education is the process of providing information to an inexperienced person to help him or her develop physically, mentally, socially, emotionally, spiritually, politically and economically. It means the process of helping an individual to acquire adequate and appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes and values known as cognitive, psychomotor and affective behaviours to be able to function optimally as a citizen.

The Child: The child is a biological female or male offspring from birth to eighteen (18) years of age. It is the age before one becomes young adult. This period covers the crèche, nursery or early childhood (0 – 5years) primary (6 – 12). During this period, the young child is totally under the care of the adult who may be her parents or guardians and older siblings. It is made up of infancy, childhood, early and adolescent stages of development. During this period, the child is malleable, builds and develops his or her personality and character. He or she is very dependent on the significant others, those on whom he models his behaviour through observation, repetition and imitation.

Child Labour: The term child labour refers to involvement of children below 15 years in work or employment in a regular basis with the aim of earning a livelihood for themselves or their families. When children, especially young ones are exposed to long hours of work in dangerous environment, or are entrusted with too much responsibility without compensatory psycho-social reward or work, which does not prepare them adequately for the future in modernizing society, it becomes exploitative child labour. Child labour and child work are placed on a continuum where the dividing line is very slim. When children’s work is exploitative and occurs in harsh and dangerous environments, which threaten the lives and limbs of children as well as jeopardize their normal physical, mental, emotional and moral development, it is termed child labour. Any type of work that prevents schooling when it is available is exploitative.

Challenges: The term can simply be referred to as obstacles, hindrances that stand on the way of someone. They are those things that prevent someone from achieving certain goals. Challenges could also mean problems. That is, the problems that one is passing through.

Informal education: It is the type of educational system in which someone acquires knowledge, skills, etc under one’s native culture.

Formal education: It is the type that takes place in a formal setting, where you have a teacher who is professionally trained to teach. This is the type of education we find in our primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.

Non-formal education: This is the type of education that is neither formal nor informal.

Socio-cultural: It simply refers to the people’s way of life and their belief.

Gender: This is the sum of cultural values, attitude, roles, practices and characteristics of attributes based on sex.

Curbing: To curb is to prevent or stop something from further taking place.

Child labour: UNICEF defines child labour as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours, depending on the age of a child and on the type of work. Such work is considered harmful to the child and should therefore be eliminated.

PROJECT TOPIC- Role of education in curbing child labour in Kaduna South Local Government Area

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Intrapreneurships and organizational development; issues and challenges with particular reference to Ebonyi State Staff Development Centre

PROJECT TOPIC- Intrapreneurships and organizational development; issues and challenges with particular reference to  Ebonyi State Staff  Development Centre

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

 The word “organization” is derived from the Greek word “Organon” Meaning “to put somebody or something into a working order. Organization has been in existence either formally or informally where people from various works of life decided to make a living for themselves by being in an organization. No individual will ever venture into anything with a goal of failing, certainly, everybody seeks to outdo others in their respective fields.

The pioneers of an organization would one day cease to exist and even before that, the organization could grow so much that one man wouldn’t be able to spearhead its functionality any more. This brought the idea of developing people within the organization that would drive it, and this is what intrapreneurial development is all about. All profit making organizations such as businesses expect to exist forever and without the development of intrapreneurs, this will not be possible.

Intrapreneurial development is an attribute that predicts the absolute growth of organization and overcomes traditional bureaucratic barriers to adhere to h igh standards for open communications, assessment of business environment and the renewal of business polices to Proactively in the ever competitive market place (Hisrich, 2001). The external environment has an influence on intrapreneurial activity with dynamism, technological opportunities, industry growth and demand for new products being favourable for intrapreneurship (Covin and Slevin, 1991; Zahra, 1993).

Intrapreneurship development has been used successfully in the United States, Europe, Asia and Africa. This is based on the concept of developing entrepreneurial skills within an established firm by encouraging innovation by employees. The concept of intrapreneurial   development has a proven track record of profitably being used to create new products and services. Intrapreneurship can create a new profitable subsidiary or a division within the sponsoring firm.

There is adequate empirical evidence that intrapreneurship is closely linked to improved enterprise performance (Drejer e’ tal, 2004; Lindsey, 2001, Herbert and Brazeal, 1999). Therefore, identifying and fostering intrapreneurship is justified precisely because; the intrapreneurs will develop new ideas and products which will ultimately enhance the firms efficiency and effectiveness.

It takes unique set of skills beyond creativity in order to become a successful intrapreneur. An intrapreneur must be willing to take risk at sharing and pursuing a unique idea, have the perseverance to wait for senior management final approval to create and launch a product or service, and posses the drive to see the idea through fruition, no matter what (Udu, A.A, Udu, G.O.C. and Eze, 2008).

Though this dosen’t simply come easy but organizations must go into a deliberate act of intrapreneurial development tackling associated issues and related challenges. This study is concerned with intrapreneurships and organizational development; issues and challenges with particular reference to Ebonyi State Staff Development Centre.

PROJECT TOPIC- Intrapreneurships and organizational development; issues and challenges with particular reference to  Ebonyi State Staff  Development Centre

1.2 Statement of Problem

Employee contributions have become increasingly important in the overall corporate organizations because of the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness within an ever changing workplace. But virtually a good number of private and public organizations have taken lightly the importance of having intraprenerially driven organizations, without knowing its implication such as; business collapse, loss of revenue, stunted growth, low productivity, low profit and loss of market share.

These problems include lack of intrapreneurial culture in an organization. Intrapreneurial culture encourages creativity and innovation within an organization but this is hardly found in Nigerian organizations. Secondly, over-centralized organizational structure impedes intrapreneurship. A centralized organizational structure with its associated autocratic management style discourages creativity.

Thirdly, the issue of lack of management commitment also affects intrapreneurship. Most organizations are very reluctant in committing their resources in intrapreneurial development programmes. Finally, intrapreneurs may evolve new ideas but some times, they may find it very difficult to receive approval from top management even when the idea appears feasible and viable.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the issues and challenges that affect intrapreneurship and organizational development.

The specific objectives include:

(i) To explore the concepts of intrapreneurship and organizational development.

(ii) To examine the issues and challenges associated with intrapreneurship development

1.4 Research Questions

(i) Does intrapreneurship affect organizational development?

(ii) What are the issues and challenges associated with intraprenenrship development?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Research Hypotheses 1

Ho: Intrapreneurship does not enhance organizational development.

H1: Intrapreneurship enhances organizational development.

Research Hypotheses 2

Ho: There are no issues and challenges associated with intrapreneurial development.

H1: There are some issues and challenges associated with intrapreneurial development.

1.6 Scope of the Study

          This study was carried out at Ebony State Staff Development Centre (SDC), a statutory body under the office of the Head of Civil/ Public Service of Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The centre is the human capital training and development arm of office of the Head of Service, and is located on a wide expanse of land in kirikpiri area of Abakaliki, the State capital.

          In terms of research coverage, the study is focused on intrapreneurship and organizational development. with particular reference to the issue of lack of management commitment and over centralized organizational structure.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

 A study of this nature cannot be carried out without difficulties in the process. Time constraint is one of such, this research work was carried out simultaneously with other class work and the researcher tried all he could in order to cover every aspect of the study in line with other academic activities. Another constraint suffered by the researcher is inadequate finance, a research of this nature involves traveling to various areas in search of adequate data. Lastly, difficulty in securing relevant data for the study, as most respondents were rather reluctant to give out some vital information.

1.8 Significance of the Study

This study would be beneficial to the organization being studied and other organizations. At the end of a particular organizational lifecycle, only those intrapreneurially developed individuals would be able to salvage the organization from an imminent crumb, so, this study would help

organizations to see the importance of developing intrapreneurs.

 Also, this work would help students wanting to study any aspect of intrapreneurial developme nt; may be not just students, but the whole of the academia. This work could be used as a secondary data source. Finally, as a researcher, this work will widen the horizon of my knowledge and understanding. This study is also significant because it is a pre- requisite for me to graduate.

PROJECT TOPIC- Intrapreneurships and organizational development; issues and challenges with particular reference to  Ebonyi State Staff  Development Centre    

USE OF ANOMIC THEORY IN COUNSELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

PROJECT TOPIC- USE OF ANOMIC THEORY IN COUNSELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria is highly populated country with over 140 million people, depending on the population careful estimation. A country of multiple ethno- socio cultural background like Nigeria. People from these difference socio- cultural societies especially the youth have behaviours corresponding to the system unspecified cultural code of conduct. In respect to this, abnormal behaviour in the societies are highly punished using traditional penal strategies.

The introduction and increase in western education in Nigeria has prompt youth the behaviour that was ousted. With that, people especially the youth started to deviate from their various ways of life. Many pays non-chalant attitudes towards an existing norms and values of the societies such as honesty, civility, industrious, cooperations and responsibilities. As regard to these, youth assumes that exhibiting behaviour and attitudes not worthy to the societies, thinking that it is the requisites for accumulation of wealth thereby involving in all sort of abnormality, such as disobedience, cheating rebelliousness, gangsteism, rudeness, violence, vandalism, destructive behsviours and aggression are the showcasing of the youth who are claiming to have come of age. Because of this constitutions authorities, venerated thing and values are now income to most youth. the volume of deviant behaviour and unaccepted attitudes among the youth brought multi disciplinary interest in many aspect of youths endeavourer as methods of aiding the problems caused by youth in the society.

PROJECT TOPIC- USE OF ANOMIC THEORY IN COUNSELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

With the incessant increase in the maladjustment of behaviour among youths. The major problem of the study is to find whether the use of anomic theory in counseling Juvenile delinquency will yield positive result or not.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of the study is to find the impact of anomic theory for counseling Juvenile delinquencies. Specially, the study tends to finds.

  • The positive impact of anomie
  • the negative impact of anomic theory for counseling Juvenile delinquency

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE TERM

Juvenile is both a noun and an adjective Hornby (1985) According to Hornby Juvenile is a young person who have attend adulthood. whereas an adjective a juvenile means rules and regulations contained to young persons. when combined together, it is the relation to how concerned to young person. worth to note that Juvenile is young person whose characteristics are of youthful tendencies often known as youthful patterns. For easer understanding of “young person” and “adult” it is good to reconnect instruments and psychological tests.

Okonkwo and Naish (1980), defined juvenile in two categories sub groups of young people such as the child and the young person. According to them A child means a person under the age of 14 years a young person is a person who is up to 14 years of age but yet to reach the age of seventeen (17) years. In order way round, 18 years and above are ton own and regarded as adult age. Majority believed rights responsibilities or obligation to those who attain that status. One of such responsibilities is the criminal liability for commission of crimes in the absence of the general defenses.

Delinquency is defined as “bad or criminal” The behavioural characteristics of young peoples. (Hornby 1985) this significant definition, have summarized tendencies of bad behaviour which is relative, moralistic and subjective is being unionism with criminality which is specific to the objective and legalities. This shows that delinquency lead to criminality.

American bureau of juvenile delinquency as that behaviour that may be registered in court for interpretation whether infact it comes to be treated there or by some other resources or indeed remain untreated”.

   Delinquency according to legal professions, is one who has been adjudicated as such by a court of proper jurisdiction although he may be no different up till the time the masses of children who are not delinquents” (Tappen in Harjit 1977).

   Psychologist, define juvenile delinquency as a maladjusted child and a deviant in the school and society (Onyegbalu 2003). This means that it is both academic delinquency to school (academic) while socially related behaviour the members of the legal profession see it in the light of judicial pronouncement

PROJECT TOPIC- USE OF ANOMIC THEORY IN COUNSELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY