PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTIVE BANKING ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL SURVIVAL AND GROWTH IN EDO STATE

Abstract

The research work is on the effective banking activities on agricultural survival and growth in Edo State. In this study personal interview, questionnaire and secondary source of data such as textbook, journals and internet were employed in the collection of data. Problem encountered in this study are time constraint, long distance or appropriate place of interest to obtain relevant information and also lack of sufficient fund to acquire material necessary for efficient researchers. The objective of the study is to find out if facilities like road, market, storage are affected by agricultural growth and survival and to find out if agricultural growth and survival is affected by non-possession of collateral securities by farmers. The method adopted in the study is basically table and percentage method. After careful analysis, it was revealed that absence of some basic facilities like good road, electricity, water, communication system etc have negative impact on agricultural growth and survival because it increases the farmers discomfort, inconvenience, stress etc thus reducing their production output. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that government should embark on the provision of basic infrastructural amenities such as good road, electricity, storage facilities etc so that farmer can easily transport their products, store them and feel comfortable.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

There is considerable in literature, that increased agricultural productivity is a vital criterion for rapid economic growth and survival.

In Nigeria, where agriculture is generally the dominant sector, increase in agricultural productivity has some important roles to play. Firstly, it must meet the need of the fast growing population and thus preventing unnecessary expenditure on food importation. Secondly, it should increase foreign exchange earnings through the exportation of cash crops. Thirdly, it should be able to meet the employment need of the fast growing population.

In the last three decades, government in Nigeria has in various ways attempted to influence the level of agricultural productivity to attain the objective mention above, using banks as its agents. The rate of funding of agriculture is an important factor which dictates the pace at which agriculture production will increase. In this context, the role of government using banks as its agents, will be emphasize.

Most of the farmers do not have adequate facilities like capital, modern tools and equipment’s, technical assistance etc. this is where the role of bank comes into play i.e. making fund available by way of loan, advance etc. This will enable the farmers to overcome some financial based difficulties (inadequate capital etc).

Over the years, banks have been accused of not contributing significantly to agricultural growth and survival in Nigeria. This accusation has become stronger in recent times because most of the agricultural loan and advances application are being dishonoured by banks. This is because most of the farmers do not have banks requirements like collateral security, guarantor etc. Also banks are afraid because of the uncertainty (e.g. bad weather that could lead to poor harvest) that characterize agricultural ventures.

One of the promotional roles of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) is the establishment of specialized financial institutions like the Nigeria Agricultural and Co-operative Bank (NACB) in 1973, to cater for specific needs of small medium and large scale agricultural enterprise. Its main objective was to enhance agricultural productivity which could lead to agricultural survival through rendering of financial assistance to farmers. The Central Bank, as the pivot of the country’s financial system and economic activities, also introduced other means of influencing agricultural survival. For instance, it issues credit guidelines to banks in which it prescribes the maximum proportion of their loan and advances that should be allocated to agricultural sector of the economy.

In 1978, the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS) was set up to support banks in their lending programmes to agriculture by ways of guaranteeing up to 75% of all loan and advances granted by banks to farmers. Penalties were also prescribed for non-compliance with directives.

In conclusion, it can be observed that since the inception of Nigeria Agricultural and Co-operative Bank (NACB), coupled with the various regulations of CBN in provision of loan and advance towards agriculture, the banking industry has begun to discharge its responsibilities to agricultural growth and survival in Nigeria.                

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTIVE BANKING ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL SURVIVAL AND GROWTH IN EDO STATE

  • Statement of Problem

The importance of Agricultural growth and survival in a country cannot be over emphasized. This growth and survival can only be realistic if, banks contribute their quota by granting loan to farmers. This will enable the farmers get some of the facilities that will help them increase their productivity’s.

However, most of the farmers find it difficult to obtain the loan because they can not meet up with bank’s requirements like collateral security, guarantor etc. Also banks are afraid because agricultural output cannot be predicted.  

  • Research Questions
  • What is the extent of banks’ contribution towards agricultural growth and survival?
  • Does the absence of good facilities like road, market, storage etc affect agricultural growth and survival?
  • Is agricultural growth and survival affected by non-possession of collateral securities by farmers?
  • Does bad weather hinder agricultural growth and survival?
    • Objectives of the Study
  • To highlight the contribution of banks to agricultural growth and survival in Nigeria with special reference to Edo State.
  • To find out if facilities like road, market, storage etc affect agricultural growth and survival.
  • To find out if agricultural growth and survival is affected by non-possession of collateral securities by farmers.
  • To find out if bad weather hinders agricultural growth and survival.
    • Statement of Hypothesis

Ho:  The federal or state government does not disburse any amount of money to the bank to be allocated for agriculture.

Hi:   The federal or state government disburses any amount of money to the bank to be allocated for agriculture.

Ho:  Federal or State government does not allocate money to the ministry for agricultural purpose.

Hi:   Federal or State government does allocate money to the ministry for agricultural purpose.

Ho:  There are some steps taken by the banks in solving the problems facing the recovery of farmers’ loans.

Hi:   There is no step taken by the banks in solving the problems facing the recovery of farmers’ loans.

 

  • Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will be of benefit to the government, banks and farmers in Nigeria as in knowing and arising to their responsibilities in agricultural growth and survival.

  • Scope of the Study

The study will be limited to the financing of agriculture through banking activities in Nigeria, using Edo State as a case study.

1.8   Limitation of the Study

In the course of this research, some problems were encountered which include the following:

Time constraint proved a great limitation to the researchers. As a result of this, it was difficult to discuss exhaustively all the vital points on a study of considerable interest like this.

Also, long distance or appropriate place of interest to obtain relevant information was a problem encountered. Also lack of sufficient fund to acquire materials necessary for efficient research work of the study was another problem encountered.  

1.9   Definition of Terms

  • Agriculture: This is also called farming or husbandry, which is the cultivation of animals, plants and other forms of food, fiber and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
  • Promotion: The publicization of a product, organization or venture to increase sales or public awareness.
  • Banking: A business conducted or services offered by a bank.
  • Financial Institution: This is an institution or organization that provides financial services for its clients or member.
  • Growth: This refers to a positive change in size, often over a period of time.
  • Commercialization: This is the process or cycle of introducing a new product or production method into the market.
  • Production: This is the act of creating output, goods or services which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals.
  • Population: A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species who live in the same geographical area and have the capability of interbreeding.

    PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTIVE BANKING ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL SURVIVAL AND GROWTH IN EDO STATE

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THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN ENUGU STATE: A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (ENADEP) 1995-2005

ABSTRACT

 

This study was on the impact of public policy implementation in Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme (ENADEP) 2001-2012. The study inquires into critical issues of policy implementation failures, such as corruption, regime instability, executive interference, “top-down” and “bottom-up” policy approaches, statutory incoherence, etc and attempts to identify, examine and analyze those of the variables that have contributed to the low pace of development in the agricultural sector in Enugu State. Employing the documentary study approach, secondary data relevant to the inquiry were collected from ENADEP progress annual, quarterly, field and implementation completion reports (ICR), journals, Federal and State ministries of agricultural and natural resources research reports, the examination of seminar papers, published and unpublished works, textbooks, conference proceedings as well as detailed and rigorous interviews of key stakeholders and specialists in the field.

The following major findings emerged from the study; first, there is frequent executive interference in the internal affairs and management of Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme by the state government resulting in frequent high level management staff turn-over particularly with regard to the office of the Project Manager with the attendant consequence of protracted delays in the execution of project activities. Second, there is a clear lack of prudent management of available project funds, occasioned by the high rate of corruption and diversion of project funds by the state government. Third is the issue of farmer‟s lukewarmness and conservative attitude to technological changes in the agricultural field. Finally, based on the findings, the following recommendations are made: (1) it was clear from the study that executive interference and politicization of the office of ENADEP‟s Project Manager contributes to the ineffectiveness of ENADEP, (2) identified also, was the issue of low staff morale occasioned by the non-payment of staff salaries and entitlements. This gave rise to the use of seconded ministry staff that does not pay loyalty to ENADEP management to perform crucial functions. To secure the commitment of staff for better and effective policy implementation, ENADEP should be made to hire and retain enough staff capable of its services.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

Since independence in 1960, several reports have been made concerning policy failures in Nigeria (Report of Vision 2010). Of recent is the vision 2010, which is an encapsulation of policies and programmes ranging from agriculture, education, health, political order, economics and others that have been poorly executed. In agricultural sector, bold attempts have been made to encourage the growth and development of the sector through agricultural education, development and financing programmes. Agricultural policies, strategies, and programmes in Nigeria have undergone many changes since independence in 1960. These changes were in the main, a reflection of changes in government philosophy on the best approach to agricultural development while the philosophic changes were, in themselves, often brought about by changes in government. But in broad sense, government philosophy on agricultural development has undergone three major phases, the first from 1960 to about 1970, the second from about 1970 to about 1985, and the third which is still unfolding, from about 1985 to present time. One of the specific agricultural programmes aimed at increasing agricultural production and improving farmer‟s conditions is the Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) (ASADEP Annual Report, 1986). The programme was conceived in 1972, while the first projects (Enitua in Kaduna, Gusau, in Sokoto and Gombe in Bauchi) commenced operation in 1975 (ASADAP Annual Report, 1986).
The success of the first generation Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) made the Federal Government to accord the agricultural development project idea prompt recognition as prime contributors to incremental food production (CBN Statistical Bulletin

and Annual Reports various issues, Yahaya, 2000). Thus, it became the policy of the federal government of Nigeria to extend agricultural development strategy to all the states of the federation (ENADEP Progress Review and Implementation Status, 1994). Despite the fact that the projects were supported by the food strategies mission of the World Bank, it was obvious that the organization could not solely fund further expansion of more Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs). Therefore, jointly funded programme, which would enable the basic agricultural development project concepts to be more readily extended to those areas which had not benefited from the conventional agricultural development project packages, was recommended (ASADEP Annual Report, 1986). The Agricultural Development Projects is a tripartite development strategy among the World Bank, the Federal Government and the State Government. The Anambra State Agricultural Development Project (ASADEP) benefited from the World Bank joint funded programme, and the project activities commenced fully in 1986 (ASADEP Annual Report, 1986).

Following the creation of Enugu and Anambra State in August 1991, the Enugu State Agricultural Development Project (ENADEP) came into being, and since then, it has been implementing the aims and objectives for which the parent agricultural development project was established. Ihimodu (1986:10) noted that among the important features of the Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs), is the improvement of infrastructure within the project areas through construction of dams to provide water for crops, animals and man, provision of extension services and marketing services, provision of credit facilities to farmers to enable them take advantage of the facilities of health and other social services

provision of base for the improvement of health and other social services in the project areas. The contemporary agriculture in Nigeria is dominated by small scale farmers using traditional methods. Thus, the principal objective of Enugu State Agricultural Development Project (ENADEP), is to increase food production and incomes of small-scale farmers in the project areas and thereby increase total food supply and raw materials for the growing population, and the agro-based industries, which will be achieved by producing a package of essential inputs, and an efficient delivery system through the farm service centre. However, a downward trend was observed from 1991. This has persisted ever since. Food importation has rather been on increase, which sustained decline in domestic production. This was the period of essential commodity and the beginning of massive corruption, which permeated various sectors of the economy. This was the situation until 1999 when a democratic government was sworn in. During this period, the Fadama development project was introduced in 1992. It however, did not make sufficient impact.

The democratic government headed by president Olusegun Obasanjo initiated some policies and programme, which involved: reorganizing, restructuring, privatizing institutions and agencies, and encouraging partnership to make impact, Nigeria Agricultural Cooperatives and Rural Development Bank, NACRDB, (2000); National Agricultural Development Fun, NADF (2002); National Special Programme on Food Security, NSPFS (2002); Commodity Marketing and Development Companies, CMDC (2003); all these have had some positive impact on agricultural production and consequent improvement in agricultural development projects.There has been a lot of reorganization, restructuring of agricultural programmes in the country. A lot of policies and projects have been embarked upon without a corresponding result. The food productions that supposed to boom and reduce food insecurity in the state keep on fluctuating. The study want to examine how these projects have been managed.

THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN ENUGU STATE: A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (ENADEP) 1995-2005

 

1.1 Statement of the Problem

 

The principal policy position of Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme (ENADEP) is to increase food production and income of small scale farmers. The programme was fashioned to revolutionize agricultural sector of Enugu State economy, which was derailing from its normal contribution to the economy. However, extent literature and available evidence indicate that these objectives are yet to be met. Since the introduction of Agricultural Development Projects in Enugu State in 1992, which signaled the beginning of a serious process of implementation, there have been further accusations that the implementation process has not been consultative enough; that it is heavy-handed, and that the solutions are uniformly imposed, with little sensitivity to local realities (Emehelu, 1994). From complaints about relative statistics, the tune has now changed to complaints of overload and inundation with too many things happening at the same time (IKelegbe, 1996). In addition, policy implementation failures in Nigeria are also a direct consequence of political instability. Within the period under study (1995-2005), Enugu State has embarked on so many Agricultural Development Programmes due to instability in the government.

The Enugu State government has been experiencing new-governed-new-policy. Consequently, the study poses the following questions:
(1) Does the Enugu State Agricultural Development Programmes increase food production in Enugu State between (1995-2005)?
(2) Is there any link between public policy implementation and the success or failure of Enugu State Agricultural Development Projects?
(3) Does the institutional structure of ENADEP affect the policy implementation of Agricultural Development Projects in Enugu State?

 

THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN ENUGU STATE: A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (ENADEP) 1995-2005

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON OIL YIELD USING SCENT BEAN SEED (‘OZAKI’).

 

ABSTRACT

This project was done to extract and characterize bean oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using scent bean (i.e. ‘Ozaki’, ‘Ijilizi’or ‘Azamu’) as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction /leaching extraction using n-hexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty years (Murphy, 1994); this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for oilseed products and by-products as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and meal.Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with about 80% of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The remaining 20% utilization is between animal and chemical industries (Murphy, 1994).According to Rajagopal et al. (2005), bio-oils from oilseeds are used as Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) or as biodiesel (trans esterified oil) depending on type of engine and level of blend of the oil; scent bean oil i.e. Ozaki, Ijiliji, or Azamu is found mainly in the South-East of Nigeria and is not an exception. This phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as bio-fuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable.

Fossil fuels are not only costly in terms of price but are also costly to the environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result. Furthermore, crude oil wields socio-political power that often dictates the pace of economic growth in specific locations, especially non-oil producing nations.Nevertheless, the petroleum industry requires a greater quantity of oil to meet its demand.Demand, however, by the food industry alone is not secure for many developing countries like Ghana that depend on imports of vegetable oil and fossil fuels. In order to meet the required amounts needed by all industries, these fats and oils must be available in large quantities locally with an effective extraction process at an affordable cost. The ability of a particular oilseed to fit into the growing industries depends on its utilization potential, rate of production, availability and ease of the processing technology. Thus while some oilseeds are being largely utilized in the oil processing industries, quite a number of oilseeds are under-exploited. Generally, oils and fats from seeds and nuts constitute an essential part of man’s diet. Fats and oils, together with proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, are the main nutrients required by the human body.

Fats and oils are rich sources of energy, containing two and a half times the calories of carbohydrates (per unit weight). In addition to being a source of vitamins A, D, E and K, fats and oils also contain essential fatty acids. These essential fatty acids are not manufactured by the body and must be obtained from diets, with linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids as examples of unsaturated fatty acids (NRI, 1995). Modern processing of vegetable oils yields valuable products such as oleo chemicals. Oleo chemicals are now largely being used in the manufacture of many industrial products, namely building auxiliaries, candles, detergents and cleaning agents, cosmetics, fire-extinguishing agents, flotation agents, food emulsifiers, insecticides, lubricants, paints, paper, medicine and chemicals. The meal or cake is used in the formulation and preparation of livestock feeds and food additives. The production of oil plants takes third place in the world production in terms of value, after starchy plants and fruits, and ahead of beverages and stimulants.

Edible seeds and nuts noted for their oil contents include palm nut, coconut, soya bean, olive, groundnut, sunflower seed, and cottonseed, while non-edible seeds and nuts include jatropha seed, neem seed, and castor bean. Moreover, bean oil has strengthened its dominant role among fats and oils produced based on its quality and nutritional grade. Bean oil contains linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids that are found in many plant oils. Shortage of these fatty acids leads to deficiency symptoms especially in growing children and animals. Bean oil has the highest content of lecithin (1.1-3.2%) which is a surface-active compound used as an emulsifier in the food and pharmaceutical industries, and other industries (Sigmund and Gustav, 1991).
Among the industries that use oils and fats from oilseeds, apart from the food industry, are the beauty, pharmaceuticals, aromatherapies, building and construction, and the petroleum industry.

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON OIL YIELD USING SCENT BEAN SEED

 

1.2. Problem Statement

Many plants have been identified as sources of oil, with some of the plant species and their oil extracted and used as medicines and food. However, very few of these species have their oil characteristics determined.Because of the high demand of oils for various purposes including medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides et al. Imported oils are very expensive to meet the demands of our local consumer industries; therefore, it becomes necessary to source and synthesize these oils locally. Since these oils can be produced locally, it gives no reason for their importation or at least should reduce the rate at which these oils are imported and give attention to local production

EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE ON OIL YIELD USING SCENT BEAN SEED

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MAIZE CORN-ON-COB TRAY DRYER

 

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to generate a design data, design and fabricate a maize corn-on-cob tray dryer used by maize farmers. Ripped maize corns with husks were bought from the market and preserved to retained its moisture content, dehusked and thereafter, dried to a given percentage moisture content of 15%. This was done by laboratory dryer. The drying rate data was generated and the high rate of 2.0g/hr was used afterwards to design and fabricate the corn-on-cob dryer. From the results, drying of a sample of maize corn-on-cob by the laboratory dryer took a period of three days and six hours to reach the 15% moisture content (wet basis) needed. A test run was carried out on the fabricated dryer and seventeen hours was used to dry a sample of maize corn-on-cob to the same 15% moisture content. This implies that design data is satisfactory as its application in the fabrication of the dryer resulted in an increased flow rate of air in the dryer thereby increasing the rate of drying at the same drying temperature of 40oC.

Wo initial weight of undried product (kg)
W Weight of water removed (kg)
Wd Weight of dry matter in product (kg)
A Total area of the drying surface (m2)
Ha Heat transfer coefficient
Ta Inlet temperature of air after being heated up
Td Drying chamber temperature
? Latent heat of vaporization of moisture at Td0C(Cal/mol)
G Mass velocity of air (Kg/ s.m2)
De Equivalent diameter of the air flow channel (m)Wo initial weight of undried product (kg)
W Weight of water removed (kg)
Wd Weight of dry matter in product (kg)
A Total area of the drying surface (m2)
Ha Heat transfer coefficient
Ta Inlet temperature of air after being heated up
Td Drying chamber temperature
? Latent heat of vaporization of moisture at Td0C(Cal/mol)
G Mass velocity of air (Kg/ s.m2)
De Equivalent diameter of the air flow channel

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Cereal grains have been and will continue to be a major source of food for humans and animals throughout the world. Amongst all cereals, the most important is the maize grain. (Leonard et al, 1963). Maize corn and products can be used for various purposes; human food, alternative medicine, chemicals, bio fuels, ornamentals, fodder, to mention but a few (Leonard, Warren H., and John H. Martin). Maize crop is intensively and extensively cultivated in all the geo-political zones of Nigeria. Early maize is planted between late March and late May while the late maize is planted between August and September. The harvest time for the early maize is usually between late July and September. During this period, corns are harvested fresh and cannot be preserved by drying owing to the unavailability of sunshine during the rainy season. It is usually roasted or cooked fresh. This practice does not encourage maize farmers as they would sell the maize corn at a give-away prices and this does not guarantee returns on their investment. In addition to this, dried maize grains will guarantee food sufficiency during the scarce period. Notably, corn of high moisture content does not stored very well and is usually vulnerable to damage due to deterioration, molds, and insects during the period of storage.

However, open air-sun drying as practiced in most rural areas often yields poor quality dried corn, since the product is not protected against dust, moisture wind, rodents as well as other domestic animals while carrying out the drying. As a result, they are often contaminated with pathogens. Another common practice in maize corn-on-cob drying is drying over a fire place. This has its own problems as the maize grains are contaminated with smoke. Moreover, the temperature of drying is not properly controlled such that grains become dead after drying. There are various research works that have been carried out on grain drying (Zare et al, 2006; Mellmann, et al 2011; Adzimah and Seckley, 2009). These works were silent on drying and dryer design for maize orn-on-cobs.
There are four major drying techniques; open air sun drying, fire wood /fuel drying, electrical drying and solar drying(Anyanwu et al 2006, Scanlin 1997 and Whitefield 2000). This research project will address these problems associated with postharvest handling of maize corn-on-cobs, in particular drying, by designing and fabricating electrically operated tray dryer that will be simple but very robust in operation.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MAIZE CORN-ON-COB TRAY DRYER

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Maize corns are usually stored when dried to certain percentage moisture content. In Nigeria, maize corn drying is done in dry season because of low humidity of atmospheric air and adequate sunshine. However, it is a common place to see peasant maize farmers dry their maize corn-on-cobs over fire place, but this practice contaminates the dried maize corn with smoke and usually small quantity of maize corn-on-cob are dried. The reverse is the case during the rainy season. Unfortunately, bulk of the maize corn is harvested in the rainy season and farmers can not dry the fresh maize corn rather they sell them at very cheap prices to corn roasters and for other delicacies. To give value to farmers and also to guarantee maize corn sufficiency during scarce period, it becomes necessary that a simple but robust corn-on-cob dryer should be designed and fabricated to assist farmers have good returns on their investment especially during post-harvest handling of maize corn during rainy season.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MAIZE CORN-ON-COB TRAY DRYER

EXTRACTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL USES OF LECITHIN FROM THREE VARIETIES OF Cucumis melo (MELON SEED) OIL.

 

ABSTRACT

Melon seed, Cucumis melo oil and lecithin were evaluated for their physicochemical and possible biopharmaceutical uses as an adjunct in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) for future use as safe drug vehicle for poorly aqueous soluble drugs. Melon seed oil was extracted using standard procedure, while the Lecithin was extracted from the seed oil. The oil was subjected to some physicochemical characterization and acute toxicity test. The lecithin also extracted was subjected to physicochemical test as well as solubility and antioxidant evaluations. From the physicochemical studies, the result of the physical properties showed that the colour of the oil is yellow, the mean refractive index of the three oils is 0.0091±0.1specific gravity, 0.9323±0.2 and viscost of 338.89±0.1.The chemical studies showed an acid value of 0.9327± 0.1 mg KOH/g, saponification value 166.13±0.2 mg KOH/g iodine value, 121.8±0.1Wijs, proxide value, 10.67± 0.1 and Ester value of 165.13±0.2 mg KOH/g. The lecithin extracted has mean percentage yield of 0.58±0.1%, and has solubility in acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether but slightly soluble in methanol and water.

The acute toxicity test showed that the oil is not toxic, and has no significant behavioural modification of the animals it was administered up to a dosage of
5000mg/kg body weight. The result in this present study shows that the oil and lecithin extracted from Cucumis melo have a lot of nutritional and biopharmaceutical applications. The developed vitamin E SEDDSs formulations containing melon seed oil showed promise as a possible clinical arsenal for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The result obtained demonstrated notable usefulness of both the oil and lecithin in health, industry and agriculture. The developed vitamin E SEDDSs formulations containing melon seed oil were found to facilitate maximal delivery, absorption and bioavailability of lipophilic drugs.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction and Literature Review

Lecithin is an important by-product of vegetable oil processing industries that have important functions in health, agriculture and in the industries (Dreon et al, 1990). Lecithin is a mixture of glycerol-phospholipids obtained from animal, vegetable and microbial sources, containing varying amounts of substances such as triacylglycerols, fatty acids, glycolipids, sterols and sphingolipids (Meek, 1997). The major source of commercial lecithin is soybean oil, and is called 1,2-diacylglycero-3-phosphorylcholine (Dashiell, 2003). The production of lecithin from oil seed is by hydration of the phosphatides using
water or steam (Shanhani, (1980). Lecithin has diverse roles in human metabolism (Orthoefer, 1998), especially in the control of nerve activities and breathing (Gordon, 2000), production and quality could be affected by crude oil storage, soil type, nutrient availability, climatic changes, drying process, and handling manner (Renfree, 2005). Lecithin also has multifunctional uses in agriculture, food confectioneries, pharmaceuticals, paints, plastics, and in the textile industries (Lucas, 1996). Lecithin is an emulsifying, wetting, and dispersing agent. It has antioxidant, surfactant and lipotropic functions, as well as anti-corrosive and anti-spattering roles (Eyster, 2007. In the pharmaceutical industries, lecithin is also important in lowering blood cholesterol levels facilitating optimum absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, maintaining cell membrane integrity, as well as increasing serum choline levels and it also gives relief and cure in the severity of neurological diseases (Kidd, 1997).

The important uses of lecithin in health, industries, and agriculture is increasing; therefore, there is need to explore other sources of lecithin in order to reduce over-dependence on soybean source (Spiller, 2006). Melon seeds are produced in the eastern, middle belt, and northern states of Nigeria, and Nigeria is one of the largest producers in the world (Ofune, 1988). Melon seeds are used for edible purposes in food, cake, seasoning agent, unlike in the western world where its oil is used for soap, cream production, as well as in other pharmaceuticals (Van der Vossen et al, 1992). The deterioration of melon seed and fungal infestation during storage has made farmers to abandon melon production in many parts of Nigeria. Curits, 1964 recognized the possible economic value of the seed oil, their crude protein and by-products of cucurbitaceous plants, the physicochemical characteristics of their oils and  by-products attracted the attention of Wentz et al (1983). Bolley et al (1983) characterized their oils as soft drying oils with similarities to soybean oil. Shanhani et al (1980) indicated the possibility of processing the crude oil obtained from such seeds for yielding edible oil and other products. Vasconcellos et al (1982) reported that the oil contents ranged between 35-41 percent. It is believed that if the oil is extracted, and lecithin is produced from it, this will give added value to the melon seeds produced in Nigeria, hence the objective of this research.

 

EXTRACTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL USES OF LECITHIN FROM THREE VARIETIES OF Cucumis melo (MELON SEED) OIL.

 

1.1 Lipids, Classification and Uses

Lipids are broadly defined as any fat-soluble (Lipophilic), naturally-occurring molecule, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A,D, E and K), monoglycerol diglycerides, phospholipids and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and participating as important signaling molecules (Berg et al 2006). Although the term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerol and should not be confused with the term fatty acid. Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (Including tri-, di-, and monoacylglyerol and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol, (Spiller, 2006). Lipids are classified in to three groups which are simple, compound and complex lipids. These three groups are further divided in to eight sub-groups which are:- Fatty acyls (including fatty acids) are a diverse group of molecules synthesized by chain-elongation of an acetyl-CoA primer with malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA groups.

The fatty acyl structure represents the major lipid building block of complex lipids and therefore is one of the most fundamental categories of biological lipids. The carbon chain may be saturated or unsaturated, and may be attached to functional groups containing oxygen, halogens, nitrogen and sulphur. Examples of biologically- interesting fatty acyls are the eicosanoids which are in turn derived from arachidonic acid which include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes. Other major lipid classes in the fatty acyl category are the fatty esters and fatty amides. Fatty esters include important
biochemical intermediates such as wax, esters, fatty , coenzyme A derivatives, fatty acyl thioester, ACP derivatives and fatty acyl carnitines. The fatty amides include N-acyl ethanolamines such as anandamide. (Berg, 2006). Glycerolipids are composed mainly of mono-, di-and tri-substituted glycerols, the most well known being the fatty acid esters of glycerol (triacylglycerols), also known as triacylglycerol. These comprise the bulk of storage fat in animal tissues. Additional subclasses are represented by glycosylglycerols, which are characterized by the presence of one or more sugar residues attached to glycerol via a glycosidic linkage.

Examples of structures in this category are the digalactosyldiacylglycerols found in plant membranes and seminolipid from mammalian spermatozoa (Holzl: and Doramann 2007). Glycerophospholipids, also referred to as phospholipids, are ubiquitous in nature and are key components of the lipid bilayer of cells, as well as being involved in metabolism and signaling. Glycerophospholipids may be subdivided into distinct classes, based on the nature of the polar head group at the sn-3 position of the glycerol backbone in eukaryotes and eubacteria or the sn-1 position in the case of archaebacteria. Example of glycerophospholipids found in biological membranes are phosphatidylcholine (also known as PC or GPCho,and lecithin), phosphatidylethanolamine PE or gPEtn) and phosphatidylserine GPSer). In addition to serving as a primary component of cellular membranes and binding sites for intra-and inter-cellular proteins, some glycerophospholipids in eukaryotic cells, such as phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acids are either precursors of, or are themselves, membrane-derived second messengers.

Typically, one or both of these hydroxyl group are acylated with long-chain fatty acids, but there are also alkyl-linked and alkenyl-linked (plasmalogen) glycerolphospholipids, as well as diakylether variants in prokaryotes. (Spiller 2006). Sphingolipids are a complex family of compounds that share a common structural feature, a sphingoid base backbone that is synthesized de novo from serine and a longchain fatty acyl CoA, then converted into ceramides, phosphosphingolipids glycosphingolipids and other species. The major sphingoid base of mammals is commonly referred to as sphingosine. Ceramides (N-acyl-sphingoid bases) as a major subclass of sphingoid base derivatives with an amide-linked fatty acid. The fatty acids are typically saturated or mono-unsaturated with chain lengths from 14 to 26 carbon atoms. The major phosphosphingolipids of mammals are sphingomyelins (ceramide phosphocholines), whereas insects contain mainly ceramide phosphoethanolamines and fungi have phytoceramidephosphoinositols and mannose containing head groups. The Glycosphingolipids are a diverse family of molecules composed of one or more sugar residues linked via a glycosidic bond to the sphingoid base. Examples of these are the simple and complex glycosphingolidpids such as cerebrosides (Bach and Watchtel 2003).

Sterol lipids, such as cholesterol and its derivatives are an important component of membrane lipids, along with the glycerophospholipids and sphingomyelins. The steroids, which also contain the same fused four-ring core structure, have different biological roles as hormones and singaling molecules. The C18 steroids include the eostrogen family whereas the C19 steroids comprise the androgens such as testosterone and androsterone.
The C21 subclass includes the progestogens as well as the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The secosteroids, comprising various forms of Vitamin D, are characterized by cleavage of the B ring of the core structure. Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates, which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and are synthesized in the liver (Wang. 2004). Prenol lipids are synthesized from the 5-carbon precursors isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate that are produced mainly via the mevalonic acid pathway. The simple isoprenoids (linear alcohols, diphosphates, etc) are formed by the successive addition of C5 units, and are classified according to number of these terpene units.

Structures containing greater than 40 carbons are known as polyterpenes. Carotenoids are important simple isoprenoids that function as antioxidant and as precursors of vitamin A. Another biologically important class of molecules is exemplified by the quinones and hydroquinones, which contain an isoprenoid tail attached to a quinonoid core of nonisoprenoid origin. Vitamin E and Vitamin K, as well as the ubiquinones, are examples of this class. Bacteria synthesize polyprenols (called bactoprenols) in which the terminal isoprenoid unit attached to oxygen remains unsaturated, whereas in animal polyprenols
(dolichols) the terminal isoprenoid is reduced. (Kuzuyama and Seto. 2003). Saccharolipids describe compounds in which fatty acids are linked directly to a sugar backbone, forming structures that are compatible with membrane bilayers. in the saccharolipids, a sugar substitutes for the glycerol backbone that is present in glycerolipids and glycerophosphospholipids. The most familiar saccharolipids are the acylated glucosamine precursors of the lipid A component of the lipopolysaccharides in gram-negative bacteria.

Typical lipid A molecules are disaccharides of glucosamine, which are derivatized with as many as seven fatty-acyl chains. The minimal lipopolysaccharide required for growth in E. coli is KdO2-Lipid A, a hexa-acylated  disaccharide of glucosamine that is glycosylated with two 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic
acid (KdO2) residues (Heinz, 1996). Polyketides are synthesized by polymerization of acetyl and propionyl subunits by classic enzymes as well as iterative and multimodular enzymes that share mechanistic features with the fatty acid synthases. They comprise a very large number of secondary metabolites and natural products from animal, plant, bacterial, fungal and marine sources, and have great structural diversity, many polyketides are cyclic molecules whose
backbones are often further modified by glycosylation, methylation, hydroxylation, oxidation, and/or other processes. Many commonly used anti-microbial, anti-parasitic, and anti-cancer agents are polyketides or polyketide derivatives, such as erythromycins, tetracyclines, ivermectins, and anti-tumor epothilones (Walsh, 2004).

 

1.1.1 Uses of lipids

Lipids of fats and oils, steroids, waxes and related compounds have their functions divided into to three areas which include; health, industry and  griculture.
However, other lipids which are present in their sources in trace quantities function as enzymes, cofactors; electron carriers, light-absorbing pigments, hydrophobic anchors; emulsifying agents, hormones and intracellular messengers (Nelson and Cox 2001).

Table I.I. Some oils used in Industry and Automobiles Paints and varnishes Vernonia oil, safflower oil walnut oil, Tung oil, stillingia oil (Chinese vegetable tallow oil) Chemicals Castor oil, cuphea oil, snow ball seed oil, bladder pod oil crambe oil, Vernonia oil Candle and lighting Neem oil, orange oil, Tonka bean oil, Amur cork tree fruit oil. Insectcides Balanos oil Biofuel and Biodiesel Melon seed oil, Jojoba oil plam kernel oil, Palm oil and Jatropha oil. Lubricants Castor oil, olive oil, Ramtil oil, Dammar oil, Jojoba oil, Tall oil. (Source: Nelson, 1981)

Table 1.2 Some Uses of Oils in Health Care Delivery Medicinal and Antisepitcs Lemon oil, wheat germ oil cashew oil, Almond oil, Borneo tallow nut oil, shea
butter, Snowball seed oil, Corriander seed oil, Perilla seed oil, Amur Cork tree fruit oil, chaulmoogra oil, Brucia havanica oil burdock oil Pharmaceuticals Soybean oil, melon seed oil, cashew nut oil, cocoa butter; Almond oil. Cosmetic and Skin Care Hazelnut oil, coconut oil, cotton seed oil Acai oil, Amaranth oil Borneo tallow oil, Avocado oil Cohune oil, Rape seed oil, Perilta seed oil, Olive oil, Carrot seed oil, lemon oil, Neem oil, Poppy seed oil, Candle nut oil carrot seed oil shea better. Soap and Cleaning products Palm kernel oil, Palm oil, Borneo tallow nut oil, kapok seed oil. Linseed oil, Poppy seed oil, Daminar oil.
Perfumes and Fragrances Palm oil, Castor oil, Copaiba oil, Honge oil, Jojoba oil sunflower oil, (Source: Nelson, 1981)

Table 1.3 Some Uses of oils in Agriculture Animal feed Soybean oil, melon seed oil, Aglae oil, Evening prime rose oil Pesticides Balanos oil
Fertilizers Soybean oil, melon seed oil, palm oil,safflower oil (Source: Nelson, 1981)

1.1.1.1 Oil Extraction

The conventional methods for oil extraction involves three basic approaches namely-Physical, chemical and a combination of both (Owusu-Ansah, 1994). The physical method employed for oil seeds of high oil content example, groundnut, palm fruit and kernel etc, while chemical method is primarily used for oil seeds of low oil content, example soybeans, rice bran, etc (Owusu-Ansah, 1994). The method used could affect the physical and chemical properties of the oil or fat to a considerable extent. In selecting solvent for extraction, the solubility of the oil or fat in the solvent, toxicity and the intended use of the oil are of utmost importance. Petroleum ether, n-hexane, methanol and chloroform are frequently used (Christie, 1982). Enzymes have found use in oil extraction. The application of enzymes in oil extraction can be categorized into: enzyme-assisted processing, enzyme-enhanced solvent extraction, and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction (Owusu-Ansah, 1994). In all these approaches, the enzymes are used to break the cell walls of the oil bearing material to release the oil.

 

1.1.1.2 Refining of Crude vegetable Oil

The further processing of edible oils after extraction from the raw materials is concerned with refining and modification (Young et al., 1994). Refining treatment is needed to remove or reduce as far as possible, those contaminants of the crude vegetable oil which will adversely affect the quality of the end-product and the efficient operation of the modification process. Two methods are in use for the refining of oils and fats. These are termed physical and chemical from the means by which free fatty acids are removed from the oil (Young et al., 1994). The fatty acids are distilled off in the physical
process and in the chemical process are neutralized using an alkaline reagent thus forming soap, which are removed from the oil by phase separation.

1.2 Bleaching

Pigments such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, Gossypol, and related compounds and the products of degradation and condensation reactions that occur during the handling, storage and treatment of the extracted oils is removed by bleaching. It was later realized that activated absorbents, in particular are responsible for removing at least partially, other impurities such as soaps, trace metals, phosphatides and hydroperoxide compounds containing sulphur. Primary oxidation levels are also reduced by the breakdown of the oxidation product on the absorbent surface followed by absorption of the carbonyl
compounds that are the secondary oxidation products. The process is usually carried out by treating the oil with absorbents such as special clays, and charcoals at high temperature (100 -1100C) and under reduced pressure (Haraldsson, 1983). The operation however provides lighter coloured oil and prepares it for subsequent processing.

 

EXTRACTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL USES OF LECITHIN FROM THREE VARIETIES OF Cucumis melo (MELON SEED) OIL.