PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

 

Abstract

This study was carried out in order to determine the attitude of parents towards sex education, the sample constituted 300 parents randomly selected from 2 main wards in Olomu Local Government Area, the questionnaires were administered to the subjects with 100 percent return rate, four research questions were proposed to guide the study, mean and grand mean were used for data analysis. The following results were obtained. The mean score of the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education was 2.3 which is lower than the criterion mean of 2.5. The means score of parents towards the objective of sex education was 2.6 which is higher than the criterion mean of 2.5. The approach use by those teachers teaching sex education was 2.7 which is higher than the criterion mean of 2.5, the qualification of those teaching sex education was 3.1 which is higher than the criterion mean of 2.5. Based on the result, the following recommendations were made. Health education should be intensified in school, work place and women forum to disabuse parents of myths, misconception and ignorance of teaching sex education, the sex education curriculum should be reviewed to ensure its comprehensiveness and should also be reviewed to meet the needs of different age levels; cultural factors, religious beliefs and other factors that affect the teaching of sex education should be discouraged.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Sex education in the Nigerian society is very complex and very important to be overlooked in everyday life, this observation may be true in many societies of the world. At present, the issue of sex education in many Nigerian communities is covered by strong cultural, religious beliefs and other factors, in some families, a mere mention of sex organ is regarded as a taboo, Achalu (2000), reported that in some Nigeria families parents find it difficult to discuss sexual behaviours with their children, as observed by Darymple (2000) many people feel a great deal of discomfort and anxiety when sex is mentioned, this he attributed to culture and ignorance, when it comes to sex education in Olomu local government may not be an exception to this type of habit or attitude. This is because in Olomu local government there is little or no distinction between the rural community and the urban, the habit and life styles of the urban dwellers may be influenced by the traditional and cultural beliefs and more of the rural community. As a matter of fact, the behaviour of parents in Olomu local government area may not be different, although fear has been expressed in some quarters that sex education may stimulate young people to experience sex.

Posse and Melgosa (2002), in their definition of family life education, opined that: “it is that aspect of heath education which prepares the child, adolescent or young adults to become responsible members of their family.” They asset that, it helps the individual to understand his development biologically, psychologically and socially to full maturity as a man or woman.
Sex education can also be defined as a comprehensive programme on sex knowledge, behaviour and attitude extending from infancy to maturity, planned and executed to produce socially and morally desirable attitude, practice and personal behaviour. (Briggs 2002). The above definition laid credence to Achalu (2000) who asserts that sex education is an aspect of health education programme arrived at providing accurate information to help people to develop positive and healthy sex attitude, values, goals, and practices to enable them express their sexual impulse and behaviour in a socially and ethically acceptable manner.

PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

From the above statement we can deduced that sex education is not mainly aimed at the provision of sex knowledge or information nor is it to acquire necessary skills in sex act; it goes beyond sex information and sexual performance. It helps people to understand scientific, social and physiological implications of sex. Sex education is supposed to offer accurate information about individuals according to age, environment and social status so as to keep them well informed.
Hence it should be one of the accepted course of study taught in all levels of educational institutions any where in the world including Nigeria. In this study, sex education means the process of exposing an individual to positive and negative sexual behaviour and knowledge on sexual habit in order for him/her to live safe and healthy sexual life. The National curriculum (1985) for senior secondary schools provides for the teaching of sex education as one of the school subjects, the curriculum should based upon problems, personal and social needs as well as the interest of the students. Sex education in its sense has been designed to dispel ignorance of sexual matters and to clarify misconceptions.
From personal experience, it is doubtful if schools in Olomu Local government give a serious attention to the teaching of sex education as a subject, the consequence of this may be associated with the incidence of several cases of health problems like teenage pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted diseases, negative attitude and beliefs people hold about the teaching of sex education in the homes, and the schools.
In the same way, Nancy, (1998) as observed through the internet, asserts that rather than trying to determine or frighten young people from having sex, effective sex education to enable young people to choose whether or not to have sexual relationship should be taken into account because of the potential risks of sexual activity. Briggs (2001) also stated that “when ever compulsory sex education is introduced in school, natural tension rises between the schools and parents.” This type of situation may not be ruled out in a place like Olomu local Government Area of Delta State; hence sex education is not taken as an important subject despite its inclusion in the school curriculum. In-addition, Briggs (2001) also believes that public sensitivity to sex education is often shaped by cultural and religious perceptions.
To understand a person’s action we must be aware of the fact that his behaviour is influenced by his sense of values, the experience that have confronted him and the attitude that developed from those experiences predisposes an individual to react in a particular way and behaviour is the test or result of this state that attitudes are favourable towards those activities of meeting needs. Negative attitudes are held towards things or situations which are believed to be harmful.
Ademuwagun, (1981) stressed that the need for inclusion of human reproduction as a major focus and looked at sex education as concern with human sexuality as distinguished characteristics between male and female, physically, socially and culturally. He went further by giving consideration to sex education as it involves traditional and cultural attitudes and behaviour towards sex relation and dilemma of modern practices and perception; parent according to Pelt (2002) are confused part, because of the films, newspaper stories, magazines, television shows that distort their children’s views about sex and sexual love. He further stated that in the face of glazing immorality, parents should endeavor to teach their children basic anatomy and moral values as regards to sex, mothers and fathers get shocked and upset when children are involved in sex play. Sex play and experimentation are common among adolescent and parents should talk quietly with their children about the matter sex, answering the question’s and giving explanations to avoid development of unwholesome attitude, feeling of shame and guilt among them.

PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

Adolescence is a period starting from 13 to 19 in a lifetime (Pelt 2002). It is the most discussed period of life span.
Uka (1983) Described adolescent as a critical period of life, a time of “storm” and “stress” for the maturing individual. Awala (2005) also stated that adolescence can be turbulent times that are usually assaulted. He also describes adolescence as “a period of transition commonly characterized by stress and anxiety”, the young ones are often inexperienced to handle stress and anxiety in a positive way and this may lead them to fall easily into destructive forms of behaviour.
According to Awake (2005) if describes adolescents to involve in misbehaviour such as promiscuous sex, violence and pregnancy out of wedlock.
Parents should guide and lead heir children in knowing the truth which is less disturbing than not knowing the fact, the issue of experimentation according to Pelf (2005) comes most frequently from uniformed children, for experimentation is one way of getting information. He further stated that sex offenders usually come from a home where little or no sex education is taught.

The problems encountered in our society as a result of lack of effective sex education cannot be overemphasized, it is necessary for parents, teachers and even youths to collaborate in a coordinated effort to implement sex education curriculum both in homes and schools, this will go a long way to reduce over excitement, misinformation, ignorance and over exposure over sex issues.
Statement of the Problem
It is painful to note that there is an increase in the rate of teenage pregnancy and abandoned children in Olomu Local Government Area of Delta State. According to Odo (2003) he stated that there is an increase in human immune deficiency virus (H.I.V.) infection among youths in Olomu irrespective of condom message of protection against sexually transmitted diseases, in our society today, there are lots of marriages and broken homes which are also attributed to lack of sex education Pet (2002) Olomu communities are not left out in these existing problems, the youths in Olomu local Government are over sexually permissive because of lack of sex education Odo (2003).
The issue of sex in many Nigeria communities is covered by strong cultural, religious beliefs and ignorance, furthermore many people feel a great deal of discomfort and anxiety when sex is mentioned, based on the above problems this study becomes necessary.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education in Olomu Local Government Area.
Specifically, the study intends to find out:
(1) The attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education.
(2) Objective of sex education
(3) The approach use by those teachers teaching sex education.
(4) The qualification of those teaching sex educations.
Significance of the Study
(1) The result of this study will sensitize literate parents on the need for teaching sex education in schools and homes.
(2) The result will also help the human immune deficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome control unit in Olomu Local Government Area to intensify its campaign against the scourge of sexually transmitted diseases through a programme of sex education in school.
(3) Furthermore, the result of this study will help literate parents and adolescents to know that sex education is not only concerned with sexual relationship between man and woman.
(4) The study will help health education curriculum planners to plan curriculum to suit the youth in secondary school.
Research Questions
The following research questions are proposed to guide this study;
(1) What is the attitude of parents towards the teaching of sex education?
(2) What is the objective of sex education?
(3) What is the approach use by those teachers teaching sex education?
(4) What is the qualification of those teaching sex educations?

 

PROJECT TOPIC:ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THE TEACHING OF SEX EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OLOMU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE
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  PROJECT TOPIC:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE SOCIETY: A CASE STUDY OF IKA NORTH-EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study is aimed at investigating the causes and consequences of unemployment in Ika North East Local Government of Delta State. The upsurge in unemployment rates in the society has been very worrisome among social scientists. A good understanding of the phenomenon under study and its implication for the study would help in reducing or controlling it. An appropriate design (research design) was used which helped in gathering data from the field. The sample size was 120 respondents and these included 30 traditional rulers, 30 employers of labour, 30 policy makers and 30 unemployed persons and questionnaires were administered to them and some interviewed. Two hypotheses were formulated for the study and were tested using the chi-square technique. The findings revealed that the high crime rate in the area was due to the high unemployment rate. Recommendations were also provided for the study. On the whole the study was interesting.                            


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 The problem of unemployment has remained intractable even in the developed economies of the world namely, U.S.A, Germany, France to mention but these few. Being employed makes one happy. Awake (1983) stated that meaningful employment could bring happiness, makes one wanted and needed. It further argued that people acquire certain skills so that they could be employed and be able to provide for their needs and that of the family, but unemployment seems to step in and dash this hope.Unemployment is one of the social problems in Nigeria which has assumed a greater dimension with the emergence of “black god” that is crude oil, as every young school leavers had to abandon the village in search of employment in the urban centres. Government on her side also forget Agricultural sector, which was the mainstay of the economy in the 1960s

     By 1986, an estimated 3.7 million people were said to be unemployed with about 1.5 million youths joining the labour force annually. This resulted in an urban unemployment rate of 10% and rural unemployment rate of 4% (Federal Office of Statistics, 1986). All the components of the labour force suffered from the scourge of unemployment of youths, especially graduates, retrenched civil servants and private sectors employees. The unemployment consists of all those that are willing to work and able to work but are unable to find job. The total labour force of Nigeria is made up of those between the age of 15 years and 59 years. Unemployment arises when the demand for labour of the factors of production falls short of supply

 In this study therefore, we are going to examine the causes and consequences of unemployment in the society with Ika North East as a case study.

 

PROJECT TOPIC:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE SOCIETY: A CASE STUDY OF IKA NORTH-EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

  In Nigeria, a number of states including Delta State, experience a rise in unemployment among youths. Unemployment situation in Delta State is inherent in the capitalist system of Nigeria economy. As policy makers are not committed to evolve pragmatic measures capable of reducing unemployment to the barest minimum, we find out that the unemployed are alienated, because such policies as poverty alleviation programme, National Directorate For Employment (NDE) not in any way reduced the problem of unemployment, but has been hijacked by some selfish and greedy Nigerians.

  Mccleland (1961) made an assumption about people which say that man is not often looked upon as a rational economic man, social man, self actualizing man and complex. So that unemployment seems to dash away these needs. Unemployment has been the bane of the society, it has defied solutions both state and local governments. It is for this reason that the researcher was motivated to undertake this study in order to investigate the causes and consequences of unemployment in the study area. It is the hope of the researcher that if the causes and consequences of unemployment in the study area are known, the solution will not be far fetched.

 

CAUSES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

 Lampam (1974), in his research on unemployment and its causes, found out that a good research on the effect of unemployment and an intelligent approach to public policy aimed at preventing or reducing it would demand some understanding of the cause of unemployment in a given society.Lampam (1974) report on the cause of unemployment stated that agriculture is the taproot of an economy. He warned that any attempt to give agricultural activities a secondary attention in the economy of any nation would sooner or later create unemployment situation.Investigation into Nigeria sources of revenue in the 1960s and early 1970s showed that agricultural products was the chief source of income to the country. But with the neglect of agriculture due to oil boom, the economy late failed, and has resulted into unemployment

  The second factor according to Lampan (1974) was the degree of unemployment in the developing countries were due to the neglect of indigenous technology and inadequate patronage received by local industries from the consumers and their government as well as the rate of profit reinvestment in the foreign owned industries in the country. He observed that in any economic system where indigenous technology and local industries were not encouraged and patronized, there tend to be a decrease in the production capacity and, an increase in the dumping of the countries wealth in foreign countries in the name of purchasing foreign goods.

 The picture portrayed by Lampan above, was actually what happened in Nigeria, were especially during the oil boom period that has resulted to the unemployment situation in the country. Finally, the greatest unemployment-causing factor in Nigeria has been identified to the ineptitude, corruption, fraud and general failure of leadership in our country.

 

PROJECT TOPIC:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE SOCIETY: A CASE STUDY OF IKA NORTH-EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

        

PROBLEMS

 

 Some of the problems of unemployment are as follows:Unemployment brings frustration and disappointment.Unemployment causes crime like robbery, prostitution, drug trafficking.Unemployment syndrome is so rampant in rural and urban area.Unemployment had led to increase in poverty.        

 

PROJECT TOPIC:CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE SOCIETY: A CASE STUDY OF IKA NORTH-EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

        

PROJECT TOPIC:SOCIAL CONTRADICTIONS IN ANEZI OKOROS HANDS OFF YOUNG DOCTOR AND EPHRAIM OKWOR’S TOKUNBO

 

ABSTRACT
 even though they constitute the greater part of the society. This long essay studies how writers use their artistic tool to pin point these contradictions that are being witness in our society. These contradictions are as a result of social status which is mostly noticed among the bourgeoisie and proletariat. The bourgeoisie use their position which is mostly prominent in propagating their ideologies. The study further examines how the proletariat remain resolute in their principles and ideologies despite the fact that the bourgeoisie ideologies seem to be dominating. Using Ephraim Okwor’s Tokunbo and Anezi Okoro’s Hands Off Young Doctor as a case study, it will be noticed that there are those who still believe in maintaining the moral values in our society and there are those who see the society as a changing one and try to go with the new trend.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Writers use literature as an avenue to propagate their ideologies. These ideologies revolve round cultural, political, social and economic state of a given society. Through this avenue, the historical heritage of such a society is being preserved for the future. When this happens, the generation to come has something that they can rely on, that account for their existence.
However, a novelist has a task of preserving such a cultural heritage through his/her artistic repertoire. As a result, that some critics have found out that a novelist does not only tell story about the happenings in his environment, but also has a sacred mission of imparting knowledge on social and cultural phenomena. He does not only stop there, he even goes ahead sometimes to inform us on the kind of social relationship that should exist among the different strata of society. Achebe (1975:45) asserts this sacred mission of a novelist in his article, thus:
A writer cannot expect to be excuse from the task of re-education and generation that must be done. Infact, he should march right in front, for he is after al…l the sensitive point of his community.

PROJECT TOPIC:SOCIAL CONTRADICTIONS IN ANEZI OKOROS HANDS OFF YOUNG DOCTOR AND EPHRAIM OKWOR’S TOKUNBO
 
There is always an imperfect situation in the helms of affairs in our society. This situation makes concerned citizens to begin to desire for changes. In this imperfect situation, there is always two groups of people involved: the oppressed and the oppressor. The latter are mostly those who have what it takes to dominate and influence their opinions to the detriment of the oppressed. They mostly have position and wealth as their tools. But the oppressed live by God’s mercy; because even the apparati that are there to protect their interest are being maneuvered and influenced by the oppressors. When the oppressed notice these inadequacies, they try to disdain the oppressors as a form of a protest. This situation leads us to what is called social struggle. Social struggle is as result of social contradiction. In other words, social struggle can be regarded as social contradictions; we find out that human beings, no matter their social status do not want to be discarded. This is what this research work aims to look into: The social contradiction in Anezi Okoro’s Hands Off Young Doctor and Ephraim Okwor’s Tokunbo.
1.2 Objective of Study
A writer has a way of achieving his/ her aims through his/ her writing. They use the available tools to propagate their ideas. This project is aimed at showing the social contradictions as a result of the social strata that exist in our society. Most authors are always on the side of the oppressed who the masses are because they constitute the greater percentage of the populace. They do this because they have messages, justice, accountability, freedom, equity etcetera; that they want to pass across. Based on this, this project uses the work of these authors: Anezi Okoro’s Hand Off Young Doctor and Ephraim Okwor’s Tokunbo to explore the struggles that exist in the society as a result of different social classes in our society.
1.3 Plan of Study
This project has been divided into five chapters. The first chapter comprises the introduction (background of study), objective of study, plan of study. The second chapter deals with review of scholarship. The third chapter analysis Ephraim Okwor’s Tokunbo while chapter four examines Anezi Okoro’s Hands of Young Doctor. Chapter five is the conclusion.
1.4 Limitation of the Study
The space and time limitation as well as financial constraints hindered the researcher from carry out the work on time.
1.5 Methodology
This project shall make use of textual interpretation and analyses to achieve its result. Therefore, its sources of information are based on libraries.

PROJECT TOPIC:SOCIAL CONTRADICTIONS IN ANEZI OKOROS HANDS OFF YOUNG DOCTOR AND EPHRAIM OKWOR’S TOKUNBO
 

THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF PROSTITUTION IN

THE LIFE OF OUR GIRLS:A STUDY OF ANIOCHA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE.

 

ABSTRACT

 

The basic study for this is to determine the causes and effects of prostitution among our young girls with particular reference on the Aniocha South Local Government area of Delta state.The researcher used questionnaire and interview as a source of data collection and two formulated hypothesis were tested based on the objective of the study. However simple percentage technique was used in the analysis of the data and Chi Square was used for the analysis of the hypothesis.

The result of the findings revealed that the causes of prostitution are as follows unemployment, poverty, family disorganization, moral laxity among youths and broken homes, while the effect include multiple disease. In conclusion, the researcher recommends that government should provide them with opportunity to attend institution where the can learn trade. Moreover women who are interested (in the profession should be discouraged. Parent should minimize conflict in the families and reduce all forms of incompatibility.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 Although prostitution is virtually universal. It is generally disapproved in most societies. The definition of the term prostitution may be different from another society’s conception. Many young girls are promiscuous but do not consider themselves as prostitutes because their sexual relations have elements of the affection even if transitory. The prostitutes “Sells” her sex relation with an element of indifference. Although some prostitutes may be selective on the basis of Age, economics status or physical attractiveness and also on health’s state of their customers. Since it is an act of sexual intercourse that is carried out with almost one or many, the sex may be purchased in varied physical form.

 In some culture a man can send his girl friend or wife to another person to have sex as a gratification for some favor yet most cases the lady do not consider herself a prostitute. Similarly in New York, the united state of America a girl who makes love to a man in front of a cameraman for use in a pornographic magazine or video do not consider herself a prostitute but a model.Why do women go into prostitution? There are many reasons as propounded or evident in some of our previous example. But probably is economic insecurity that is responsible as viewed by many critiques. Even evidence of nymphomaniac a woman who has an excessive desire for sex for the purpose of this research prostitution is a woman who offer herself to men who are not her husband but for financial and material grantification.. This could mean sexual intercourse on a promiscuous and mercenary basis with emotional indifferences.

 According to J. E Hall Williams (1960) pointed out that in some countries, as well as many states it is not prostitution that is legally a criminal offence for which a prostitute is punished but the method by which they solicit for patrons.For example when a customer dates a shop girl for an evening dinners and after much they have sex she will not consider herself a real prostitute, such a girl may have family and a job and may not make practice of exchanging sex relation for an evening entertainment. Many women are promiscuous but do not consider themselves prostitutes because their sexual relation have element of affection even if transitory. The act of prostitution may be purchased in varied physical form other than the usual form of sexual relation. So emotionally indifferent are most prostitutes to sex relation that rarely experiences an orgasm with the customer. Although they do with the “pimp”.

The pimp is a kind of manager for one or more prostitutes and he is the first to profit from a prostitutes’ income, he skims off about 65 percent of it, the pimps are only exploitative and yet most prostitutes profess loyalist and love for their pimps. Perhaps because they represent the only non –mercenary relationship in their lives. The nature of prostitution links it to many of the values of the “normal society. The general culture stimulates the importance of sexual value of life and the satisfaction these values may be different for many of the unmarried and some of the married. Prostitution therefore becomes a needed commodity for which there is widespread demand with often-limited supply, the price of the services may vary depending on the supply and the characteristics of the prostitutes. “Our laizzes faire economy and it’s integration, though the price system allows relatively free operation of supply and demand, whether it commence in grain fortunes or sex services. Because of the functional effect and causes of prostitution in nature and its commercial aspect, prostitutions are following an occupation, which parallels the goals of any other occupation. In prostitution there are economic and cultural consideration common to the general society. Societal attitude towards prostitution differs. The Christian view prostitution as abnormal feature of any society and therefore condemn it. According to them prostitution is against their religion and it is an evil which is not encouraged.

   Kingsley Davis (1937) pointed out that prostitution is the most convenient outers sex for the army, pervert the physical repulsive in other midst, to him prostitution performs useful function in the society. Otherwise sexual starvation might lead people to commit rape and adultery.

 

THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF PROSTITUTION IN THE LIFE OF OUR GIRLS:A STUDY OF ANIOCHA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE.

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

 

The causes and effect of prostitution among young girls or women are caused by many factors. They include unemployment poverty, family disorganization and others. As a result of these, there are also problems created by prostitution such problems include moral laxity among youths, broken homes as some men spend most of their leisure time with prostitutes instead of looking after their wives and children.

  My view is that it is sad, but a lucrative trade cuts across all strata of women in our society, nurses, business girls, teachers are all members of the unholy profession. The only difference being that these categories do not legally belong to the registered union and perhaps more so is that, they do not live in brothels like the profession prostitutes. However, these categories elicit more patronage owing to their sophisticated approach to the professional. Unlike their professional colleagues who hang around brothels soliciting for customer, these groups live in well-furnished flats that could make a low income earner sorrowing to his grave, courtesy of their men friends who can afford all the niceties associated with such romance.

 Sadly, these groups belong to the working class, it is called a private practice (pp) but that is what they do at their spare time. Hopping from one office to another in search of men with considerable means of lively hood: indeed this is in vogue in contemporary social setting today. These days it is not surprising to hear things as sugar daddy these are bye- product of a decedent society in quest of salvation. Having gone this length, let us beam our searchlight into yet another category; these groups of young prostitutes belong to businesswomen most of whom are the owners of the various beer palours in every cranes of the town. They manipulate their customers skillfully, all day they sit idly in their beer palours waiting patiently for their victims, their modus operadi lies in the belief that “vulture is a patient bird”. They enjoy the services of young females who actually run the beer palours, sooner or later, they in turn graduate from mere apprentices to full fledged prostitutes. Take a deep look at most of the brothels around and you will discover that most of them are owned by these free women. Some housewives are now infiltrating into this ignoble trade as a means of satisfying their whims and caprices beside the financial reward for such mis-adventure. Here lies the problems of frequent divorce cases that is now replaced with our matrimonial lives. That is to say most marriages hit the rocks due to infidelity on the part of some women who are out for financial gains occasioned by prostitution.

  Again, it is observed that majority of the prostitutes smoke and drink excessively. Some of them take hard drug like smoking Indian hemp (marijuana or wee wee as it is nicknamed). Swallowing of tablet like madas and other dangerous pills drinking illicit liquour. They have made it a daily routine to ‘dope’ and wine despite their knowledge of the danger or repercussion of taking these drugs e.g long term imprisonment, mental disorder etc. These drugs have helped in running some dopers lives yet these harlots still take them. Another major problem of prostitution is the effect on health’s as it affect societal developments. It may be right to say that most of these deadly disease in the world are caused and transmitted through sexual intercourse. Some of them especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have been claimed as the most deadly disease in recent time. One would thus want to known why, despite all these dangers associated with prostitution it still strives in the society.

                              

THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF PROSTITUTION IN THE LIFE OF OUR GIRLS:A STUDY OF ANIOCHA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

PROJECT TOPIC: IMPACT OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIA COMPANY

ABSTRACT

This research work is embarked upon to examine the company’s performance with the aim of establishing the relationship between economic variable. This study made efforts to discuss issues, facts and environmental factors surrounding the wave of company restructuring in Nigeria, even as various company professionals, marketers of company services and company experts alike are adapting to various buzzwords in the bid to sell their company restructuring products or services. To achieve this objective, data were collected through primary and secondary source. The research instruments used in the data collection were questionnaires. The needed data were collected respondents which comparised from the staff, dealers and customers of unilever Nigeria Plc. The data collected were tabulated into frequencies and percentages. The researcher employed chi-square statistics to analyze and test hypothesis. The result of the analysis revealed that corporate restructuring brings about positive change in the composition of company’s portfolio. However, the finding, conclusion and recommendation are hoped to the great importance to the authorities concerned

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          According to Hoskisson and Turk (1990:26), stated that corporate Restructuring is the major changes in the composition of a firm’s assets combined with a major change in its corporate strategy. It usually involves selling off (or liquidation) business in m-form firms either voluntarily through spin-offs or involuntarily through hoistile takeover.

          Corporate restructuring involves making radical changes in the composition of the business in the company’s portfolio.

          One uses the word “restructuring in a general sense, but exactly what it encompasses will differ from firm to firm. Those that have made change to organization structure and those that have not and investigate the effects that restructuring has on value-added and labour productivity. Furthermore, by comparing subsequent changes in the number of employees and the level of their ways in the respective firms.

          Generally speaking, any restructuring of the lability and stockholders equity components of a financial balance sheets, normally undertaken because the issuer does not generate enough cashflows to service its debt and other liabilities. Restructuring may include difference of principal or interest payment on debts, equalization of debt or other liabilities.

          Restructuring is also the corporate management term for the partially dismantling or otherwise reorganizing a company for the purpose of making it more efficient and therefore more profitable. It generally involves selling off portions of the company and making server staff reductions. Restructuring is often done as part of a bankruptcy or of a takeover by another firms, particularly a leverage buyout by a private equity firm. It may also be done by a new CEO hired specifically to make the difficult and controversial decisions required to save or reposition the company.         

PROJECT TOPIC: IMPACT OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIA COMPANY


                            1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The practical problems in Unilever company therefore, should be focused on theChttps://www.projectwriters.ng/project-topic-impact-television-advertising-consumer-brand-preference-soft-drink-competitive-market-case-study-7up-bottling-company-nig-plc-9th-mile-corner-enugu/ under which the company has to be performed.

          Identification of the possible areas of constraints which, through cannot be exhaustively examined in this research will nevertheless serve to illustrate some of the factors that may, inhabit performance of the unilever company and solutions to which, should be a challenge to the company.

The following problems have been responsible for the situation are:

  1. Lack of research organization that could conduct research on the raw materials to see whether they can be used for the production of goods
  2. Lack of capital: Companies are generally establish requiring large sums of money for improvement of the company.
  • Lack of skilled personnel: The company do not have very highly trained personal required for the company project.
  1. The infrastructure is still in its infancy in many of the companies. As such most of the local raw materials cannot be exploited for industrial use, nor can the finished products be carried to wider areas. Without the necessary infrastructure, it would not be possible to engage in any effective industrial programmes.
  2. Poor storage facilities: This makes it difficult for raw material to be preserved until they are needed.

                            1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study include the following:

  1. To examine the impact of corporate restructuring in effective product or service delivery.
  2. To change in corporate management, (usually with golden parachutes).
  • Retention of corporate management sometimes “stay bonus” payments or equity grants.
  1. Sale of underutilized assets, such as patents or brands.
  2. Outsourcing of operations such as payroll and technical support to a more efficient third party.
  3. Moving of operations such as manufacturing to lower-cost locations.
  • Reorganization of functions such as sales, marketing and distribution.
  • Renegotiation of labour contracts to reduce overhead.
  1. Refinancing of corporate debt to reduce overhead.
  2. A major public relations campaign to reposition the company with consumers.    

                            1.4 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the Unilever company had played in the Nigeria environment which however, they have gone into meet the everyday needs of people everywhere and anticipate the aspirations of their consumers and customers and to respond creatively and competively with branded products and services which raise in the quality of life. Their deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world are their unparalleled inheritance and the foundation for their future growth. They will bring their wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers a truly multi-local multinational standards of performance and productivity to working together effectively and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously. They believe that to succeed requires the highest standards of corporate behaviour towards their employees, consumers and societies and world in which they live. This is Unilever’s road to sustainable profitable growth for their business and long-term value creation for their shareholders and employees.

          Finally, suggest and recommend ways by which the problem faced by these company could be solved in order to make.    

                            1.5 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

In this survey, the researcher used the following hypothesis.

Ho: Corporate restructuring does not make any changes in the composition of the businesses in the company’s portfolio.

H1: Corporate restructuring makes a positive changes in the composition of the businesses in the company’s portfolio.

HYPOTHESIS II

Ho: Restructuring has not enhanced operational efficiency and more profitable in Unilever company Plc.

H1: Restructuring has enhanced operational efficiency and more profitable in Unilever company Plc.

HYPOTHESIS III

Ho: Restructuring has not done any part of a bankruptcy in Unilever Nigeria Plc.

H1: Restructuring has often done a part of bankruptcy in Unilever Plc.

PROJECT TOPIC: IMPACT OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIA COMPANY


HYPOTHESIS IV

Ho: Company that had not been restructured increase unemployment of the firm.

H1: Company that had been restructured increase employment of the firm.

                            1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research study will serve many purpose. The purpose of the study will appreciated if one considers that since the inception of Unilever Company into the Nigerian industry system, their role to significance have been very negligible and  problematic despite the several policies of effort that have been made by the corporate management of the company to enhance the effective of the corporate restructuring of the performance of Nigerian company.

  1. The study will be usefully to employee and management of the Unilever company, in the sense that it will provide a solution ways to tackle the problems containing their operations.
  2. The study will beneficially to government who will then make policies that will promote efficiency in Unilever Company in the manufacturing industries system.
  • It will be useful to Unilever Company on how to implement their policies.
  1. In addition, scholars and follow researchers will find the work very important because they serve as basic for future study.

                            1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers the impact of corporate restructuring on the performance of the Nigeria company as they perform their primary objective.

          In view of this, Unilever Company was used as a case study so as enhance data collection.

  1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher decided to limit this study to only Unilever Nigeria Company due to some problem beyond her control such as inadequate material, data, hence she could only lay hand on few secondary data such as, Textbook, Internet and some data collected from the Unilever Nigeria Plc.

          Finance and time also was a major constraint as this research was done during the period of examination of which time and money were scare for the research.  

PROJECT TOPIC: IMPACT OF CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NIGERIA COMPANY