PROJECT TOPIC- AUDITOR’S PERCEPTION OF THE USEFULNESS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED AUDIT TECHNIQUES

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to examine the auditor’s perception of the usefulness of computer assisted audit techniques in Nigerian organizations. The study seeks to evaluate the nature and extent of the utilization of GAS in financial institutions, which economical significant entities typically make intensive use of information systems for many business processes. Many financial institutions are of a sufficient size to warrant investment in GAS by internal or external auditors. Financial institutions also are often subject to regulatory regimes that require monitoring of particular risks and potential malfeasance in areas such as money laundering.  It was used to determine whether the effected Computer Assist Audit technique has been used in the auditing practice and to determine if there is a significant relationship between CAATS and effective financial reporting in an organization. It was concluded that Computer Assisted Audit Techniques (CAATS) and generalized Audit software (GAS) have been seen as an important element of both the external and internal audit processes. Finally, it was recommended that all auditing firms should be instructed to have the security code to enhance effectiveness and efficiency in their business and that training of personnel in auditing should be based on workshop, seminar and conference to boost the awareness of the security auditors.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

While the use of Information Technology (IT) in the business world has grown exponentially in the past two decades, the extent to which auditors have adopted IT such as Computer-Assisted Auditing Techniques (CAATS) to meet this growth remains an empirical question (Arnold and Sutton 1998; Curtis and Payne 2008; Janvrin et al 2009). CAATS are computer tools that extract and analyze data from computer applications (Braun and Davis 2003). CAATS permit auditors to increase their productivity as well as that of the audit function (Zhao et al. 2004, 389).

For example, CAATS may automatic previously manual audit tests reducing total audit hours expended. They enable auditors to test 100 percent of the population rather than a sample, thereby increasing the reliability of conclusions based on that test (AICPA 2001; Curtis and Payne 2008). In addition, CAATS may be used to select sample transactions meeting specific criteria, sort transactions with specific characteristics, obtain evidence about control effectiveness, and evaluate inventory existence and completeness (AICPA
2006).

Recent audit standards encourage auditors to adopt CAATS to improve audit efficiency and effectiveness (AICPA 2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2006). For example SAS No 106 suggests that CAATS may be used to improve audit efficiency by recalculating information provided by audit clients (AICPA 2006). Furthermore, SAS No. 106 indicates CAATS increase audit effectiveness by allowing auditors to directly inspect evidence stored in electronic from (AICPA 2006).

Improving audit efficiency and effectiveness in particularly important in today audit environment where auditors have enhanced responsibilities for detecting fraud due to SAS No. 999 requirement and internal control effectiveness as directed under Section 404 of the Subanes Oxieg Act and Public. Company Accounting oversight Board (PCAOB) Audit standard No. 5 Despite the current emphasis on CAATS, research indicates that auditors do not frequently and systematically use CAATS (Liang et al. 2001; Kalaba 2002; Debrecency et al 205. Shaikh 2005) Curtis and Payne 2008; Janriv et al 2009). Auditor acceptance of CAATS may be driven by both firm resource issues and individual user perceptions.

Prior information systems research indicates that even when sufficient resource exist to purchase IT, users may not use (i.e., accept) the new IT (Davis 1989). Thus, the primary purpose of our research is to examine factors that influence individual, auditor acceptance of CAATS.

Information systems research has developed several models to predict user acceptance of IT. This study uses a recent technology acceptance model, the unified technology acceptance and use of technology theory (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al. 2003). UTAUT integrates several previously accepted models to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions. Understanding the drivers of acceptance allows researchers and audit firm management to proactively design interventions (including training, marketing etc) targeted (including training, marketing etc) targeted at populations of auditors that may be less inclined to adopt and use new systems (Venkatesh et al 2003). UTAUT proposes that four factors influence user acceptance.

  1. The expectation users hold regarding how well the system may improve their performance (i.e., performance expectancy)
  2. The degree of effort users, believe will be needed to use the new system (i.e., degree expectancy).
  3. The extent users perceive that individuals important to them encourage system usage (i.e., social influence).
  4. The expectation users hold regarding the existence of an organization and technical infrastructure to support system usage (i.e. facilitating conditions).

    PROJECT TOPIC- AUDITOR’S PERCEPTION OF THE USEFULNESS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED AUDIT TECHNIQUES

1.2   Statement of Problem

Prior CAAT research is generally descriptive in nature. Braun and Davis (2003) surveyed government auditor regarding their usage of Audit command language (ACL), a commercially available CAAT. They found that while participants perceived the potential benefits associated with ACL, they displayed a lower confidence in their technical abilities to use ACL (Braun and Davis 2003). Debreceny et al (2005) interviewed bank internal auditors are external auditors in Singapore. They note that internal auditors tend to use CAATS for special investigations rather than as a foundation for their regular audit work. Furthermore, external auditors did not adopt CAATS citing its inapplicability to the nature of testing the financial statement assertions or the extent or quality of computerized internal controls.

Liang et al (2001) noted that auditors do not frequently and systematically adopt CAATS in practice and proposed a new electronic audit approach. Sheikh (2005) suggested a new CAAT based on the electronic auditing from work that includes most feature of existing generalized audit software but can be designed and deployed independently from the auditor’s EDP system. Finally, Zhao et al (2004) describes how CAATS must exist in order to conduct continuous auditing.

1.3   Research Questions

The following research questions will help in the study under review;

  1. Is there a significant relationship between computer assisted audit techniques (CAATS) and audit practice in Nigeria?
  2. Does a significant relationship exist between computer assisted audit techniques (CAATS) and effective financial reporting in an organization?

1.4   Objectives of the Study

“When a man does not know what harbor he is making for, no wind is the right wind”. These words is attributed to first century Roman philosophers Lucius Anneals Seneca, bear out a long recognized truth, for life (business) to have direction. Goals are essential when the following objectives of the study came to mind in the choice of the topic.

  1. To determine whether there is a significant relationship between CAAT and audit practice.
  2. To determine if there is a significant relationship between CAATS and effective financial reporting in an organization.
  • To determine how far company law in Nigeria has ensured Information auditors.
  1. To determine whether the audit committees served to play ensure auditor’s C.A.A.T is effectively used in the practice work.

1.5   Statement of Hypotheses

Hypothesis One

HO:   There is no significant relationship between
computer Assist Audit techniques (CAATS) and audit practice in Nigeria.

HI:    There is a significant relationship between computer assist audit techniques (CAATS) and audit practice in Nigeria.

Hypothesis Two

HO:   There is no significance relationship between computer assist audit techniques (CAATS) and effective financial reporting in an organization.

HI:    There is a significance relationship between computer assist’ audit techniques (CAATS) and effective financial reporting in an organization.

1.6   Significance of the Study

Interestingly, there has been little or no formal research on the application of CAATS in general and GAS in particular to the assurance process (Boritz 2002). This study aims is to make a first step in filling this clear gap in the research literature. The study seeks to evaluate the nature and extent of the utilization of GAS in financial institutions. These economically significant entities typically make intensive use of information systems for many business processes. Many financial institutions are of a sufficient size to warrant investment in GAS by internal or external auditors.

Financial institutions also are often subject to regulatory regimes that require monitoring of particular risks and potential malfeasance in areas such as money laundering. In particular, this study aims to establish how GAS assists internal auditors within banks and their external auditors in the process of substantive testing in the conduct of both financial statement audits as well as special audits. Second, in the event that banks do not make use of GAS to obtain audit evidence through substantive procedures, the second objective of this study is to examine the reasons for such limited usage. In addition, this study also attempts to examine the possibilities of how banks’ internal and external auditors would be able to better exploit GAS if they were given an opportunity to exploit their capabilities to the fullest.

1.7   Scope of the Study

This work is not intended to serve itself, but the generality of auditing firms and the public at large. The study is to appraise thoroughly the theoretical formation on which is acquainted with basic fact about the significance of information system security auditing in Nigeria business environment.

 1.8  Limitations of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to the survey of some selected auditing firms in Benin City. This study would have been more relevant if data could be gathered from all existing auditing firms in Nigeria. However we are constrained by limited resources in terms of finance and time. Other factor includes delay in response to questionnaires to be administered.

1.9   Definition of Terms

Information Technology Audit: An information technology audit or information systems auditing is an examination of the management controls within an information technology (IT) infrastructure. The evaluation of obtained evidence determines if the information technology or system are safeguarding assets, maintaining data integrity and operating effectively to achieve the organization’s goals or objectives. These reviews may be performed in conjunction with a financial statement audit, internal audit, or other form of attestation engagement. (Gawde, 2004).

Audit Personnel: According to Webster Dictionary, it is an annual personnel administration inventory which is an analysis and measurement of a company’s personnel policies and practices to determine their effectiveness.

Security Risk: A measure of the extent to which an entity is threatened by potential circumstance or event and typically a function of (1) the adverse impact that would arise if the circumstance or event occurs, and (2) the likelihood of occurrence. Note information system- related security risk are those risk that arise from the loss of confidentiality, or availability of information or information systems and reflect the potential adverse impacts to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation) organizations assets individuals other organizations, and the Nation (Larnpson, 2000).

PROJECT TOPIC- AUDITOR’S PERCEPTION OF THE USEFULNESS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED AUDIT TECHNIQUES

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PROJECT TOPIC- DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELETRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM (MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY)

 

Abstract

The aim of this project work is to design and construct an electronic digital display system, based on light-emitting diodes connected in an array that forms the information to be displayed i.e. “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”. This project is useful for creating attention – getting messages, presentations, advertisements and location identifiers. The system consists of power supply unit, oscillator unit, counter unit, driver unit and output unit. The power supply unit uses alternating current (AC) from the mains which will be stepped down to 12V using a step-down transformer, rectified with bridge rectifier, filtered with the actual capacitor and regulated to 9 volt using an IC regulator. The oscillator unit contains a 555 timer IC set as astable multivibrator used to produce clock pulses for the counter unit which contains 4017 decade counter IC. The 4017 counter enables the information to be displayed sequentially as desired. The driver unit uses transistor to amplify the signal strength of the counter’s output. The output unit enables the information to be displayed using light emitting diodes (LEDs). 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     Background of the study

Electronic digital display system as used in this reports refers to a sign that uses electronic hardware and software to display its copy, messages or images. Also, a sign utilizing a fixed light source to provide a message  in text, images pictures, and / or symbols that may appear to move or may appear as on/off messages. This is contrast to traditional non-electronic signs where the copy displayed is physically applied to the sign surface by printing, painting or otherwise attaching it onto the sign. The materials or substrate to which the copy is applied is typically paper, wood, plastic or the wall of a building.

          In this modern time, solid materials have helped man to show that he really exists by doing wonders in the world of electronics. One major development, made possible by the enormous advances in solid state technology, is the “digital revolution”. Circuits are designed to implement the basic digital logic functions fundamental to all digital systems. Digital electronics therefore comprises the design, manufacture and use of circuits for processing information in digital form (Simpson, 1978).

          An information display is a way of providing information and it is also used as an object for promotion. It can be seen in a form of cardboard or tarpaulin at stores / shops, sign posts, placards, notice boards and electronic display boards. But the advent of new technologies has made the information in the form of an electronic display in the world of advertisements and promotions (Gupta, Shukla and Nagwekar, 2013). The ability to display a short message can be useful application to be available for any business.

Electronic digital display system is perfect for this application. It can be used for both indoor and outdoor which makes it universal fit for any business or event. Electronic digital display system is very efficient and cost effective way to spread messages to thousands of people, without any personal contact or door to door sales. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is a solid state light source with several attractive properties for display application. LED is a diode that gives off visible light when forward biased (Mehta and Mehta, 2014). It is chosen as the main component for displaying messages because, today LED is the most energy efficiency example and other useful systems.

          The birth of signs and display can be said to be as old as the existence of man on the planet earth. From the beginning of the world, different types of displays have been in use, each mode to serve the purpose of invention efficiently. Signs are any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience (David, 2013). In 1389, King Richard II of England compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises (Manton, 2008). In ancient Rome, signboards were usually made from stone or terracotta (Chris, 1995).

          With the advancement in technology, man started carving woods and trees. The use of special dyes on wood as a means of identifying special locations. With the discovery of Bronze and iron, man started using the materials to display sign, thus the advent of metal sign boards were born, which are mostly used in developing countries. On semiconductors and vacuum tubes technology, light displays and sign boards were built to add more beauty in the old system and as a way to increase visibility. LED technology is frequently used in signs now instead of Neon signs, introduced in 1910 at the Paris Motor show (Bellu, 2006). The use of electronic is now  becoming very important. It is extensively applied in almost our day to day activities.

PROJECT TOPIC- DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELETRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM (MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY)

          Electronic digital display system is also used for outdoor advertisement. Before, outdoor advertising was mainly characterized by the use of paper. Every bus stop and billboard had a paper advertisement inside. The reason for this was simple paper was easy to use and extremely cheap. It had some draw backs as  well. Before an image is actually on the street, it first has to be printed, pasted and placed. The journey from design to placement is quite long. Another disadvantages is the considerable amount waste generated by the use of paper. Finally, many people ignore a paper advertisement and there attention is drawn to the vibrant environment around them and not  to a still image.

          The extent of development in information dissemination has made it possible that the well known method of displaying information using sign posts, notice boards, etc has to be modified by using electronic digital display system. In today’s rapidly advancing technology market, most conventional digital display system are not being implemented using individual logic gates and integrated circuits (ICs) such have been used in the past instead, programmable devices such as microprocessor and microcontroller chips which contain the circuitry necessary to create logic functions are being used to implement digital systems. The use of 555 timer as a stable multivibrator and decade counter (CD4017) can be used to build less expensive electronic display system. The use of these two major ICs will bring about less board space, less power consumptions and overall, low cost in manufacturing.

          This project however; emphasizes mainly on the display of information using two major integrated circuits (ICs) namely NE555 timer (ICI) and CD4017 (IC2) to control the lighting of LEDs. This message display circuit is built around readily available, low cost components. It is easy to fabricate. A total of 250 LEDs will be used to display the message “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”

1.2     Statement of the Problem

          Due to limitation of the sign board or local sign board which could not display clearly at night expect light shines on it, it is then necessary that electronic display system is employed to counter the limits of the local sign board. The information displayed on the local sign board is less attractive compared to the information displayed using electronic digital display system.

          Thus, researchers are prompted to tirelessly hold up to these challenges by initiating some means of improving the above among which is the design and construction of an electronic digital display system.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

          The main objective of this study is to design and construct an electronic digital display system. Specifically this study will achieve the following:

i        To display “Great Nigerian students”

ii       To use the electronic digital display system constructed as a sign post for federal polytechnic, Oko.

iii      To have more knowledge on what electronic digital display system is all about.

v       To know the benefits of electronic digital display system.

v       To design and realize the moving message display panel.

1.4     Significance of the Study

In all field of human endeavour, electronic digital display system plays very vital role, such as means of advertisement, means of communication, presentations, exhibitions, identification and direction. It is also used in giving warning or safety instructions, such as warning signs, traffic signs, exit signs or signs conveying rules and regulations. This project write-up will be a guide to future designing in a related work.

1.5     Scope of the Study

This project covers the use of peripheral solid state electronic components alongside with two major integrated circuits (ICs) namely NESSS timer and CD4017 decade counter to solve above stated problems. It is limited to display GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS

1.6     Research Questions

PROJECT TOPIC- DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELETRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM (MOVING MESSAGE DISPLAY)

PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

PROJECT TOPIC- PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

This study is geared towards exploring the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modern / new communication technologies in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Modern technology has developed our society today through its beneficial impacts in transmission of information which enhances societal developmental change both cultural and moral values which Awka South is equally among. Traditional mode of communication through research shall be viewed as a major instrument that imbibed modern trend in communication. In other to show case its aid in community development through information dissemination and management, the traditional mode has greater in information dissemination in ensuring effective transmission of cultural values of Awka South into modern communication. The finding of the study are that various traditional modes of communication in town which are very important since they tend to unify modern communication with that of traditional mode. The method adopted in this research is random sample; systematic sampling was used to enable the three villages under case study to select at least 250 people needed for this research work.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction

 In this examination of communication and society, it is necessary to have an idea of what the two basic terms means by way of definition and explanation. Communication has been defined by the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of current English as the process of imparting thought, knowledge or intelligence verbal or written form from a source to a receiver. Edward Sapir also recognized “communication as a fundamental social process”.

Another definition of communication is that communication is the passing on or transmission of message with the use of language to heterogeneous audience. From the above definitions, it is seen that the two concepts have something in common; that holds them is the relationship that exist between them. Communication generally is a fundamental social process which essentially has to do with any discipline or activity that is concerned with human society and behavior.

Therefore, it has been identified as “the basis of human existence, for it is at the heat of all society intercourse. In our day-to-day life, we interact with one another by way of communication. This society cannot exist without communication for it is the only mechanism through which human interaction exists.

Living generally also depend on communication for even our body system cannot function without communication with one another through contact.

Communication also takes place when an individual talks to a follow individual, when an idea is made known to a group and when a concept is disclosed.

There is also a need for communication among human groups, as this is the Chief factor for creation of unity and continuity for the society and the vehicle for the conveyance of the culture. But it does not suffice to say that communication itself can be meaningful and effective without its association with other thing and other processes.

This is because, communication does not exist on its own in a vacuum, rather it exist in the society and function among persons.

It emanates from members of the society and assumes a social network. Going form one person to another and linking itself to means of its transmission through a channel, which is the mass media. This leads to a chain of process. Thus “through communication which exist between two persons or one person as the source to a group of person, ideas, needs information is conveyed through the channel. This message is decoded at the society who is the audience. By way of this life in the communication process, the channels of communication contributes tremendously to the propagation of information and the continued existence of the society.

It is pertinent to point out at this juncture, that every communication or message has its targeted audience to whom it is directed to. And when such a message gets to the audience an aim has been achieved. Also, when the audience is able to decode the encoded message as the effect compliance, another aim which is the ultimate aim is equally achieved in the face of these, what then is the essence of communication.

The aim of communication is to create awareness, education or enlightenment and through such awareness created, to elicit response, compliance, a change of attitude in respect or re-enforce them.

PROJECT TOPIC- PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Traditional Communication in Igbo Land

Before the white man came in Igbo land, the oral communication was the system of interaction in the area. The town crier performed a very important function by collecting and spreading very important information among his people, he served as an intermediary between the heads of the people and report their feelings to them.

Most of the time, the town criers had to embellish whatever message they had for the villages with riddles, idioms and proverbs or may even code the message in order to drive home the news in the light of this, the town carier were and are very popular among the village-folks, who are always ready to listen to them so as to be abreast with current news and events even today. In spite of the numerous electronic, broadcast stations with their educative and informative program, most villages still enjoy the functions of the tradition town carriers which are often more effective.

The main instrument of communication used by the town caries in Igbo land is the gong and flute. In addition to this there are other instruments used in non-herbal communication in Igbo land. Among these are the metallic and wooden instruments, signs and symbols. Wooden gong (Ekwe) metallic gong and xylophone (ngelegwu) etc are metallic and wooden instrument used for communication while the palm fruit at its tender stage (omu) is also an instrument of communication.

The notes from this communication instrument signs and symbols are interpreted very well by the people, to whom they are directed. The sounding of the wooden gong (ekwe) and the valorous gong (ikoro) in the night normally depicts dangers in Ngwo. This could be that, thieves or armed robbers are around and they are used to keep everybody at alert.

Much importance is attached by the village folk to non-verbal means of communication. Achebe attested this in “Things fall Apart”, when he wrote that …Umohia was still swallowed up in sleep and silence when the Ekwe began to talk, men stirred on their bamboo beds and listen anxiously.

Equally writing on the important characteristics the place of traditional mode of communication, Ugboajah (1979) pointed that “communication in traditional Nigeria communicates is mainly a matter of human inter.-relationship so to accept action will effect established relationship that is what said is as important as who said it. He referred to traditional mode of communication as “traditional Media” it is however to juxtapose the mode in terms of their effectiveness.

 There is no gain saying that fact that the various mass media get to their targeted audience spontaneously within a twinkle of an eye, reading wider spectrum of human being of heterogeneous background and in a very sizeable number. This ability of mass media to but across ethnic geographic and social background is really the strength of the mass media over the traditional mode of communication.

 In other words, the traditional mode of communication is delimited in its scope of coverage as capable of reaching a wider size of the population at a time unlike the media which blast everything open to all sundry spontaneously. This delimitation also affected the traditional mates in the scene that it cannot be used to heterogeneous audience, consisting of various geographical ethics, social political and lingual backgrounds.

 Despite the afore-stated differences, the traditional mode of communication could be ranked the same with the mass media in terms of its places to bring about desired results expected from the audience. In fact, in some cases where the mass media fail as a result of some inherent barriers, the traditional mode of communication is applied and the expected result is obtained. It is therefore logical to assert the traditional mode despite it shortcomings as mentioned above, are very effective as a means of communication.

This assertion finds support in the facts of the ultimate in communication is the creation of awareness, to reinforce erode existing response (which the traditional mode do) they are therefore very effective on the other hand, if the traditional mode can be effective, where the mass media fails it follow that the traditional mode of communication are complementing or supplementing to mass media effective role.

 However viewed from another perspective, the most communication that made use of the traditional mode are never intended to be so wide or limited in it scope, its targeted audience. By their nature, traditional modes are often used within and about confined geographical location like a town or district. It therefore follows that message come through traditional mode of communication are intentionally traditional mode to be two persuasive and wide in scope, it became improper to fault it own that score or carry a comparative analysis on it in the same premises of coverage with mass media.

1.2     Background of the Study

In any given society that is developed, there must be a mode of communication in which they interact with each other example internet service, mobile phone, radio, television, email etc.

          The traditional mode of communication in Awka South play a positive role in communication they are:

          The town carriers and other signs and symbols, town carriers performs a very important function by collecting and spreading information among his people.

          He serves as an intermediary between the heads of the communities and the villagers. This is because he conveyed the message of the community’s head to the people and reported their feeling to them. The main instrument of communication used by the town carrier in Awka South is the gong and flute.

          Other signs and symbols are wooden gong, metallic gong, xylophone are metallic and wooden instruments of communication while the palm frond at its tender stage is also an instrument of communication.

          The sounding of wooden gong and the various gong in the night normally depicts danger.

1.3     Statement of the Problem

          The issue that inspired or motivated the researcher to carry out this study is to understand the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modem / new communication technology in Awka South.

          To know the benefits of communication also the traditional modes of communication in Awka South.

          The second issue of the problem is to know whether modern communication has been able to influence the people of Awka South than traditional mode of communication. To also know if the people of Awka South prefer traditional mode of communication to modern communication.

1.4     Research Objectives

Generally, this research work is focused on traditional mode of communication and its aimed at examining its place in modern communication era at Awka South. This work intends to find out the followings.

  1. The relevance of traditional mode of communication.
  2. To find out whether Awka South people still make use of this traditional mode of communication.
  3. To find out if the people of Awka South are abreast with modern communication technology.
  4. To find out the extent at which the traditional modern of communication has effectively help in mobilizing the people into action.

1.5     Research Questions

  1. Is there any relevance of traditional mode of communication?
  2. Do people of Awka South still make use of this traditional mode of communication?
  3. Are people of Awka South abreast with modern communication technology?
  4. Is the traditional mode of communication effective in mobilizing the people?

1.6     Significance of the Study

The study has the following significance

  1. The traditional mode of communication help to transform the people’s way of life that is their custom and culture this extends to non-Awka South people.
  2. To enlighten the people of Awka South to know the benefits of traditional mode of communication.
  3. To promote and elevate the traditional mode of communication as well as its relevance to people residing in rural communities like Nibo.

1.7     Scope of Study

The scope of this study is delimitated to the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modern / new communication technology in Awka South

1.8     Limitations of the Study

Throughout the research of this study the author encountered many difficulties in other to make this research a credible one.

Also, time factor was another challenges but be it as it may, the researcher took time to go into many places in the community to get the real fact in other to make this study a credible one as well.

 In line was financial constraints this occurred during the time of gathering information for this project, also, it extended to the typing printing and binding but by God’s grace all these challenges were surmounted and the work was successfully produced to  the best.

Operational Definition of Terms

The under listed assertion signifies the general ideas on experimentation of this study general ideas on experimentation of the study.

  1. Traditional: The native belief and way of doing things according to ancestors.
  2. Mode: The process through which information is conveyed
  3. communication: The interactive transmission of a message from the source to the targeted audience.

4        Culture: The general belief or moral principle and laws of a native area.

5        Traditional Mode of Communication:– These various channel through which native or Africa institution or way of life is being transmitted.

6        Modern / New Communication Technologies: The new medium through which information is disseminated in a easier and faster channel.

PROJECT TOPIC- PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMIC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EZZA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 

Abstract

The study sought to ascertain the problems associated with the use of Information Communication Technology on the teaching and learning of economics education in Ezza North Local Government Area. The population of the study comprised 352 respondents and a sample of 135 respondents was used for the study. The study adopted survey method and three four questions were formulated to guide the study. A four point likert structured questionnaire was used to collect data, while Mean and standard deviation were used in the data analysis. The result of the findings showed that the perception of teachers towards technology and teachers’ preparedness to integrate ICT into teaching affects the use of ICT in teaching and learning of economics. Also, the study revealed that inadequate electricity supply hinders the use of ICT software in teaching and learning economics and affects the utilization of e-library. It equally showed that ICT inclusion in teaching and learning of economics encourages individualized learning and makes learning process more concrete. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made among others; that ICT facilities such as laptops/personal computers should be made compulsory criteria for entry into Nigeria schools, especially in tertiary institutions, In-service courses, seminar, and workshops should be organized at least annually, to up-grade the knowledge, skills and competencies of economics teachers in secondary school and institutions of higher learning especially in Ezza North L.G.A and Government and school administrators should make adequate provision of functional ICT teaching and learning resources in secondary school and institutions of higher learning especially in Ezza North LGA and Ebonyi State University.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Information communication technology (ICT) has no doubt changed the face of teaching and learning globally. Serious nations are taking the advantages inherent in ICT to impact on the educational sector. Though Nigeria is also making efforts to join the ICT fray, these efforts appear to be ineffective. Computer laboratories are largely non-existent in many public schools across the country. And where they exist, they are nothing to cheer. Due to this general neglect and other factors, comprising corruption, outdated curriculum, ill-motivated teachers, materialism and academic laziness on the part of students and Teachers, the nation has been experiencing mass failure in her public examinations (Torruam and Abur, 2013). In addition, there is universal recognition of the need to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education as we enter the era of globalization where the free flow of information via satellite and the internet hold sway in global information dissemination of knowledge (Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Iyamu, 2005).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a vital role in the development of any nation. It has been an instrument for achieving social, economic, educational, scientific and technological development (Adedeji, 2010; Fabunmi, 2012). ICT is an electronic based system of information transmission, reception, processing and retrieval, which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live (Torruam and Abur, 2013).

It has been discovered in recent years that ICT is being canvassed by several people as being effective in improving teaching and learning. In the present information age, the issue of students’ use of ICT is of crucial importance. This is so because the use of ICT by students would enhance competence and confidence in them (Fabunmi, 2012). ICT has greatly influenced the educational sector especially on teaching, learning and research. The application of Information Communication Technology (ICT) is not only emphasized in corporative business and the industrial sector, but it is an essential part of education at all levels (Allen, 2011; Fabunmi, 2012). ICT, including computers, is generally believed to foster cooperative learning, provide more information and, through simulation, make complex learning experiences easier to understand (Fabunmi, 2012).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) encompasses the effective use of equipment and programs to access, retrieve, convert, store, organize, manipulate and present data and information (Gay and Blads, 2005; Fabunmi, 2012). E-learning, which is described as the use of ICT to enhance or support learning and teaching in education, has become increasingly important in tertiary education (Adedeji, 2010; Fabunmi, 2012). Students who use ICTs gain deeper understanding of complex topics and concepts and are more likely to recall information and use it to solve problems outside the classroom (Apple Computer, 2002; Torruam and Abur, 2013). In addition, through ICT, students extend and deepentheirknowledge, investigation, and inquiry according to their needs and interest when access to information is available on multiple levels (CEO Forum on Education and Technology, 2001; Torruam and Abur, 2013).

In every country, economics studies is an important part of education because it enables students to understand their roles in their economic system, as consumers, citizens and future employees or employers, it also prepares and encourages students to be prudent and effective in the management of scarce resources and enable them to acquire knowledge for the practical solution of the economic problems of the society (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011). Economics as a subject has its technicality and requires students to understand some of these. In addition to this, many of the concepts of Economics are presented in mathematical context and require a good command of algebra, which is a branch of mathematics that is concerned with operations on sets of numbers or other elements that are often represented by symbols. To this end, many students have phobia for figures which affect their learning outcome in Economics (Afe, 2001).

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMIC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EZZA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

Furthermore, information and communication technology resources are educational inputs and are of vital importance to the teaching of economics and other subjects in the school curriculum (Allen, 2011). The uses of ICT an instructional resource make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students and enhance the learning outcome of students. It should be noted here that in teaching subjects like economics, a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids in taught lessons should do much to prevent apathy, and supplements the inadequacy of books as well as arouse students’ interest by giving them something practical that help them to see and do, and at the same time be able to think rationally.

CEO Forum on Education and Technology (2001) ICT-driven instructional facilities that aides to facilitate teaching and learning of subjects like economics is not always the issue but how to use it and it availability to use. A lot of problems are confronting the use of ICT-driven instructional aids in Nigerian secondary schools some of the revealing in the foregoing includes: teachers’ professional knowledge and technical know-how, lack of computers, lack of stable electricity supply, computers are still expensive in Nigeria, broken down computers, burglary, lack of internet or slow connectivity, increased moral degradation, environmental factors, time constraints and poor maintenance culture (Torruam and Abur, 2013).

Statement of the Problem

Abstract learning has often posed much difficulty to learners. Information and communication technology (ICT) is a platform for any nation’s growth and development in a rapidly changing and competitive environment. However, education in Nigeria cannot be relevant without effective preparation of new generation students to effectively use the new information and communication technologies in their professional lives. There is also a universal recognition of the need to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education as globalization sweeps across the globe where the free flow of information through satellite and the internet hold sway in global information dissemination of knowledge.

Today, despite efforts of government and private sectors in the education system, a lot of problems are still confronting the use of ICT-driven instructional aids in Nigerian schools. Most of these problems includes: teachers’ professional knowledge and technical know-how, high cost of ICT instructional facilities in Nigeria, poor electricity supply, poor access to internet among others. It is upon these backdrops that this study sought to determine the problems associated with the use of information and communication technology on the teaching and learning of economics education in secondary schools in Ezza-North Local Government Areas of Ebonyi State.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to determine the problems associated with the use of information and communication technology on the teaching and learning of economic education in secondary schools in Ezza-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Ascertain if teachers’ knowledge affects the use of ICT in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A. of Ebonyi State.
  2. Ascertain if electricity supply affects the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A of Ebonyi State.
  • Determine if school management affect the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A of Ebonyi State.
  1. Determine the impact of ICT facilities use in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A of Ebonyi State

Research Questions

        The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. How does teachers knowledge affects the use of ICT in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A. of Ebonyi State?
  2. How does electricity supply affects the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A of Ebonyi State?
  • How does school management affect the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A of Ebonyi State?
  1. What are the impact of ICT facilities use in teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools in Ezza-North L.G.A of Ebonyi State?

Significance of the Study

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ECONOMIC EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EZZA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 

IMPACT OF ICT ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ICT ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE

Abstract

The impact of ICT is to convey, manipulate and store information; the population is 220, and sample size 142. The findings are based on greatly influenced social, political and economic processes in Anambra State and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsible to the technological changes in the organizations.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study

Before now, the people of old (our fore fathers) used their fingers, toes to count or keep record. Pebbles or stones were used after counting, the stones were kept as a reminder of the number of yams remaining in the barn. Sticks were also used to shape and keep record by the people of old like noting the number of sheep and goats in the compound. Some important documents were kept in the local boxes holes were dugged in the ground where money is being saved.

The early method of counting, distributing information, communicating and keeping records could not solve some disturbing problems of counting and record keeping. So man still went into discoveries as to have better and fast means of counting, storing messages and distributing information and some other of his undertaking as a result, a lot of discovery and invention of modern machines like computer, telephone, calculator, word processor, electric typewriter, photocopy machines etc.

The above mentioned machines/equipment cannot function on its own without somebody operating it or them. Dynamic is the best way to describe today’s office environment that undergoes rapid changes can be seen in office structures and in office positioning from entry level to executive manager’s level. Attentions is now given to what the office does and the way in which office activities previously taken for granted can be accomplished.

Aronu (2002) defines information communication technology as the combination of two technologies, computing and the main purpose of which is to transmit representation of information signals between remote locations. The introduction of information and communication technology into the organizations the changes cut across all aspects of works and the office professional as a whole.

Information communication technology has replaced the traditional equipment used by office management which are now considered obsolete and office activities and functions are today being undertaken by electronic and computer based technology leading to office automation and a paperless office. Collins (2005) defined Information Communication Technology (ICT) as an application of practical science to industry, commerce, technical method, skills and knowledge.

This clearly brings about the advantages of inter-connectivity system used in acquiring, storing manipulating, controlling displaying, transmitting and receiving of information through the internet facilities by means of telephone connected to a computer Montgomeries (2004) defined Information Communication Technology as the handling of pictorial, vocal and numerical information based in a combination of computing and telecommunication.

Today’s modern business world has been reshaped and connected to a global system of communication that ensures speedy information and business transaction in an organization. Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studies academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology (The branch of psychology that deals with sources management), also forms a part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success.

John Campbell (2005) described job performance as an individual level variable, or something a single person does. This differentiates it from more encompassing constructs such as organizational performance or national performance, which are higher level.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ICT ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE

  • Statement of the Problem

The emerging growth of information communication technology and drastic change in office technology operations is posting serious changes to office managers. Golfberg (2005) opined that changes will continue to occur in office technology as well as in the structure of the office to accommodate people and machines to information needs, concern associated with changes should be anticipated job due to information communication and the fear of complex equipment such as video conferencing, facsimile transfer and so on, being introduce into the system has created fear and instability in the office manager.

  • Purpose of the Study

The major purpose of this study is to determine the impacts of information communication technology on the job performance of workers in tertiary institution in Anambra State.

Specific objectives are as follows;

  • To determine the extent to which computer application influences organizational effectiveness.
  • To ascertain the extent to which IT influences organizational value.
  • To determine the extent to which internet connection influences organization efficiency?
  • To evaluate the extent to which application of modern technology influences workers productivity.
    • Research Questions

The researcher asked the following questions to act as a guide in the study;

  • To what extent does computer application influences organizational effectiveness.
  • To what extent does IT influence organizational value.
  • To what extent does internet connection influences organizational efficiency.
  • To what degree doe applications of modern technology influence works productivity?
    • Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to organizations, office practitioners and students. It can also be used for further research.

  • Organization: The study will help treat and improve some existing theories on information as they apply to organizations as well as the office professionals in the areas of human resources management.
  • Further Research: It is also hoped that the findings of this study will contribute to the existing knowledge and information in the area of research.
  • Office practitioners: The significance of this research work is immeasurable both to the practitioner, office professionals, chief executives, personnel managers, the management of the organizations and the public at large. It is expected that the following findings and recommendations of the study will guide the area of study to consider introducing information communication for their office professional efficiency and other human resources departments for effective administration of personnel matters.
  • Student: The study will be useful to student who may wish to write or make some research on a similar topic using this as a point of reference and to re-orient them towards their profession, future research or practical endeavours.
    • Scope of the Study

The study covers ICT as the main key to organizational growth. IT covers the job performers of office workers and it focus on improving work force of an organizations and situations in Anambra State.

The area’s covered are five institutions, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Nnamdi Azikwe University Awka, Anambra State University Uli, College of Education Umunze and College of Education Nsugbe.

The research will first identify the importance of ICT and educate its impact in an organization

  • Definitions of terms

ICT: Is Information communication Technology were can we source information through ICT and Communicate effectively.

Information: Is a data that has been processed and can be used per decision making.

Technology: The purposeful application of information in the design production and utilization of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities.

Impact: Means a noticeable effect or influence

Equipment: Tools or machinery used for specific purposes.

Offices: Can be a place where information are on paper coverage and information is a documented, preserved and used for current and future operations or business.

Worker: A worker is someone who has the experience or trained to work in an organization on either to operate the machines or the available equipments like computer operator, or word processor. She is an alter Ego of the Boss”.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ICT ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS IN SELECTED TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE