PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF TRADITION ON WOMEN EDUCATION IN IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

This research work is about the effect of tradition on women education in Imo State and Owerri West as the case study. The researcher made use of political cultural theory which posits that the pattern of political orientation existing in any society determines its population to stick towards the political system. Thus, the traditional orientation and belief inherent in Owerri West. Likely, the research work as its methodology made use of questionnaire, interview and available document relating to the phenomena under study. Efforts were made to highlight the effort and extent of women education in Owerri West Local Government. These socio-cultural factors include: the traditional marriage practice, the boys and girls, various dictionary, various anti-feminine prejudices inherent in our culture to mention just a few. It was recommended among others that, all government at all level should encourage women education and empowerment as this will allow them to have access to formal education and skill acquisition.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Education as a concept may be defined as a process through which an individual is admitted into society by being taught what is worth in order that the individual might play his/her part well in that society.

According to Fafunwa (2003), a former minister of education; education is seen as comprising all conscious effort and directs incidental and indirectly made by a given society to accomplish certain objectives that are considered desirable in terms of the individuals needs as well as the needs of the society in which the programme is based.

Education serves as a basic human need and societal survival. Just as human needs nutritious food for survival, good health, growth and development, so does the mind need appropriate and balanced education for growth and development.

Within the limit of available resources and the demands of other competing social and economic ends, education at least, to a certain level should constitute an uncompromising right of every human being irrespective of sex in any society which aspire for peaceful, stable economic growth and development.

This is because only when individual member of any society have access to the right type of intellectual and occupational development, usually acquire through the process of education and training that they can most effectively face the challenges of life in society.

It is also these well educated and trained individuals, male and female, who in the process of ensuring their personal survival, growth and development, also ensure the survival, growth and development and prosperity of the society in which they live.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

For the past 30 years, the discrimination of women in education has resulted to their low level of education. It has been a barrier to the development of the country and state in precise.

Inspite of all attempts made by government to encourage women education, such efforts have not been fruitful due to poor orientation of parents towards women education which has continued to discourage women access to formal education and skill acquisition.

The effects of the discrimination has increased due to the fact that some men in Imo State are been considered pivotal in being given the desired opportunities to formal education and to participate fully in development activities.

Besides, this has led to poor economic planning, unstable political environment as women are not allowed to formal education due to this orientation.

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. Does tradition affect the level of education of women?
  2. Does women education contribute to social and economic development?
  3. Does women education contribute to up-bringing and training of children who are future leaders of the nation?
  4. Does illiterate women complain actually on the literate ones?
  5. Does parents attitude affect women education?
  6. Does education contribute to the development of human being?
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

      PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF TRADITION ON WOMEN EDUCATION IN IMO STATE

Hypothesis I

H0:    Traditional practices in Owerri is not responsible for low women education.

H1:    Traditional practices in Owerri is responsible for low women education.

Hypothesis II

H0:    Education should not be free without gender discrimination.

H1:    Education should be free without gender discrimination.

 

Hypothesis III

H0:    Women education do not contribute to social and economic development.

H1:    Women education contributes to social and economic development.

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
  1. To examine the various ways through which tradition affect women education.
  2. To consider productive steps to prevent low women education.
  • To examine the factors that are responsible for low women education.
  1. In the light of the above to make necessary recommendations.
    • SCOPE OF STUDY

The study focus on the effect of tradition on women education in Imo State, as it concerns Owerri West Local Government.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will contribute immensely to the solving of education problem.

The local and State government will be able to apply the outcome of the research.

The people of Owerri West in Imo State will find this research work beneficial, women of the local government and state would also benefit from the research.

Parents will also benefit from this research because it will change their orientation towards women. These recommendations should be applied in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the study especially in the area of education. It will also be a relevant material for further research by other researchers.

  • LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The limitations of the study are as follows:

  1. Uncooperative attitude of some individual, some of those who were asked to complete the questionnaires defiled. This affect the amount of information available for the study.
  2. Time constraint in the study was carried out a time, other academic work placed demand on the researcher.
    • OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
  3. Tradition: This is synonymous with culture, it has to do with the total ways of life of people. A tradition is a belief or behaviour passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
  4. Education: This is the process of acquiring knowledge of some basic facts of life. Others sees it as a means of which one generation transmits to the succeeding generation of those of its own cherished believes to be essential for the society’s positive development.
  5. Owerri West Local Government: This is the case study of the research work. It is the place where the research work revolved on. It is located in Imo State and covers an area of 295km2 and a population of 99,265, and 16 communities.
  6. Discrimination: It is treating someone differently simply because of who they are or what they believe.
  7. Skill Acquisition: Skill acquisition refers to the process that athletes use to learn or acquire a new skill.
  8. Society: It is an organized group of persons associated together for religious, cultural and political purpose living as members of a community.
  9. Growth: Growth refers to a positive change in size, often over a period of time.
  10. Gender: It is the state of being a male or female.

    PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF TRADITION ON WOMEN EDUCATION IN IMO STATE

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A STATUTORY AUDITOR IN FRAUD MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT

 

Abstract

This research work is designed to achieve the specific objective of examining the role played by Auditors in the protection of public funds in the government owned establishments, ministries or government parastatals. The research goes into providing a systematic financial accountability that will promote proper stewardship for asset, deter wastes, dishonesty and promote effectiveness. However, the literature review helped to ascertain other writers’ views concerning the subject under study which explains how government owned establishments are organized such that fraud could be detected easily and in time just because particular audits are assigned to particular personnel. The data used for this work was collected from primary source, using questionnaire. Against the background, invaluable and reliable discoveries were made. Finally the research recommends that the legislative of government should make it mandatory for the accountant general to submit financial statement of government account to audit department for audit work. Auditors should be given power to execute or enforce its finding after its work has been review by the public account committee.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

There is a general awareness all over the world for the need to pay greater attention to the improvement of government establishment. The reason is obvious, government constitutes the largest single business entity and her pattern of expenditure through its various parastatals, agencies and commission stimulate lot of economic activities. As a result of these government huge involvement in economic activities, initiatives are being taken all over the world toward improvement of the standard of account and auditing department in government. The public sector accounting has the responsibility of developing systematic arrangement to assist management in the performance of the services of the constitution. While the public sector auditor has among other duties, the complementary role to examine whether management actually performed efficiently.

The public sector auditor has to satisfy himself that the account presented have been prepared in accordance with statutory and constitutional requirement and regulation and that the proper accounting practice have been observed in their complication with the growing sized and complexity of public sector in the recent years. The importance of the statutory auditor has correspondingly increase so that it is today a major factor in establishing the quality of public sector internal control and its development has made a considerable contribution to the improvement of the government establishment.

The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a statutory auditor in fraud management in government establishment using Federal Pay Office Benin City as my case study.

 

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A STATUTORY AUDITOR IN FRAUD MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT

 

Statement of Problem

Most organization and individual employ the service of an external auditor in order to comply with the legal requirement of the act. They may be unaware of the usefulness of the auditor to the organization and as a result of the ignorance, the auditor is bound to encounter some inherent problem in performing his duties properly. To put an end to the problem, the auditor on his own extra care, from an independent opinions which can be wholly relied upon by the financial statement users.

Therefore as regard the corporation under the study, the examination of the following problems are considered worthwhile and thus deserve an adequate attention. 

  • Lack of understanding of the purpose of auditing among the society in general.
  • Lack of a well defined goal oriented policies aimed at building up a strong and sound financial system.

Inability for the government owned establishment to maintain a sound system of internal control

 

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A STATUTORY AUDITOR IN FRAUD MANAGEMENT IN GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENT

THE EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING DECISION

 

ABSTRACT

The project examines the effect of packaging on consumer buying behaviour with reference to Unilever Company. The study main objective is to know the impact of product packaging on consumer buying decision and also to know whether consumer rely on product packaging in necessary information concerning the use of the product. The primary source of data collection was used in gathering data from respondents. A structure questionnaire was designed by the researcher and validity by two experts from the statistics department was used to obtain data Chi-Square (X2) was used to test hypotheses formulated. It was discovered that package can attract with simple readable message about the product. The study concludes that cost of production has been as problem in production but, packaging without a quality, proper pricing, appropriate advertising and sound marketing plan is of little value. And recommends amongst others that they should be locked at as profit building of sales innovation rather than a cost cutting tool. In this sense, producer of omo should manage it and improve on their package design and package materials for the products.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The importance of packaging goods in product marketing has made it indispensable despite the high cost. A package keep a product intact to final consumer package is very important even for perishable goods such as tomatoes. The importance of packaging can not be over emphasized, especially when one consider the severed function it performs in consumer attraction and satisfactions. The detergent industries represent a typical example of an important in the purchase decision. The package can be designed in such a way to attract attention in the shelves of supermarkets or stores.

            Excellently designed packages are directly translated into difference in sales appeal. The study will examine the effect of packaging on consumer buying decision.

THE EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING DECISION

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

            Packaging is a very important element in marketing the product especially in the detergent industry.The strategic importance of packaging has been in area of improving the product performance. Despite the indispensable value of packaging. The research is faced with the problem of knowing why money products are sold unpacked or poorly packed in our markets

 

THE EFFECT OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING DECISION

 

THE EFFECT OF INSURGENCY ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated effects of insurgency on universal basic education in Borno state and other states in Nigeria. Basic education is the first level of education for children at primary 1 level to basic 9 which is the Junior Secondary School level in Nigeria. However, achieving education for all Nigeria children, Borno state need a secured teaching and learning environment. The study examined the effects of insurgence activities such as abduction of pupils and attacks on teachers in basic schools of Borno State.

The sample for the study was 270 teachers of basic schools selected on the basis of 10 teachers from each of the 27 local government areas that constituted Borno State. The instrument for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire title: Effect of insurgency on Basic Education Questionnaire. Two research questions were formulated, data collection were converted to mean, standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. It was therefore recommended that the Nigeria government should provide free and compulsory education to all Borno State internally displaced children through provision of scholarship from basic school level to university, the government should show higher commitment to ensuring security in the states and schools.  

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The nation Nigeria has witnessed brutal confrontation and massive assault from terrorist group which is undoubtedly the most blood-thirsty and destructive, both in terms of brutality mindless of the savagery and flagrant disobedience to the principles of peace and stability. Nigeria has witnessed insurgency from this terrorist group called Boko-Haram from 2009. They have unleashed terror and fear in the minds of every Nigerian. There is massive destruction of government’s properties, burning of schools, bombing/burning of churches, mosques and other public places.

Historically, Borno State, which was founded in 1971 initially comprised the present Borno State and Yobe State. Prior to the advent of insurgency, has been relatively peaceful, multicultural and dynamic state in Nigeria. The state is fortunate to have human and natural resources which has created many opportunities for its indigenes and other Nigerians to live in harmony. Borno State started experiencing the global trend of insurgency from 2009 (Adamu, 2014). Which led to the gruesome killings of innocent Nigerian citizens perpetrated by an insurgent group called Boko Haram (Adamu, 2014). Since 2009, they have disrupted educational system in Borno State with huge negative effects on basic education. The insurgent group dislikes children attending schools and also commit criminal offences ranging from kidnapping of school pupils and attacking teachers in schools (Adeyemi, 2014). There is major destruction of schools activities in the state. In the recent past, they used under aged girls to carry out suicide bombing of major shopping malls, cinema halls and bus terminals. Moreso, abduction of school children and the elderly were also common in their recent styles of mindless attacks.

 

THE EFFECT OF INSURGENCY ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Empathically, many basic schools in Borno State and other northern states had experienced several attacks from the insurgent group. Some basic schools especially in Baga towns in northern part of Borno State have been closed down for two (2) years (BSMOE, 2015). The problem could be traced down to when the Boko Haram group used religion to set up rules in the community unnoticed, advanced it with violence to the state level and metamorphous into an insurgent group and disturbed the peace of the state.

Moreso, basic education in Borno state have been experiencing serious problem prior to the insurgence, there were shortage of classes for teaching and learning, shortage of instructional materials and teachers (NUT, 2007). This has indicated that basic school is underfunded by the state government, lack of payment of teachers’ salary which led to frequent strike by basic school teaches are also a concern to many families (NUT, 2008). Moreover, while the state is struggling to overcome the existing problems, insurgent came in as a bigger challenge to the state, which now posed as a threat to many parents and children of school age in Borno State.(nta 2015)

 

THE EFFECT OF INSURGENCY ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES

 

ABSTRACT

This project work looked at the influence of leadership on the attainment of organizational objective it is the content of this research that leadership plays prominent role in the organization effort to achieve its goal. The data for their   research work was collected through primary and secondary source. Thus the information for this work is obtained from questionnaires textbooks and internet some of the finding of the study are that leadership is essential in the attainment of organizational goal, the leaders direct the activities of the subordinate towards the achievement of organization goal. The leaderembark on different styles in leading subordinate depending on the leaders and the situation on the leadership process in organization. Base on pining of this study, such recommendation which spell out the functions of the leaders sent on training in human and group dynamic are made. 

 

CHAPTER ONE:

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Successful organization   differs from the inefficient organization in many ways. One of the differences is the pattern of leadership.In most case, successful organizations are characterized by dynamic practice and effective leadership. While the unsuccessful organization are characterized by relative and ineffective leadership. Recognition of this is one of the crucial impart underlying the vest amount of working and research on leadership.

Leadership is the process of inducing people to desire objective could be organization objective the subordinate objective or the objective of the leader.Leadership most take place within the context of a group leading, most leader recognize is of controlling, planning, organizing nature of the modern business environment, leadership is important because success of leadership adopted by various organization is leading their subordinate towards the realization of organizational objective. This is the true because workers relationship and satisfaction with their leadership style can affect their performance in the organization.

It is in view of this, that this research work top to look at the influence of leadership on attaining organizational objective.    

INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Works in an organization have some needs to satisfy, and the way the needs are being satisfy in organization can affect performance. Leadership of some organization is sometimes ignorant to certain things that induce workers to perform in order to attain the objective of the organization.The leadership style adopted by leaders can greatly affect the performance of workers, especially if such leadership style helps the subordinate in achieving their objective in the organization. Thus when leadership influences the subordinate by meeting his needs, it will have impact on attainment of organization objectives.

The influence of leadership on attaining organizational objectives, using feeds and flour mills, Dangote as a case study, however in the course of the study, we shall look at what is meant by leadership style, whether workers of Dangote plc are satisfied with the leadership style of the superiors, the nature of relationship between workers and leaders or superiors of Dangote Plc does leadership style of superior geared towards meeting the needs of workers for performance

 

INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES