This research work is about the effect of tradition on women education in Imo State and Owerri West as the case study. The researcher made use of political cultural theory which posits that the pattern of political orientation existing in any society determines its population to stick towards the political system. Thus, the traditional orientation and belief inherent in Owerri West. Likely, the research work as its methodology made use of questionnaire, interview and available document relating to the phenomena under study. Efforts were made to highlight the effort and extent of women education in Owerri West Local Government. These socio-cultural factors include: the traditional marriage practice, the boys and girls, various dictionary, various anti-feminine prejudices inherent in our culture to mention just a few. It was recommended among others that, all government at all level should encourage women education and empowerment as this will allow them to have access to formal education and skill acquisition.





Education as a concept may be defined as a process through which an individual is admitted into society by being taught what is worth in order that the individual might play his/her part well in that society.

According to Fafunwa (2003), a former minister of education; education is seen as comprising all conscious effort and directs incidental and indirectly made by a given society to accomplish certain objectives that are considered desirable in terms of the individuals needs as well as the needs of the society in which the programme is based.

Education serves as a basic human need and societal survival. Just as human needs nutritious food for survival, good health, growth and development, so does the mind need appropriate and balanced education for growth and development.

Within the limit of available resources and the demands of other competing social and economic ends, education at least, to a certain level should constitute an uncompromising right of every human being irrespective of sex in any society which aspire for peaceful, stable economic growth and development.

This is because only when individual member of any society have access to the right type of intellectual and occupational development, usually acquire through the process of education and training that they can most effectively face the challenges of life in society.

It is also these well educated and trained individuals, male and female, who in the process of ensuring their personal survival, growth and development, also ensure the survival, growth and development and prosperity of the society in which they live.


For the past 30 years, the discrimination of women in education has resulted to their low level of education. It has been a barrier to the development of the country and state in precise.

Inspite of all attempts made by government to encourage women education, such efforts have not been fruitful due to poor orientation of parents towards women education which has continued to discourage women access to formal education and skill acquisition.

The effects of the discrimination has increased due to the fact that some men in Imo State are been considered pivotal in being given the desired opportunities to formal education and to participate fully in development activities.

Besides, this has led to poor economic planning, unstable political environment as women are not allowed to formal education due to this orientation.

  1. Does tradition affect the level of education of women?
  2. Does women education contribute to social and economic development?
  3. Does women education contribute to up-bringing and training of children who are future leaders of the nation?
  4. Does illiterate women complain actually on the literate ones?
  5. Does parents attitude affect women education?
  6. Does education contribute to the development of human being?


Hypothesis I

H0:    Traditional practices in Owerri is not responsible for low women education.

H1:    Traditional practices in Owerri is responsible for low women education.

Hypothesis II

H0:    Education should not be free without gender discrimination.

H1:    Education should be free without gender discrimination.


Hypothesis III

H0:    Women education do not contribute to social and economic development.

H1:    Women education contributes to social and economic development.

  1. To examine the various ways through which tradition affect women education.
  2. To consider productive steps to prevent low women education.
  • To examine the factors that are responsible for low women education.
  1. In the light of the above to make necessary recommendations.

The study focus on the effect of tradition on women education in Imo State, as it concerns Owerri West Local Government.


The study will contribute immensely to the solving of education problem.

The local and State government will be able to apply the outcome of the research.

The people of Owerri West in Imo State will find this research work beneficial, women of the local government and state would also benefit from the research.

Parents will also benefit from this research because it will change their orientation towards women. These recommendations should be applied in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the study especially in the area of education. It will also be a relevant material for further research by other researchers.


The limitations of the study are as follows:

  1. Uncooperative attitude of some individual, some of those who were asked to complete the questionnaires defiled. This affect the amount of information available for the study.
  2. Time constraint in the study was carried out a time, other academic work placed demand on the researcher.
  3. Tradition: This is synonymous with culture, it has to do with the total ways of life of people. A tradition is a belief or behaviour passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
  4. Education: This is the process of acquiring knowledge of some basic facts of life. Others sees it as a means of which one generation transmits to the succeeding generation of those of its own cherished believes to be essential for the society’s positive development.
  5. Owerri West Local Government: This is the case study of the research work. It is the place where the research work revolved on. It is located in Imo State and covers an area of 295km2 and a population of 99,265, and 16 communities.
  6. Discrimination: It is treating someone differently simply because of who they are or what they believe.
  7. Skill Acquisition: Skill acquisition refers to the process that athletes use to learn or acquire a new skill.
  8. Society: It is an organized group of persons associated together for religious, cultural and political purpose living as members of a community.
  9. Growth: Growth refers to a positive change in size, often over a period of time.
  10. Gender: It is the state of being a male or female.


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The  purpose of this research apart from it being an academic exercise is to critically examine “Effect Of Examination Misconduct On The Nigeria Education System” particular reference to Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi Edo State. It is aimed unveiling the native stage and cause of misconduct and its effect on student in an school the method adopted gives a summarized description of the number of techniques used in the course pf this study which involves source/types of data population of this study and conduct of field work. A complete survey was carried out in order to obtain genuine information about fraud and its control in a computerized accounting environment and the used of oral interview observation and questionnaire formed the response from the analysis carried out fraud is easier in a computerized system than in a manual  system therefore, strong control need to part in place to curb misconduct.        




  1. 1 Background to the Study

One of the objectives of education in Nigerian is to prepare the young  one to face challenges and /or develop them to meet the nation’s manpower requirements and one of the variables of economic growth as emphasized by new endogenous  growth theory. Schools need to conduct examination as yardstick for assessment.  It is the most practical way of assessment in education Maduka (1993) defined examination as a way to ascertain how much of a subject matter in a particular field of study the candidate has mastered. Hornby (1995) defined examination as a formal lest of somebody’s knowledge or ability in a particular subject, especially by means of answering question or practical exercises (P.58) Balogun (1999) also defined it as the process through which students are alienated of tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a special period. Examination could be internal or external; it could be oral, written or both.

Examination misconduct is any wrong doing before, during or after any examination. Although one may not be able to rule out examination misconduct in the past, the current trend is alarming and calls for proper management in order to ride the school system of its consequences. Whereas in the past, students tended to hide the acts, now they advertise them with positive blattemly.

Examination misconduct (EM) is now a common phenomenon in the educational system, and indeed the society. In fact, it can rightly be termed “the great monster” in the Nigerian educational system. EM has caught up with all stakeholders in the education of the Nigerian child.  The menace is a cause of worry for all stakeholders as well adherents of moral and ethical uprightness in the a veil across, the modern biographer reveals with all the gusto of a showman.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Developing Nigerian have been experiencing dwindling growth in educational system for the past two decided. On the other hand, examination misconduct and cultism have not manifested positively on the growth of education system in Nigerian which has an inverse relationship in Nigerian economy.

In other words, the share of Nigerian educational system to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been shrinking as a result of the development of examination misconduct synthetic devices and /or examination misconduct or cultism syndrome have. Government Policies to combating this syndrome have not yielded the desired result (s) rather aggravating it (Shuaib, 2015).


1.3   Research Questions

        The research questions for this study are started below

  1. Does examination misconduct responsible for the education decadence in Nigeria?
  2. Does examination misconduct effect positively in the education system in Nigeria?
  • Do parents contribute to the falling of education system in Nigeria?
  1. Do government policies help in combating this examination misconduct and cultism in Nigeria?

1.4   Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to examine the effect of examination misconduct on the Nigerian education system.

The specific objectives of the study are stated below:

  • To identify the profile of Nigerian education system.
  • To examine the contributions of Nigerian education system to economic growth in Nigerian;
  • To explore the contribution of parents to their children education;
  • To examine the constraints and challenges of education in Nigeria;
  • To educate the impact of education in Nigeria.

1.5   Statement of Hypotheses 

        The hypothesis for this study are stated below:

  • Examination misconduct has no significant relationship with the growth of the education system in Nigeria.
  • Parents have no direct relationship with the growth of their children in Nigeria tertiary institutions.
  • Sorting of lecturers do not have a significant relationship with falling in Nigeria education system

1.6   Scope of the Study

The study examines dwindling of the effect for examination misconduct on the Nigeria education system for the past two decades. Also, the study examines the obstacles of the flow of examination misconduct on Nigeria education system and policies of the past and the present are also examined.

This study is designed to cover the period between 2013-2031 (28 years). The period is chosen because the period had been time the Nigeria education system faced major economic crisis and policies that have been firm and implemented to attract education in Nigeria and hence economic growth.

1.7     Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will contribute to knowledge in the subject matter, other researcher students and the entire public will hopefully benefit fro this study since it will form the basis for other research work.

1.8     Limitation of the Study

The researcher of this study has a keen interest in the effect of examination misconduct on the Nigeria education system. However, existing literature are abound. Besides, regression analysis was also involved in the study in the midst of the above; the researcher has been related with certain limitation such as:

This study would have adequately be researched upon it there were no time constraints for example the researcher is an ND student who is involved in school activities i.e. (lectures assignment, test, quiz etc.)

The researcher would have been able to travel for in searching for materials for the study In hand but because of financial constraint the researcher could not engross on this mission smoothly. Even the available finance was what she used for buying her reading materials.

From the preceding discussion, it was discovered that the needed material were abound, but out dated. Even the few current ones are not detailed discussed.

1.9     Operational Definition of Terms

The operational terms of this study are defined bellow:

Student: These are know to be people following a forma course of studying especially in higher or further education (chambers 2004).

Parent: These comprise father or mother or adopter or guardian of a child (chambers, 2004)

Lecturer: These are persons who lecture especially in college or university (Chambers, 2004)

Government: A body of people, usually elected with the power to control the affairs of a country or state (Chamber 2004).

Proprietor: an owner especially of a shop, hotel, business, etc.(chamber 2004)

Chukws: This, in other word means accompany of piece of paper to the examination hall by students. on the other word means accompanying of piece of paper to the examination hall by students on the other hand improper, careless, illegal or unethical professional conduction of e.g. medical treatment which shows a lack of reasonable skill or care misuse of position of trust (Chambers, 2004)

Examination: A set of task especially in written from, design to resk knowledge or ability (Chambers, 2004).




This project is on the development of public libraries in Nigeria with reference to the Imo Central Library, Owerri. Chapter one of this work traces the history of public Library development in Imo State starting from the days of the eastern Nigeria Library Board which serried as a platform for the establishment of the Imo State Central Library Owerri. Chapter two highlights the roles which a public Library can play in the society in it’s capacity as an agency of education, information, culture, recreation and asthetic appreciation. Services rendered by public Libraries were mentioned, such services includes reference services, circulations of materials, local collections development, display and exhibition, etc. problems militating against public Library development in the state were also highlighted in this chapter. Three methods of data collection were used in this project. Three methods of data collection were used in this project. These include: oral interview, examination of the Libraries records and the questionnaire made. Through these methods the researcher collected relevant data for this project work. In chapter five, findings were made from investigation carried act about the Library from these findings, the researcher therefore made a number of recommendations which he hoped will develop in Imo State.




In this modern world of information explosion the society is always in need of information agencies strive to meet this information need. Numerous definitions have been given to the term library, one of such definitions are contained in the encyclopedia Britannica (vol.22, 1988) state that “a library is a collection of written, printed or other graphic or visual materials (including files, photographs, tapes, phonograph records, video discs, microforms and computer programmes) organized and maintained for reading, study and consultation. Another definition of library is from the websters New York World Dictionary (1991) which states hat “library is a room or building where a collection of books, periodicals etc are kept for reading and reference” collier’s encyclopedia (vol.14,1990) defines the “library as collection of graphic materials, books, films, magazines, maps manuscripts, organized for use” while majority of people take a library to be a place where books are kept. These views of people about the library is not satisfactory.

Therefore, the definition of a library to be accepted by all should be the one given by Agbodike 1995 in a lecture delivered, “ A library is a collection of records of human culture in print or non-print information providing materials, or book and non-book materials, house, preserved, organized, interpreted and managed by professional librarians or clientele for information, knowledge, education, research, recreation and aesthetic appreciation and cultural enjoyment. The definition which unites the library to book alone is incomplete for there are many other forms of recorded knowledge such as tapes, firms, microfilms, microfishes, video tapes and projectors contained in the holdings of libraries. Commenting on the changing roles of the library, the father of librarianship, Melvin, Dewy (1906) stated that the library has lost it’s etymologic meaning and means not a collection of books but the central agency for disseminating information, innocent recreation or best of all, inspiration among the people.

From the definition given above, the three components of a library are books, staff and building. A library cannot exist without books or a qualified institution called a library without a building, as well as adequate finance to run and maintain it. There are different types of libraries performing different functions aimed at satisfying their various patrons. These includes: school, academic, special national and public libraries. School libraries are libraries located in primary and secondary schools. They support and enrich the educational programmes in the schools in which they are located.

Academic libraries are libraries located in institutions of high learning while special libraries are those established in companies, organizations, government department and research institutions. This type of library satisfy the needs of subject specialists and researchers. The National Library of a country is the one responsible for collecting and conserving the whole of that county’s book production for the benefit of further generations. It is the chief depository of the national arts and culture.

Public libraries are libraries built for the general public. They are supervised, financed and supported them by the state or local government of a country. According to the New encyclopedia (vol. 22, 973) “public libraries are acknowledged to be an indispensable point of community life as promoters of libraries providers of a wide range of reading for all ages, and centres for community information services”. Public libraries are established by state law supported from the general public funds and administered for the benefit of the citizens of the town, city, or region which maintains it on the basis of equal access to all, whether they are artisans, or professionals. It does not discriminate as it’s doors are open to all classes of people.

The American library Association (1967), in one of its publications, stated the functions of public libraries. Again, at the seminar in library management, organized by the University of Ibadan and the British council (1970), it was considered that the public library should provide printed and audio-visual materials to meet the individual and group needs of its community for information, self realization, recreation and culture growth and for assistance in campaign out their duties are citizens and members of the community.


The Imo State Library Board came into existence with the creation of Imo and Anambra state. Despite the creation of the Imo state out of the former east central state, both continued to maintain a central library services under the east central state library board until September, 1976, when the library staff of Imo State origin had to be transferred to Owerri to establish the administrative headquarters of the present Imo State library Board. At the same time, the assets and liabilities of the former east central state were shared. The movement of staff to Owerri created accommodation problems. Most of the junior staff occupied the uncompleted library building as their residence and worked very hard to see that the library was opened early for services.



The Imo State Library Board was actually set up by edict N0. 12 of the Imo State library Board edict 1977. The edict state: “There is hereby established a board to be known as the Imo state library Board. The Board shall be a body corporate with perpetual succession and a common seal and with power to sue and be sued in its corporate name”. The edict which set up the Imo state library  board had made it an animate body can sue and be sued in its corporate name.

The services of the board are supplemented by the divisional libraries at Aba, Abriba, Umuahia (now in Abia state), Orlu and Mbano. The Board started it’s operation with the sum of five hundred and forty thousand, eight hundred and thirty-two naira (540,832.00) for the financial year 1976 and 1977 with six catalogue cabinets, catalogue cards, some metal filing cabinets and few type writers. In addition to this, the state government provided the sum of five hundred thousand naira to cover its capital expenditure. Anambra and Imo state share a considerable quantity of new books which had not been allocated prior to the creation of state.


The Imo State library Board was appointment on 10th November, 1976. Its member were Professor A.O. Anya as chairman and seven members namely, professor, D.I. Nwoga, Dr. Eze Ogueri, Miss. Gloria I. Ofor, Mazi F. Nwosu Ezi, Mrs. R. Umelo, the permanent secretary, ministry of education and information (Mr. N.C. Okonkwo), or his representative and the director of library services. It held its first meetings on December 17th 1976 and it was addressed by the then honourable commissioner for education and information (Dr. M.A Nwachukwu), on 14th January 1977. The Board held three meetings altogether during the period under review.

          The board relationship with the press has been most cordial and added to this is the Boards’ determination to provide adequate public library facilities for the state. It will not be satisfied until every major centre of the community in the state particularly the headquarters of the local government areas have been provided with effective public library services.


The state central library, Owerri was officially opened to the public on 12th November 1976 by then military governor of Imo state (His Excellency, commander Godwin Ndubuisi Kanu). The ceremony was witnessed by nearly five hundred guest including state commissioners, high ranking government officials, representative of various business concerns, banking and public affairs, and representatives from various local government areas in the state. The building of the library was designed to accommodate eight five thousand volumes of books, but it was opened with a book stock of about twelve thousand. On the ground floor, the building houses the children’s library, acquisition and cataloguing departments as well as an auditorium to sit some hundred persons, the mobile library garage and loading bag. The first floor contain a reference library and he adult reading library, the administration wing of the library which is behind the ground floor, contains the general office and accounts section while the first floor of the wing accommodates offices for the director and other personnel staff.



CHILDREN’S SECTION: The section started with a total of five hundred and three children, two hundred and fifty were makes and two hundred and fifty-three were females. These number has increased by much since then. A total number of five thousand seven hundred and fifty six books were issued in the same period, two thousand five hundred and thirty-two books were non-fiction. A number of writings with African and Nigeria background have been acquired for the children. Journals were also acquired for them.

ADULT LENDING SECTION: This section started with six thousand five hundred books and by 1977 the book stock had increased to then thousand six hundred books. The section does not had adequate fiction books in its holdings. But effort were made to improve the situation. The non-fiction holdings are improving every body. The number of non-fiction books borrowed was five thousand and twenty-six, out of this numbers, two thousand were borrowed by males while two thousand five hundred books were borrowed by females.

          In 1977, there was an increase in borrowing of books by both sexes. The library has now a collection which reflects a wider range of fields.

TECHNICAL SERVICES SECTION: This section initially experience problem brought about by lack of tools and equipment and the task of processing books for the library, many unprocessed books were transferred to Owerri, form Enugu, and this created a lot of problems by sorting out the unnecessary materials accessioned, catalogued and shelve them and required. Before the creation of acquisition section, about four hundred and eighty-three children’s books and two thousand three hundred and nine-teen adult books had been accessioned and catalogued in the section. Four thousand materials are processed for Owerri, two thousand two hundred and twenty eight for Umuahia divisional library, one thousand six hundred and sixty for Aba and three hundred and seventy eight for Abriba divisional library respectively, (of which are now in Abia state).

ACQUISIITON SECTION: The acquisition department was not established as a separate section as soon as the library came down from Enugu. It was rather separated from the cataloguing division in February 1977. The acquisition policy of the Imo state library board states that: All books selected either by individuals, libraries or by a group should be passed to the acquisition department for pre-order searching. No blanket orders should be given to any vendor except in respect of annuals, in case of reference books only two copies of a title should be allocated to each library but not more than eight copies”.

          With the creation of the section, acquisition duties have been streamlined and co-ordinated and co-ordinated with other sections of the services. The staffing of this section began with a librarian and typist. It was later joined by two library assistants. The secretaries performances ahs been satisfactions. The sections has been satisfactory. Its accessioned materials have virtually field up the shelves. According to records, some thirteen thousand seven hundred and four books were accessioned in the section while nine thousand six hundred and thirty-eight items on order were outstanding. Out of the thirteen thousand seven hundred and four accessioned book, seven thousand nine hundred and ninety seven were adult books while five thousand seven hundred and seven were juvenile.

NIGERIANA SECTION: This section consist mainly of Nigerian publications. The stock covers a total of one thousand three hundred and eight volume comprising serials, magazine and newspapers. Because of economic problems, not all books are purchased. The works of staff of this section include keeping the vertical files and writing of captions, it operates between 9:00am to 3:30pm. However, there are some accommodation problems being experienced in this sector.

SERVICES: The role played by the Nigerian section of the Imo Central library is separates from the purpose for which it was set up. The offer direct services which include personnel assistance given to readers in pursuit of information, the department and the character of such services very with the type of user it is designed to serve. They supply information based in bibliographic search.

          It also provides indirect services, this makes it possible for user to have access to information. In this kind of services bibliographic are preferred which help the user in searching and retracing of the document which they use.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES: The opening of he state central library, Owerri attracted lots of favourable comments from all and surrounding several visitors and student’s excursion groups visited the library and outstanding among them being:

(a)     Two groups of class five students from federal Girls Secondary School, Owerri, were introduced to the public service department (adult circulation and reference section of the library).

(b)     The press Club of the Community Secondary School Umuaka-Orlu were conducted round the library with a brief talk on the Boards Services.

(c)      Teacher librarian, the Imo and Anambra State join seminar in school libraries held in Owerri from 22 to 27th March, 1977.


The libraries were established to carryout library development in the rural areas of the state. These libraries include: Mbano Branch commissioned by Dr. Raymond Ofoegbu, the then Imo State Commissioner for information, youths, sports and culture. The library is located at Mbano Local Government Headquarters. There is also the Aboh Mbaise and Orlu libraries. The divisional library was established on 14th December, 1981.


a        To establish, equip and maintain the state central library and its branches in any part of the state.

  1. To provide assistance to other persons in the organization of libraries.
  2. To make recommendations and give advice on library development or organization to any department of local government area in the state.

d        To make the facilities of the state library system available to members of the public and undertake bibliographic services in the state.

e        To establish and maintain the library’s mobile services


a        Public libraries in Nigerian are confronted with a lot of problems. For instances they do not have enough information sources for the different categories of users.

b        The do not have enough space for accommodating the users.

c        Consequently, many users complain of their inability to satisfy various information needs.

d        Some public libraries in Nigeria operate without essential facilities like photocopying machines and toilet facilities.

e        There is also the problem of trained staff.

f        To find out the basis reason of establishing the Imo State library Board.


a        The objective of the study is to trace history of public library development in Imo State.

b        By tracing the history, the study also aims at identifying factors and situation that have either contributed to public library development in Imo state or retorted their rate of development.

c        The study also aims at ceiling the attention of policy makers to the need for a speedy development of public libraries in the state.

1.4     Researcher asked a number of questions with which he hopes to find answers to problems posed by the study: these include:


a        Is the library adequately stocked with source of information

b        Are there facilities provided by the library headquarters?

c        Is the library staffed with well drained personnel?

d        As a public library, what roles does it play in the society?

e        What are the problems imitating against its proper development?



a        This project ahs a historical overviews and would therefore cover issues of public library development starting from the Eastern region library days to the present Imo state.

b        Lack of time and finance would not allow for an exhaustive survey of this study thereby limiting it to the establishment and development t of the Imo state central library, Owerri only, among other public libraries in the state


a        This project will be of great benefit to students especially those in the library and information science department.

b        The study will also be of great value to researchers who are entered in the area of public library development in Imo state.

c        Government authority who are desirous of establishing public in their states will also find this work beneficial.


          The researcher sampled about fifty users and the staff of the Imo state central library Owerri, for data collection.






Background to the Study

Education can be regarded as the key that unlocks the development of personal and national potential and all other kinds of rights and powers in the world. The increasing awareness of the importance of education for sustainable development in Africa is paramount. Nigeria as a nation strives toward the provision of quality and affordable education for its citizens through the guiding principle of National Policy on Education (2013). The guiding principles of education in Nigeria is the equipping of every citizens with acquisition of knowledge, desirable skills, attitude and values, as well as to enable him or her to derive maximum benefits from his or her society and also contribute his quota meaningfully towards the development of the nation at large. Secondary school education is one among the levels of education in Nigeria.

On attaining Independence as a nation in 1960, what seemed a major concern to most Nigerian leaders then was how education would be accessible to all citizens of the newly created nation.  Education was seen as the necessary instrument immediately and essentially for the consolidation of the independence, for securing the new nation against neo-colonialism and for making workable, the newly established self-government in a multi-ethnic society (Olaniyi, 2012).

The desire to use education for nation building was (and is still) very compelling and so much was the faith in education that the schools of the nation were not only meant for political socialization, but also for other social functions and for economic growth.  To achieve these goals, Universal Primary Education (UPE) was introduced nationwide in 1976, although hitherto, this has been practiced in some parts of the country.  Toward the end of the second decade of achieving nationhood status, Nigeria witnessed a phenomenal expansion at all levels of her education (Olaniyi, 2012).

When the issue of Nigeria education system today is raised, the thought that come to mind are: decline in standard, deterioration of facilities, examination malpractices, mass promotion syndrome and the like before any other thing else. This calls for an in-depth study and analysis aimed at tutoring each and every stakeholder in the education system on how their actions have individually and collectively contributed to the collapsing state of education in Nigeria. In any case, knowledge and skill acquisition which education is all about cannot be over emphasized. According to the World Bank (2013), “successful development entails more than investing in physical capital, or closing the gap in capital. It also entails acquiring and using knowledge as well as closing the gaps in knowledge”. Thus, to successfully confront the challenges of development, a developing country must undertake three major tasks:

  • Ø Acquired and adapt global knowledge and create knowledge locally.
  • Ø Invest in human capital to increase the ability to absorb and use knowledge; and
  • Ø Invest in technologies to facilitate both acquisition and the absorption of knowledge.

Similarly, Fafunwa (2006) defines education as “the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour, which are of positive value to the society in which he lives. That is to say, it is a process of disseminating knowledge either to ensure social control or to guarantee rational direction of the society or both.” Response however  will be its factors influencing the progress of secondary schools stemming from the incidence of examination malpractice – poor facilities – indiscriminate mass promotion syndrome in schools. The causes of these could be traced to:

  • Ø Government insensitivity to education needs
  • Ø Government and private institutions open encouragement of low productivity, and
  • Ø Lack of the spirit of hard-work among growing number of students (Fafunwa 2006).


Secondary education is provided for the child after primary education, that is, before tertiary education. It is aimed at developing a child better than the primary level, because, it is obvious that primary education is insufficient for a child to acquire literacy, numeracy, and communication skills (Yusuf, 2009; Ige, 2011). Such education is provided in secondary school, which can be owned by government (State or Federal), individuals or community. From the foregoing, the study is set to ascertain the factors influencing the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Statement of the Problem

          It is not a gainsaying that secondary education is unique in the educational development of a child, being the link between primary and tertiary education. The knowledge, skills, values, and traits which a child acquires at this stage will complement those acquired at the primary level and when these are combined, will prepare such child for tertiary education. In spite of the role of secondary education, it has been observed that education is riddled with crises of various dimensions and magnitude, all of which combine to suggest that it is at a crossroad.

In a close examination of secondary education in Nigeria, it has been revealed that some factors influencing the progress of secondary education in other part of the country also influence the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara Local Government Area as a part of the nation, this study is set to fine out and thus ask: What are the factors influencing the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?

Purpose of the study

This study tried to ascertain the factors influencing the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain how:

  • Ø Inadequate provision of instructional material can hinder the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara LGA of Ebonyi State.
  • Ø Dissatisfaction (Attitude) of teachers can be factors influencing the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara LGA of Ebonyi State.
  • Ø Improper classroom management can be factors influencing the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara LGA of Ebonyi State.
  • Ø Parental Factor can influence the progress of secondary education in Ohaozara LGA of Ebonyi State.

Significance of the study





Background to the Study

The importance of English Language cannot be over-emphasized. Among the numerous benefits, it is the language of communication which unites the various ethnic groups in Nigeria. The Nigerian constitution, National policy on education and many books are all written in the English Language. To access the information contained in any document, reading has to be employed. Reading as a field of teaching is considered as one of the important academic skills. It is also a major pillar upon which teaching and learning process is built. The reading ability plays central role in teaching and learning success at all education stages (Addison, 2006). It is because most of the materials of teaching and learning are in written form. It means that the students will be on the road to academic failure, if they could not read. Reading comprehension is considered as the real core for reading process.

Durkin (2003) assumes that comprehension is the peak of the reading skills and the bases for all reading processes. Teaching students to read with a good comprehension must be teachers’ highest priority. As reading is the most important aspect of the four basic language skills (writing, speaking, listening and reading) which aid the teaching and learning of English Language. Balsiger (2010) stated that reading is crucial for the success in school. The academic learning in subject such as science, history, social studies and literature occurs through reading. Students with poor reading comprehension may struggle in multiple academic areas but they will have less self confidence in their learning abilities. Moreover, Sujana in Argarini (2010) noted that reading ability can influence the level of students’ competence in any subject. Therefore, it is undeniable that reading is one of important activities of learning process.

Furthermore, teaching reading in Senior Secondary School conveys the competence of reading text and identifying the rhetoric structure of the text. But it is not easy to implement those competences to students, since teacher faces some problems in teaching reading especially in reading comprehension of descriptive text. For instance, the teaching methods do not motivate the students to learn and often makes them bored; they think reading is a monotonous and boring activity.

Banjo (2003) and Obah (2009) insist that an area of language learning that requires utmost and urgent attention is reading comprehension as this affects not only reading for pleasure, but also reading for information in content areas of study. Umolu (2008) sees the problem of low reading ability as a national crisis because of the pervasive nature of poor academic performance in higher institutions of learning nationwide. The picture painted is bleak.

The annual mass failure in West African Examination Council (WAEC) results in English Language attests to the fact that most students do not read instructions, or even questions, with sufficient comprehension. In addition, the reading, according to Chief Examiner’s Report (2011) of West African School Certificate Examination is that students do not engage in substantial reading to retain that which will enable them perform well in reading comprehension that gives rise to failure in the English language which directly or indirectly affects other subjects.

As stated by Riswanto (2014), there are various teaching and learning strategies that can be used by the teachers in classroom for students to develop effective reading skills. Most of the teaching and learning strategies usually focus on a particular strategy or skill. Hence, Riswanto (2014), went further to state that the KWL (Know, Want, Learned) strategy is one of the teaching and learning strategies used mainly for information text. Its aims are more diverse. It helps readers elicit prior knowledge of the topic of the text; set a purpose for reading; monitor their comprehension; assess their comprehension of the text; and expand ideas beyond text.

Ogle (1986) developed the KWL strategy to help students in accessing important background information before reading non-fiction. The K-W-L strategy (accessing What I Know, determining What I Want to find out, recalling What I learned) combines several elements of approaches. The first two steps K-W-L, students and the teacher engage in oral discussion. They reflect on their knowledge about a topic, brainstorm a group list of ideas about the topic, and identify categories of information. Next the teacher helps highlight gaps and inconsistencies in students’ knowledge and students create individual lists of things that they want to learn about the topic or questions that they want to answer about the topic. In the last step of the strategy, students read new materials and share what they have learned.

According to Ogle (1986), there are some steps that should be considered in using K-W-L strategy.

  1. Choose a text (narrative or expository texts).
  2. Create a KWL chart. The teacher should create a chart on the blackboard or on an overhead transparency. In addition, the students should have their own chart on which to record information.
  3. Ask students to brainstorm words, terms or phrases they associate with a topic. The teacher and students record these associations in the K column of their charts. This done until students run out of ideas for questions. If students respond with statements, turn them into questions before recording them in the W column.
  4. Have students read the text and fill out the L column of their charts. Students should look for the answers to questions in their W column while they are reading. Students can fill out their L columns either during or after reading.
  5. Discuss the information that students recorded in the L column, and
  6. Encourage students to research any question in the W column that were not answered by the text. As the evaluation for the effectiveness, teachers can compare the students’ scores on comprehension questions or skill sheets or reading tests before and after implementation of this intervention.


According to Lenski (2004), KWL strategy helps children become good readers by getting them to do many of the things that good readers do. This strategy gets children to read silently with comprehension. In addition, already know when they confirm or disconfirm the information in the K column. Furthermore, the children learn to set their own purpose for reading when they generate questions for the W column. Their reading to answer these questions helps them concentrate while they are reading as they move actively monitor their own comprehension.

The L column affords students the opportunity to summarize what they read. When they put the information in the own words, they better understand what they know and what they do not know. This helps them move into a possible next step which involves having them generate more questions and use a variety of resources to learn more information. Finally, taking this strategy into publication step helps them organize the information and write it for presentation to others. This strengthens their learning of the information, involves them in doing what good readers do, and teaches them about their own reading processes.

In Nigeria, teaching of comprehension is still viewed as the simple task of providing learners with many opportunities to read a piece of text and respond to a variety of questions. The number of correct responses provided by the learner was then taken as an indication of their level of understanding of the text (Annadale, 2005). According to Teixeira (2012), reading is a key language skill that has a significant place in the teaching and learning of foreign languages. This skill allows students to have access to ideas that is communicated by people in different locations and eras, give them opportunity to broaden their horizons and increase their knowledge.

Based on Moats (2004), the most fundamental responsibility of school is teaching students to read. Reading is the fundamental skill upon which all formal education depends. Research now shows that a child who does not learn the reading basic early is unlikely to learn them at all. Low reading achievement is the problems which cause low performance among the students. According to Sinambela, Manik and Pangaribuan (2015) observed that students’ ability in reading was still low despite other strategies employed in teaching reading comprehension. Hence, the students failed in reading texts as a result of lack of vocabularies and technique in reading.

The problem also comes from the teacher’s technique and strategy in teaching. In the observation made by Sinambela, Manik and Pangaribuan (2015), they found out that teachers still applied a traditional method of teaching reading comprehension where the teachers asked the students to write things in their exercise books freely, read the texts by heart and opened dictionary any time they stuck on using words that they did not know. This strategy made the students bored and did not have a concentration in learning; so, they could not gain the purpose of reading.

From the foregoing, this study is geared towards enhancing reading comprehension through the use of Know-Want-Learned (K-W-L plus) strategy among Senior Secondary II students in Isi-uzo L.G.A of Enugu State.


The high rate of failure in English Language in general and poor performance in reading comprehension passages by the students in the Senior Secondary certificate Examination has captured the interest of many Nigerians. The   researcher is personally astounded after observing that this same problem is more prevalent in most secondary schools in Isi-uzo L.G.A of Enugu State many years after the adoption of the6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria.

Furthermore, the students fail in reading texts because of lack and ill knowledge of vocabularies and technique in the reading comprehension passages. The problem also comes from the teacher’s technique and strategy in teaching. Most of the teachers teaching in this Local Government Area still apply a traditional method of teaching which causes the students fatigue and lack of concentration in learning. Also, most of the students are passive in the class and they felt that learning reading comprehension is boring. The reason they got bored in learning the reading could be as a result of the teaching strategy adopted. The teacher must choose the suitable strategy to make the process of teaching reading comprehension running well.

Based on the student’s problem in teaching and learning process, especially in reading comprehension, the study is geared towards enhancing reading comprehension through the use of know-want-learned (K-W-L plus) strategy among Senior Secondary II students in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Purpose of the Study

Generally, this study is geared towards enhancing reading comprehension through the use of Know-Want-Learned (KWL plus) reading strategy among Senior Secondary II students in Isi-uzo Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Specifically, the study tried to:

  1. Ascertain how KWL plus reading strategy could be applied in improving students’ reading comprehension.
  2. Determine the effect of KWL reading strategy on the students’ performance in reading comprehension.
  3. Find out the factors that limit the students from using KWL reading strategy to enhance their performance in reading comprehension.

Significance of the Study