PROJECT TOPIC- NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN ANAMBRA STATE

ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study was to determine the needs for environmental friendly materials for building construction. The population of the study consisted mostly of big constriction firms in Anambra State that have had more than five years of active construction experience the sample for the study was 10 reputable construction firms which were drawn using simple random sampling. Four research questions and two hypothesis were formulated, which guided the study. A 30-item structured questionnaire was developed for data collection. Frequency count / percentages and weighted mean (likert scale) were used to answer the research questions, which chi-square was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. It was concluded among others that environmental unfriendly building materials has serious negative impacts on the environment. Which needs an urgent attention in other to save the environment from global warming and other negative effects. Based on the findings and conclusions drawn from the study recommendations were made for  Anambra State government to take a legislation that will help for effective use of environmental friendly material for building construction in Anambra State.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In recent years more and more attention is being paid to the environmental impacts of building materials. The constantly increasing cost of energy and raw materials force the construction industry to think about alternatives such as renewable energy sources and raw materials and the reduction of wast.

Climate change and environmental pressures are major drivers for the promotion of environmental friendly materials.

Furthermore, this trend is spreading fast and the international document stating intent of being more environmental friendly one as presented. The Kyoto protocol, the energy performance of building directive of the EU, Eneergy Efficiency Directive. In line with the desire for environmental friendly materials, some government have change their legislation setting targets for the sustainability of public and residential buildings.  On the other hand, statistics show that an important factor for the well-being of the inhabitants is the choice of building materials, “unhealthy” materials cannot only cause environmental problems but can equally cause asthma and cancer and therefore it is extremely important to choose low emitting building materials. We spend most of our times indoors and building materials influence the “health” and safety of the indoor environment.

        The building industry in Anambra state is rapidly changing-new building materials are all the time emerging on the market and new construction techniques are being developed and more and more challenging designs are being developed to be built it in the expectation that the next building generation will be of low energy and sustainable building materials. The first step towards environmental friendly construction is the appropriate choice of building materials. This is a challenging task and which this research intends to investigate to ascertain the environmental impacts of the chosen materials before the design and construction phases.

PROJECT TOPIC- NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN ANAMBRA STATE

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The use of environmental unfriendly materials in building construction is a major environmental problem that significantly needs attention. When environmental problem arises as a result of impacts of toxic construction materials the effect of those materials to the environment must be immediately assessed, which outcome depends upon a number of factors.

1)     Why is one material environmentally friendly and another not?

2)     Life cycle assessment of a material and its characteristics.

3)     How every phase of the life of a material influences the environment?

4)     The impacts of construction materials like concrete, block and timber to the environment.

5)     The rating of embodied energy of a material.

6)     The criteria that determine the sustainability of a building materials in a given environment.

The effects and consequences of using environmentally unfriendly materials have posed the challenge for the development and use of alternative materials that are friendly to the environment in the building construction industry.

1.3   RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to examine the need for the use of environmentally friendly material for building construction in Anamba State.

With the following objectives.

1)     To identity the negative impacts on the environment by the use of unfriendly building materials.

2)     To evaluate the effects of using environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

3)     To ascertain the characteristics that determine the environmentally sustainability of a given building material.

4)     To articulate the benefits in using environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        The findings of this study will largely contribute to and influence the use of environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

        Thus:

1)     Use of environmentally friendly materials will promote conservation of dwindling non-renewable resources in Anambra State.

2)     Environmentally friendly materials when used will help to increase the energy efficiency in construction and reduce negative impacts on human well being.

3)     Will define systematic approach, where by use of environmentally friendly material will ensure environmental sustainability. 

1.5   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1)     What are the negative impacts on the environment by the use of unfriendly building materials

2)     What are the effects of using environmentally friendly materials for building construction.

3)     What are the characteristics that determine the environmental sustainability of a given building materials.

4)     What are the derivable benefits in using environmentally friendly materials for building constructions.

1.6   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

          

PROJECT TOPIC- NEED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY MATERIALS FOR BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN ANAMBRA STATE

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IMPACT OF ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES OF ABS TELEVISION ON THE SEXUAL HABITS OF YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF EKWULOBIA AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES OF ABS TELEVISION ON THE SEXUAL HABITS OF YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF EKWULOBIA AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

Abstract

(Bilteneven 1973:11) says that a mass media can take message around the world. The stimulus for this on the research is to find out the impact of ANTI – HIV/AIDS on the sexual habits of youths especially youth that reside in Ekwulobia Aguata local Government Area. As the saying goes “that youth are the leader of tomorrow”. The first chapter of these my study gives background information on the study. And also, looked at the introductory rational for the study, and the purpose/significance of the study. In addition to the limitations the second chapter surveyed the review of literature and summary of literature e. t c. The thirds chapter deals with the research question, research method, design population and sample. Data was gathered with help of questionnaires given to 160 correspondents, survey research method was used. Sample size was 120 and the population 720 youths resident of Ekwulobia local government area.  The fourth chapter deals with the analysis of demography and hypothesis test, and it is presented in tables and also research questions were assessed and presented. The fifth chapter and also the final chapter has the summary, reference, conclusion, appendix and questionnaire derived from the findings of the study 

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

Before the advent of mass communication, the process of communication employed was interpersonal communication that is face to face communication. Interpersonal communication reaches limited audience but mass media make it possible for message to reach far beyond the immediate proximity of the sender. A few hundred feet may be all the distance the human voice prospect to a crowd, without the aid of a public address system. But a mass media can take the same message around the world (Bittenevn 1973: 11).

But for this research work, we are narrowing it down to a particular mass media known as television. Although, there are other mass media like (radio) even the print media. The presence of television has influenced the society communication pattern, large audience now believes on television to provide a continuous flow of information, education, communication, entertainment and many others may depend on television for truth in complication and complex situation and when it is not granted they felt deprived.

The impact of television in changing and shaping attitude and behaviours of the masses is the subject of debate because television influence modified by many factors. It is probably less powerful than many people think. But television do have an indirect influence on attitude at least they make people conscious. We witness the horror of war, crime, religious crises, ethnic and racial discrimination and so many societal ills it’s in the privacy and comfort of our living rooms. We learn new things, ideas and concepts when we listen and view television. This medium in its frequent reporting is about the issues like HIV/AIDS makes us to be aware of dreaded disease.

The symptoms and signs, ways of contracting it, dangers it poses on immediate and future implication as well as prevention and treatment. Publicity in a corrupt society is believed to be a vital step to finding the cure of many societal ills. In line with this, it is believed that an existence courage and true information on ANTI-AIDS  campaigns will get to perhaps, shape and mould the sexual habits of people more especially the youths.

1.2 Background of the study

We do not know how many people that have contracted this dreaded disease. AIDS in the 1970s and probably do not were AIDS virus HIV was originated from. The dominant feature of this first period was silence. HIV was unknown and transmission was not accompanied by signs and symptoms. Salient enough to be noticed seroarchaclogical studies have documented human infections with HIV prior to 1970s available data suggest that the current pandemic started in the mid to date 1970s. By 1980, HIV has spread to at least five continents such as Northern America, Southern American, Europe, Africa and Australia.

In April 1981, there is an increase in case of rare lung, Infection pnuemocystic carnii pneumonia (PCP) at the center for disease control in Atlanta in June. The CDC published a report about the occurrence without indefinable cause of PCP. This report is sometimes referred to the beginning of AIDS, but it might be more accurate to describe it as the beginning of the general awareness of AIDS in the U.S.A. Around this time, a number of theories were developed about the possible cause of the opportunistic infections and cancers knowledge about this new disease was changing so quickly that certain assumption made at this time were shown to be unfounded just a few months later.

In July, 1981, Dr Curran reported that no apparent dangers to non-homosexual from contagion. He said that no cases have been reported to data outside the homosexual community or in women. In June, 1982, report of a group of cases amongst gay men in southern California suggested that the disease might be caused by an infectious agent that was sexually transmitted. By the beginning of July, a total of 452 cases from 23 states had been reported to the CDC. Later that month, the report appeared that the disease was occurring in Haitian as well as in hemophilia. It is at the acronym AIDS was suggested at the meeting at Washington dc.

By August, this name was being used in newspaper and scientific journals. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) was first properly defined by the CDC in September, doctors though AIDS was an appropriate name because people acquired the situation rather than inherited it, because it resulted in a deficiency within the immune system, because it was syndrome with a number of manifestations, rather than a single disease. It was also becoming clear that AIDS was throughout 1982 there were separate reports of the disease occurring in a number of European countries on the same 1982, a number of AIDS specific voluntary organizations had been set up in the U.S.A. These include the san Francisco AIDS foundation (ASFAF), AIDS project los Angeles (APLA) and gay men’s health crisis (GMNC). In November, 1982, the first AIDS organization is the terrenes Higgins trust was formally established in the UK, and by this time a number of AIDS organization were already producing safer sex advice for guy men.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES OF ABS TELEVISION ON THE SEXUAL HABITS OF YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF EKWULOBIA AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

1.3 Statement of problems

An Anti – HIV/AIDS advocacy programme which comprises publicity announcement, advertisement and ANTI-AIDS campaign was geared towards curbing the spread of the disease. Again it expected to help in changing and shaping the behaviours pattern of youth towards sex. This has called for ascertaining how these ANTI-HIV/AIDS programmers have influenced the sexual habits of youth or not.

1.4 Objectives or purpose of the study

This research work was aimed at examining the extent to which ABS T.V encourage on ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES have affected the youths residing in Ekwulobia, if it has changed their attitudes towards sex. This is also interested if their age, sex martial status and educational qualifications influence the way they receive the media message. Are the youths getting enough information on the disease?

1.5 Significance of the study

It is expected that the outcome of this study will help alert the youth on the dangers of HIV/AIDS and contribute to existing literature in the area of mass media effect. The study will help the health sector in monitoring and determine the type of media campaign to employ in corroboration of ANTI-AIDS information.

1.6 Research question

Four standard research questions are formulated for this study;

  1. Do exposure of ANTI-HIV/AIDS programmes encourage youths from sexual promiscuity?
  2. Do youths who are single expose themselves more to HIV/AIDS than those who are married?
  3. How often do the youths have access to information about HIV/AIDS from ABS Awka television?
  4. Do their programmes on ANTI-HIV/ AIDS related to the use of condom during sexual intercourse among youths?

 

1.7 Limitation on the study

Finance of transport from Ekwulobia to Onitsha was a limiting factor in the course of this research work. How the return of questionnaire could be managed was another limiting factor. Apathy on the part of these researcher interviewed could also posed a threat to the study. Again, some questionnaires suffered mortality.

1.8 Delimitation of the study

Ekwulobia town in Aguata local Government area has nine(9) villages. However, this study would be delimited to only four villages namely; Ula, Umuchiana, Okpo and Eziagulu. Since it would be difficult, if not impossible to study the entire villages in Ekwulobia.

1.9 Definition of terms

Impact: for the purpose of the study, it means strong impression or a compelling effect of ANTI-HIV/AIDs programmes on youths enough to make them change their sexual habits.

HIV/AIDS: humane immune virus\Acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES: programmes aimed at curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS disease.

SEXUAL HABITS: The immoral attitude practices towards sex.

YOUTHS: The age of adolescence ranging from 18 to 30 years of age.

TELEVISION: a piece of electrical equipment with a screen on which you watch programmes with moving pictures and sound.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ANTI-HIV/AIDS PROGRAMMES OF ABS TELEVISION ON THE SEXUAL HABITS OF YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF EKWULOBIA AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

PROJECT TOPIC- NEED FOR ADEQUATE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICE IN THE EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL ABAKALIKI

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Guidance and counseling is described as an enlightened process whereby people help people byfacilitating growth and positive adjustment through self-understanding (Kolo, 2001). Akinade(2012) defines guidance and counseling as a process of helping an individual become fullyaware of himself and the ways in which he is responding to the influences of his environment. Itfurther assists him to establish some personal meaning for this behaviour and to develop andclassify a set of goals and values for future behaviour. Corey (1998) regards counseling as aprocess which occurs in one to one relationship between an individual troubled by problems withwhich he cannot cope with and a professional worker whose training and experiences havequalified him to help others reach solution to personal needs. Okoye (2009) viewed counseling as an interactional relationship designed to facilitate the personal development of informationleading to effective decision making and awareness of the self.

Interpretations of the term ‘health promotion’ may vary, but in general, the function of healthpromotion is to help people take responsibility for their health and adopt a lifestyleconducive to good health, to promote behaviour which leads to quick recovery from illness,and to enable them to cope with dying(Akinade, 2012).Corey (1998) noted that counseling for general health promotion and the avoidance of diseases, is bothindividualistic and group-oriented and usually considered an essential component of publichealth. The emphasis is on adopting what are considered good ‘health habits’. Issuesconsidered include good personal and environmental hygiene, good nutrition and safedrinking water, adequate exercise, relaxation and rest, and avoiding high levels of stress andhealth-risk behaviours such as smoking and excess alcohol consumption. These issues can bediscussed openly and without fear of isolation or stigmatization.

Counseling to help a client attain quick recovery during an acute illness, however,usually incorporates more focused information about meeting needs specific to the particular illness(Okoye, 2009). This is often rewarding for the counselor as the time during which the client isintensely dependent is shorter than that required to manage a chronic illness. When thedisease is not life-threatening, stigmatizing and expensive to manage, although it may bechronic, there are fewer demands and less stress on the clients and thecounselor(Okoye, 2009).

Counseling for general health promotion is consistent with efforts to promote ideals ofthe infinite self through actions that are not too probing to the self(Akinade, 2012). It is generally amenableto open discussion and to the adoption of actions which others in the society consider willequally promote their own health. Emphasis is on helping clients adopt actions that areconsistent not only with enhancing the quality of life but also with increasing lifeexpectancy. With counseling for socially accepted, non-stigmatizing illnesses, the emphasisfor the client, the family and the health care workers must be on the whole person(Akinade, 2012).

Counseling for general health promotion emphasizes those things controlled by the clientsand their social group, with assistance from the state, which enhance self-preservation andthus reduce morbidity and postpone mortality(Omebe, 2004).

 

Omebe (2004) state that a concept can be defined by exclusion or designating what a thing is not- presented below are what counseling is not as identified by Patterson, in Omebe(2004) that counseling:

  1. Is not giving information, through information may be given in counseling.
  2. Is not giving advice, suggestion and recommendation.
  3. Is not influencing attitude, belief by means of persuading leading or convincing.
  4. Is not influencing of behavior by compelling the use of physical force or coercion.
  5. Is not interviewing, while interviewing is involved, it is not synonymous.

A clear look at what counseling is as presented by Shertzer and Stone (2001) and what counseling is not as set out by Patterson (2008) shows that counseling is relationship in which the counselor assists the client to solve his adjustment problems. It is a process that is conducted in privacy where a condition that facilitates behaviouralchange is created. Counseling therefore can have a place in the hospitals.

PROJECT TOPIC- NEED FOR ADEQUATE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICE IN THE EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL ABAKALIKI

 

Hospital is a place where sick people seek medical attention for possible cure. This means that hospital is a place where medical attentions are given to sick people (Uzoeshi 2004). He went further to define hospital as a place that provides hope to people who are ill and seeking medical service. In hospital, the focus is directed towards the client health. Hence, we have health counseling of an individual’s body. It is a state or condition of well-being. Nwankwo (2006) defined health as “a state of complete physical mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” the above definition pictures positive health which involved elimination of specific health problem as well as acquisition of an improved quality to perform at more productive or satisfying levels and the opportunity to live out one’s life span with vigour and Stamina (Nwankwo 2006).

In actual sense, health is a relative term and had been in a state of change. Health counseling is one of the health guidance services; it is a relationship between the client and a counselor in which the central theme is the issue of clients’ health. It involves the identification of client’s health concerns or challenge, discussion on healthy bordering a client and assisting them to draw up plans and take action to overcome or cope with a health problem. The basic concept of the entire health counseling process is an attempt to have clients and their relation help themselves (Ugwuegbulam, 2006). He further stated that health counseling is for anybody that is sick and in hospital. However, counseling in a hospital has sick persons, their attending relation, doctors, nurses, and laboratory scientists among others as possible clients.

Statement of the Problem

One of the principles of Guidance and Counseling is for all, both in school and in non-school setting. Whereas Ugwuebulam (2006) observes that the introduction of counseling in hospitals is still not enjoying much support. The reason partly may be that, it is thought that counseling is meant for schools and learners or that it simply has no place in the hospital, which is a place for treating medical/physiological illness.

However, patients are faced with various emotional and physical problems that may even emanate out of their prolonged disease condition. Some of them are not certain about surviving their medical condition and they need more information about their case. Some of these medical cases are terminal disease condition such as HIV, AIDS, cancer etc.

The doctor who is always busy taking care of inpatient and outpatient, treating wounds, injecting patient and sometimes even inflicting pains on them will not be equipped to give appropriate counseling or therapeutic assistance.

This calls for the help of professional who can use different techniques to make patient find meaning to their life and also think rationally and logically. Most sick people who visit hospital are psychologically depressed because they are not sure of their recovery”. This group of people would want the health personnel in the hospital to become magicians and miracles workers to instantly heal them or the persons they have carried to the hospital. These induce stress on the health care provider.

Also, it has been observed that not much of counseling is taught to health care providers in Nigeria. The doctors and nurses are exposed to more of “prescriptive counseling” which is more of advice giving. The other hospital workers are barren of any formal knowledge of counseling. It was in light of these problems that Federal Medical Centers (FMC) in Nigeria made provisions for counselor in the hospitals but it implementation is yet to be pursued. This study therefore seeks to find out the availability of the counseling unit in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital and the adequacy of service rendered there.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to examine the need for adequate guidance and counseling service in the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital Abakaliki. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the guidance and counseling service that exist in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki.
  2. Determine the nature of mutual co-operation between the counselor and other health workers in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki.
  3. Identify the problems of the counselee in Ebonyi State Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki.
  4. Examine the counseling strategies to tackle client’s problems in Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki.

Significance of the Study

PROJECT TOPIC- NEED FOR ADEQUATE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING SERVICE IN THE EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL ABAKALIKI

 

PROJECT TOPIC- EATING PRACTICE, NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND BODY WEIGHT OF HOME ECONOMICS STUDENTS IN EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

            Overweight and obesity are serious health problems. The term overweight means excessive body weight in relation to height, whereas obesity indicates excessive fat accumulation in the adipose tissue (Laquatra, 2012). However the two terms are often used synonymously. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been escalating rapidly worldwide. Evidence suggests that the prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached “global epidemic” World Health Organization

(WHO, 2012).

It is now estimated that over one billion adults worldwide are overweight, 300 million of whom are clinically obesed World Health Organization (WHO, 2011).

According to (WHO, 2009), the number of overweight people was predicted to approach 1.5 billion, by the year 2015. Studies have shown that the health risk are associated with not only excessive body fat but also relatively small increase in body weight (Laquatra, 2012).

An obesity epidemic is not restricted to developed countries alone. Countries that are experiencing economic transition, such as China, Brazil and South Africa are also showing an increase in overweight/obesed persons as their economic condition changes (Popkin, 2011).

However, there is an enormous variation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity within and between the developed and developing countries. For instance, in Europe and the United States, 10 to 25% of the population is obesed (Ferro-Luzzi and Puska, 2011).

According to (WHO, 2012), between 6% and 8% of the population in Nigeria are obese, while over 6% men and 13% women in Brazil are obese. The Department of Health South Africa (DOH, 2012) 9.3% and 30.1% men and women respectively are obesed. In Nigerian study also more women (56%) than men (29%) were overweight. (World Data Atlas, 2014)

Nutrition knowledge is believed to play an important role in promoting healthier feeding practices, and consequently, maintaining appropriate body weight (Kruger and Puoane, 2010).

According to Grafova, (2011), people Who are aware of the connection between poor nutrition and certain health conditions are more likely to follow a balanced diet and avoid excessive weight gain. This means that nutrition knowledge can be a good strategy to employ in the reduction and control of the high prevalence of obesity.

Kolodinsky and Goldstein,(2011) found increased knowledge of dietary guidelines to be positively related to more healthy feeding practices among university students. The author concluded that healthy feeders have a higher nutrition knowledge leading to good food choices which can promote reduction and maintenance of weight. However, studies conducted by Thakur, (2010) found no significant differences between obese and non-obese people with respect to their knowledge concerning nutrition. This may mean that most people do not always practice what they know.

An inadequate level of physical activity or sedentary lifestyle is directly associated with weight gain in human beings. Physical activity accounts for 10 to 30% of daily energy expenditure. For this reason, a person experiencing a reduction in physical activity due to a change in labor practices or forms of transportation may spend less energy. This decline in energy expenditure, if not accompanied by a reduction in energy intake may result in weight gain and potential obesity. Decreased physical activity due to increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of works, changing modes of transportation and increasing urbanization (Klumbiene and Petkeviene, 2011), all contribute to positive energy expenditure which contributes to overweight and obesity

Indicators of body weight status are determinants of overweight and obesity. These indicators include body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet Index, waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) Laquatra, (2011).

According to World Health Organization, (WHO, 2012) BMI is commonly used because it correlates well with body fatness and degree of disease.

As a general guideline, overweight and obesity are defined, respectively, as BMI values exceeding 25kg/m2 and 30kg/m2 (Whitney and Pinna, 2010).

BMI, however, does not give information about the total fat or how fat is distributed in the body. Fat distribution is measured by WC and WHR (Hammond, 2010).

PROJECT TOPIC- EATING PRACTICE, NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND BODY WEIGHT OF HOME ECONOMICS STUDENTS IN EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY

Statement of the Problem

            The high prevalence of overweight and obesity represents a serious public health concern as recognize risk factors for chronic conditions and diseases. Many health science professionals may be overweight or obese due to socio-demographic factors, feeding practices and a lack of nutrition knowledge. This situation places them at significant risk for numerous lifestyle related chronic conditions and diseases such as heart and respiratory diseases, diabetes and various forms of cancer. A further problem is that home economics students are future nutritionist or nutritional professionals, who will eventually support and give recommendations on nutritional feeding practices. It is therefore important that they are aware of ways to ensure weight gain prevention and control in order to provide a good service to the public.

Prevention and control of overweight and obesity, particularly in university among home economic students is a priority since this group represents future nutritional guide providers who may not provide adequate information to the public because of their weight. Colleges and universities can be an ideal setting for prevention intervention programs.

 

Purpose of the Study

            The main purpose of this research is to evaluate and investigate on the eating practice, nutritional knowledge and body weight of home economics students in Ebonyi State University. Specifically the study tens to:

  • Ø Access the consumption pattern of home economics students in Ebonyi State University.
  • Ø Access the knowledge of Home Economics students in Ebonyi State University about nutrients and their functions.
  • Ø Access the body weight of home economic students in Ebonyi State University.

 

Significance of the Study

            The study on the feeding practices, nutrition knowledge and body weight of Home Economics Students of Ebonyi State University is significant and also very important.

For this knowledge; it will enable the students to control their body weight in order not to accommodate obesity. It will as well help them to improve on their food intake by considering the nutritional content of food intake, knowing the effects of eating in –between meals. This study is also very important because it will enable students to improve on their eating practices and nutritional knowledge. The government would also benefit in that the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) will no longer be charged with much responsibilities of treating ailment caused by eating practices, poor nutritional knowledge and obesity which is a product of their body weight. In general it will help the students in making good research by consulting the school library for assignment purposes and other academic work as well.

 

Scope of the Study 

PROJECT TOPIC- EATING PRACTICE, NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND BODY WEIGHT OF HOME ECONOMICS STUDENTS IN EBONYI STATE UNIVERSITY

KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS REDUCING HIV/AIDS IN AFIKPO SOUTH LGA OF EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS REDUCING HIV/AIDS IN AFIKPO SOUTH LGA OF EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Adolescents have a tendency to engage in high risk sexual and drug-use behaviour; and with a poor health-seeking behaviour, they continue to present the highest number of new cases of HIV reported in Nigeria and in Africa as a continent. The adolescent period is a time of vulnerability during which internal conflict caused by hormonal changes, the influence of peer group, and the attitude and practises of significant adults in their lives such as teachers and parents, societal pressure, norms and values and economic situations   all contribute to mould the character and behavioural patterns that are carried onto adulthood (Fernadez, Figueroa, Gomez, Maysonet, Olivares, and Hunter, 2008).

They are a high-risk group, more likely to be engaged in risky sexual and drug- use behaviour, with reduced feelings of vulnerability to disease, and oftentimes, a denial of any chance of infection; and less likely to have adequate knowledge of AIDS   or other sexually transmitted diseases. Unfortunately, with a poor health–seeking behaviour, they are also less likely to seek medical help or counselling.

Thus, they continue to present the highest number of new cases of HIV reported in Africa with about 50% or 7000 young people aged 15-24 years being infected each day, and globally 10 million people aged 13-24 years infected in the last decade (WHO, 2002). The level of accurate knowledge adolescents have about the cause and nature of HIV/AIDS, the methods of spread and the preventive measures will greatly influence their attitude towards the disease entity itself and people living with it, as well as result in a change in their sexual behaviours in favour of abstinence or at least a lower practise of unsafe sex.

Unfortunately, research has shown that the depth of knowledge adolescents have about AIDS varies across the world. Even where there seems to be a high level of knowledge about AIDS, closer investigation will reveal that this knowledge is oftentimes incorrect, and most adolescents lack the skills and knowledge   to   protect   them   against AIDS (Fawole, Asuzu, Oduntan and Brieger, 1999). A healthy attitude towards AIDS has been documented in students that have knowledge of HIV and AIDS (Lau and Lee, 2010).

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be called our modern pandemic, affecting both industrialized and developing countries. Since the first reported case in June 1981, a lot has been done. Recognized as an emerging disease only in the early 80s, AIDS has rapidly established itself throughout the World, and is likely to endure and persist well into the 21st century. AIDS has evolved from a mysterious illness to a global pandemic, which has infected tens of millions in less than 20 years.

The HIV/AIDS pandemic has hit hard in developing countries particularly sub-Saharan Africa. According to recent WHO estimates, at the end of 2001, the number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS worldwide were about 4.3 million; 28 million adults especially women and children are in Africa. In 2004′ alone, more than 3.4 million new infections were reported while an estimated 2.4 million Africans died of the disease (WHO, 2004).

Over 5 million people are newly infected with HIV/AIDs each year. Human developments gains painstakingly accrued over generations have been wiped out in a matter of a few years in the worst–affected countries. In the absence of a vaccine against cure of HIV/AIDS, there is need for research into issues concerning preventive measures among the risk groups. (UNAIDS/WHO, 2002). Globally, 15,000 new infections occur daily, 5,500 people die of AIDS daily in Africa. Of the five countries with the highest number of AIDS cases, four are found in Africa with Nigeria having the second highest number of cases on the continent (Ejembi, 2001).

In 2005, there were close to five million new HIV infections worldwide, 3,200,000 of these are in sub Saharan Africa alone. In the same year, three million people died of AIDS-related diseases; more than half a million (570,000) were children. Today the total number of people living with HIV stands at 40.3 million, double   the number (19.9 million) in 1995. Despite progress made in a small but growing number of countries, the AIDS epidemic continues to outstrip global efforts to contain it. (WHO, 2005).

As with sexually transmitted infections (STI), women are at least four times more vulnerable to infection, the presence of untreated STI is a risk factor for HIV. In addition, coerced sex increases risk of micro lesions. Economic, financial or material dependence on men means that women cannot control when, with whom and in what circumstances they have sex. Many women have to exchange sex for material favours, for daily survival. There is formal sex work but there is also this exchange, which in many poor settings, is many women’s only way of providing for themselves and their children.

Socially and culturally, women are not expected to discuss or make decisions about sexuality, they cannot request, let alone insist on using a condom, or any form of protection. If they refuse sex or request condom use, they often risk abuse, as there is a suspicion of infidelity. The many forms of violence against women mean that sex is often coerced, which is itself a risk factor for HIV infection. For married and unmarried men, multiple partners (including sex workers) are culturally accepted.

Women are expected to have relations with or many older men, who are more experienced, and more likely to be infected. Men are seeking younger and younger partners in order to avoid infection and in the belief that sex with a virgin cures AIDS and other diseases. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) results from a combination of factors triggered off by infection with the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV).

HIV is a retrovirus with the affinity for the CD4+ cells of the immune system. It is transmissible in the body fluids which include blood and blood products, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk and saliva. Any activity which results in the entry of infected fluid into the body of a healthy individual leads to infection. Such activities include sexual intercourse (be it heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual activities or oral sex), transfusion of unscreened blood and vertical transmission from an infected mother to her infant at delivery and also during breast-feeding.

Others are sharing/use of infected skin piercing instruments, tattooing and the incision of tribal marks (a common practice in Nigeria especially amongst the Yorubas & Hausas), circumcision, all forms of female genital mutilation, manicure and pedicure, shaving of hair in barbing saloons, sharing of toothbrushes, kissing with bruised gums, breast feeding, accidental needle sticking injuries in hospitals and laboratories are amongst the various modes through which HIV may be transmitted. The principal modes of transmission in Nigeria are sexual (80%) and unsafe blood transfusion (10%), mother to child transmission and drug injecting population are on the increase (Akinsete, 2001). From the above, the study is set to ascertain the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards reducing HIV/AIDS in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State.

PROJECT TOPIC- KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS REDUCING HIV/AIDS IN AFIKPO SOUTH LGA OF EBONYI STATE

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Looking at the Issues associated with knowledge, perception and attitudes of students towards reducing HIV/AIDS in recent days, It will be seen that students’ knowledge, perception and attitude on HIV/AIDS reduction is not too good. Students do not take the awareness and knowledge of HIV and AIDS in secondary schools very serious rather they turn to stigmatize people living with HIV/AIDS and this turns out to be very dangerous to people living with the disease.

However, the researcher seek to know the appropriate means of imparting knowledge ,creating more awareness  to change or reduce  the attitude of students towards people living with HIV/AIDS. If these problem is not properly checked and looked into, people living with HIV/AIDS will die by the day because they cannot stand stigmatization, Students are likely to be infected with the disease because they do not take HIV/AIDS awareness serious and this might make them ignorant on how to treat, Handle and Live with people living with the disease. It is the existence of the above issues that motivated the researcher to study the knowledge, perception and attitudes of students towards reducing HIV/AIDS in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Purpose of the Study

          This study will try to ascertain the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards reducing HIV/AIDS in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State. Specifically, it seeks to:

  1. Determine the level of awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among secondary school students in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State.
  2. Determine the attitude of students towards people living with HIV/AIDS Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State.
  3. Ascertain the effect of culture in the attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS awareness and reduction in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State.
  4. Examine the impact of sex education towards reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school students.

Significance of the study

This study is on the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards reducing of HIV/AIDS in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State. The findings from the study will be of immense help to every student, teachers and staff as all are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS which has considerable negative effects of an individual, family and society at large.

To the teachers, the findings from the study will be of immense contribution to teachers’ knowledge of sex education and the importance of educating students so as to help in reducing HIV/AIDS.

To the students, this study will help them to understand and view sex education from the right perspective than looking at people who discuss sex as immoral. Again, they will see the need for abstinence and where they are not able to handle that, they have alternative which is making use of protective measures.

The society will benefit from this study as it will be an eye opener on things the student itch to listen to and the area students ask most of their questions as it has to do with them. Also, will bring about a better society where the knowledge from this study will bring about reduction in the HIV/AIDS victims through sex education and also make the society to see the issue of sex education as normal just like every other topic and if possible, pay more attention to sex education with the right attitude.

To the government, it will help them see the need for sensitization in secondary schools and encourage individuals, groups and non-governmental organization who in one way or the other try to educate the society on sex matters.

Scope of the study

This study will try to ascertain the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards reducing HIV/AIDS in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State. This study will be carried out among secondary school students in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State. The range age of the population to be studied will be between sixteen to twenty five years including male and female students. The study is an assessment of the level of HIV/AIDS awareness and their knowledge leading to attitude behavioural change.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the level of awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among secondary school students in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State?
  2. What are the attitude of students towards people living with HIV/AIDS Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State?
  3. What are the effect of culture in the attitude of students towards HIV/AIDS awareness and reduction in Afikpo South LGA of Ebonyi State?

What are the impacts of sex education towards reducing HIV/AIDS among secondary school students?

PROJECT TOPIC- KNOWLEDGE, PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARDS REDUCING HIV/AIDS IN AFIKPO SOUTH LGA OF EBONYI STATE