THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE MOTIVATION OF WORKERS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

 

Abstract

This study looks at the role of leadership on motivation of workers. The internal driving force that results in directing and persistence in behaviour of workers. The task of directing is rested on all supervisors or managers. To executive this task effectively, the supervisor or manager has to be a good leader, someone who led others by getting work done through them. This study examine the leadership conceptions utilized in organization with a view to determine whether the following factors like the workers satisfaction with their leader, the nature of leadership between manager and worker motivate the worker’s performance. It was concluded that there is a negative association between nature of relationship that exist between management and workers and negative association between leadership style geared towards achieving its goals. It was recommended that leaders should adopt style that will satisfy their subordinates.  

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

An organization comprises of people interested and working together towards the achievement of the organization. It is a common notion that a fundamental and material disagreement exist between the demand of the organization and the need of the workers. Whereas, the organization imposes demands for routine behaviour and conformity to rules and regulations workers exhibit dominant needs for creative expression and initiative.

In the light of this, it is paramount for one rested with the responsibility of supervising and motivating the workers to ensure that they work in accordance to instruction. In this case, one who wears the crown as a leader that assures the role of his leadership style in the motivation of workers has effect on their performance.

Leadership dates back to ancient times, when men of stoned age in association with each other exploited their environment through the process of farming, hunting and building etc. In this process there were always people to lead them.

In this recent time, workers have demonstrated a non-chalant attitude to their job in certain transition. The truth is not far fetched because this can be attributed to the effect of leadership style in the management of human resources in relationship to his work place.

It is no doubt that success of any organization lies in the type of leadership style adopted by various leaders in leading their subordinate to accomplish the set goals and objectives. Workers perception of satisfaction with the boss and leadership style can affect their management performance either in a negative or positive manner. It is when workers are happy that they will contribute optionally towards the goals and objectives of the organization on the other hand, if workers are not happy with their boss leadership style, they will definitely not be motivated to contribute their quota towards the achievement of the organization goals.

 

THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE MOTIVATION OF WORKERS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

 

1.2   Statement of Problem

Organization exists for the purpose of achieving certain goals and objectives. Every organization has people as the hallmark function towards the realization of organizational goals and objectives. This is so because organization does not exist in isolation. For this reason, people are employed to perform different functions so as to achieve same goals and objectives of the organizations.

These people employed to work in an organization has their need to satisfy and the process, through which these needs can be met and the thought which they are satisfied in the workplace influence their performance.

The leadership style adopted by the leaders in leading their subordinate can also affect the performance of workers towards the accomplishment of the organization goals and objectives.

This is mostly the case in a situation when such a leadership style will not enable the subordinate to achieve their personal needs in the organization.

The particular style adopted by the leaders ensuring that subordinate behaviour is geared towards realization of the organization can affect the performance of the subordinate. The role of leadership style as a subordinate performance of these, has well demonstrated by such scholars like the Gregor (1957 – 1960), Monter and Blake (1996), Fielder (1967) and Likerb (1961). It was found that the researchers decide to look at the role of leadership styles on the motivation of workers performance in an organization.

 

THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON THE MOTIVATION OF WORKERS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

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PROJECT TOPIC- ECONOMIC HISTORY OF EKITI PEOPLE IN NIGERIA, 1900-1960

ABSTRACT

The economic history of the colonial Nigeria will be incomplete without considering the contribution of the Ekiti people. Unfortunately, this contribution is largely unknown for lack of research documentation. Rather, many researchers on Ekiti have focused mainly on the political, religious, social, artistic and, most especially, the educational experiences of the people. The colonial government easily recognized the economic potential of Ekiti, which was why it did not hesitate, particularly for mostly exploitative reasons, to provide the infrastructure to achieve British economic interests. The infrastructure included European administrative system, modern transportation system, modern education, medical services, road construction, new currency and banking systems; all of which have been thoroughly examined. However, this research has discussed in detail, the economic potential of the colonial Ekiti, focusing on the major aspects of the economy that were indispensable to the growth of Western Region between 1900 and 1960: agriculture as well as art and craft industries. This made it very important to discuss the major Ekiti agricultural products like cocoa, kola, timber, palm  roduce, rubber and various subsidiary crops like tobacco, rice and cotton.
These are in addition to staple food production and livestock. The art and craft industry also gave a fortifying energy to the economy of the colonial
Ekiti through various art and crafts products.
The activities of the domestic and external traders have been thoroughly discussed under market systems and the activities of both local and, particularly, expatriate exporters of export commodities. The research has made it clear that Ekiti was an economic force behind the development of
Western Region in the colonial period.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background

Ekiti state, located in the north-eastern part of South Western Nigeria with abundant natural resources and other economic viabilities that still await
prospecting,1 was carved out of old Ondo State on October 1, 1996. This was sequel to years of intellectual and political struggle by the Ekiti political
business, social and academic elite (Map 1.1).2 Before this creation, Ekiti constituted 52% of the old Ondo State population of over 3 million. The land
area covers about 10898.68 kilometres, with hilly features and well spread prominent rocks, all of which earned the state the name “Okiti” or “Ekiti”,
meaning a hilly land.
With its capital in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State (Map 1.2) is surrounded by Osun State in the west, Ondo State in the south east, Kwara State in the north
and Kogi State in the north east.4 This geographical location has been a boost to the economic potential of the state. Historically, Ekiti once occupied a
very large area, covering parts of the present Kogi State as well as the present Ilesha and Akure. But by 1940, both Ilesha and Akure had ceased to be part of Ekiti Division.5 Culturally, however, particularly as regards language or dialect and elements of tradition, the Ilesha, Akure and the Ekiti still continue, naturally, to drink from the same stream of ethnic unity.6 In fact, according to Isola Olomola, the name Ekiti was used to cover the whole northern areas of Eastern Yoruba before the arrival of the Europeans.

PROJECT TOPIC- ECONOMIC HISTORY OF EKITI PEOPLE IN NIGERIA, 1900-1960

EINFLUENCE OF ‘NNOKO UMUNWANYI’ PROGRAMME IN RAISING THE POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF RURAL WOMEN IN ENUGU STATE

 

Abstract

As part of human development initiative, the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (F) Enugu designed Nnoko Umunwanyi programme to educate rural women on their political and other rights. Over twenty years after this Igbo programme was designed and broadcast to rural women, how has it influenced their participation in politics? To investigate this, the opinion  of 400 rural women in six selected villages in three local government areas in Enugu State  were studied using explanatory mixed method design which accommodates survey and focus group methods. The survey method was used to generate quantitative data through the instrumentality of questionnaire, while focus group discussion was used to generate qualitative data. The analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data generated revealed that Nnoko Umunwanyi programme has to a moderate extent, increased the political knowledge of rural women in Enugu State and as such increased their level of political participation. The finding also showed Nnoko Umunwanyi programme has to a moderate extent, raised the political interest of rural women in Enugu State. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the programme should be made more attractive and proper step should be taken to
encourage the rural women to expose themselves to the programme in order to consistently  secure increased listenership.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The mass media are social drivers in all human society. They determine most times what we do and how we do them. Unarguably, a lot of social changes occasioned by increase in knowledge level have taken place in most parts of the world because of media influence. Experts in the communication circle insist that the mass media are vehicles of social change in the dynamics of human existence. No doubt, the mass media have powers to change people’s attitude and persuade them to take up a particular course of action. In most cases, the media persuade you to do only what they want you to do (Okunna, 1999, p.210). The agenda setting function of the media explains better how the media tell us what to think about. In the area of politics, agenda setting function of the media  demonstrates how the media determine the topic for political debate and discussion in the society. Okunna (p.210) asserts that the “ability of the media to mold public opinion by defining the boundaries within which people think about and discuss political issues, has been widely noted”.

In line with this, the media might not succeed to tell the electorates what to think, but they inevitably tell them what and what to think about. This has been the power of the media over the years.Many studies support the fact that people gain knowledge about public events, politics and social trends from the media. However, experts wonder why women’s participation in politics is still low despite all that the media are doing. Why some said that women are marginalized by men, some argued that men have more access to the media than the women. Whether this is true or not is another matter altogether; the fact remains that women
participation in the politics of the third world is abysmally low. According to Ogbiti and Onosu (2012, p.139), many third world “countries lag behind other
world regions in ensuring gender equality in educational attainment, politics and control over economic resources”. Ogbiti and Onosu (2012, p.139) explain further that: The 2008/2009 global Gender Gap Reports (GG GR) (2009) by the World Economic Forum shows Africa fared poorly among the 130 countries featured.

Mozambique ranked (18), South Africa (22), Namibia (30), Tanzania (38), Uganda (43), Botswana (63), Madagascar (74)… Mali (109), Mauritania (110), Algeria (111), Angola (114), Bukina Faso (115) and Chad (129). On the global ladder of GGGRS, Norway came first while among the top 10 are Finland, Sweden, New Zealand, Philippines, Denmark, Iceland, Netherlands, and Lativia. Ogbiti and Onosu (p.139) also observed that of all the countries in Africa, only President
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia is the only female president. The case is even worst in Nigeria as all the elections held have not produced significant number of women in elective positions. Okonkwor and Nwammuo (2012, p.9) write that: There is no surprise about the results of 2011 elections that still portrayed male domination in Nigerian politics. Although this is an improvement from what it used to be in Nigerian politics. A lot still needs to be done. After the 1999 general elections, only 14 women made it as cabinet members of the President. Odii (2011) cited in Okonkwo and Nwammuo (2012, p.9) observed that, as always,
men occupied all sensitive positions.

According to them “there has never been an elected female president, vice president, Senate president, etc”. This ugly development is in spite of the noise of 35 percent Affirmative Action for women representation in Nigeria politics during the run up to the 2011 elections. In fact, observers claimed that the so called ‘Women for Change Initiative of First Lady Patience Jonathan, did not yield much result. Ogbiti and Onosu (2012, p.14) noted that the 2011 general elections, like other election, did not show that any serious effort was put in place to encourage women to participate actively. At present women constitute: A paltry nine (9) percent of the number of persons in the Senate, 7.29 percent of the membership of House of Representative, 16.6 percent of the deputy governorship positions, 5.45 percent of the state house of assembly and zero percent at the presidential election office (Ogbiti and Onosy, p.140) Worst still, 98.1 percent of all the women that got elective positions came from the urban areas leaving less than 2 per cent for rural women (Madu, 2012, p.124). This has made the need to encourage a genuine and effective participation of Nigerian women in politics is not only imperative but a must do.

To be able to meet Goal 3 of the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) which has to do with gender equality and women empowerment, a serious  communication effort must be put up by all to encourage and mobilize women, especially those in the rural areas to participate since over 80 percent of Nigerian women live in the rural areas. Moemeka (2012, p.139) writes that about “80% of the people (Nigerians) are very poor and live in rural environment”. Since the mass media occupy a privileged position and also have as their social responsibility the duty to inform and encourage women to participate actively in politics, one expects them to perform these roles effectively (Obot, 2012, p.489). Anything short of this will see everyone offloading all the blames on the media. In line with the quest to develop an effective communication strategy, the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Enugu zonal station came up with a gender empowerment
programme, Nnko Umunwanyi. The programme designed for rural women in Enugu State to enlighten them on certain issues such as women development in terms of politics, health, culture and other matters concerning them. The programme is an aged long programme produced by Ngozi Obi and was first broadcast over 20 years ago. It is a magazine programme that accommodates two or three persons in a panel.The programme was formally aired on Wednesday by 9.30 am but later changed to Friday by 8.30pm due to demand of the audience. It is aired on 828KHZ 362 Meters MW Band or AM Band. The time belt for the programme is 30 minutes and it is run in Igbo language. The English version of the programme is called Women’s World and it comes up every Wednesday by 6:30pm. For over twenty years that this programme has been running, one is quick to ask: what effort has imade in empowering rural women in Enugu State whom the station claims are active participants?

 

INFLUENCE OF ‘NNOKO UMUNWANYI’ PROGRAMME IN RAISING THE POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF RURAL WOMEN IN ENUGU STATE

 

Statement of The Problem

For over twenty years that Nnko Umunwanyi programme was developed and broadcast by the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Enugu, observers have been watching with keen interest the role the programme has played so far in educating and raising the political consciousness of Enugu State women who are audience of the programme. Why some argue that the programme has done so much in educating women and mobilizing them to participate actively in  politics, some have however argued that the programme has not done much in rural women’s political life (Ugwu 2009 and Okeke 2010). However, a close look at these observations revealed that they were mere observations which are outcome of perceived happenings in the programme. No thorough study has been done on the influence of the programme in raising the political consciousness of rural women in Enugu State. Hence, this study evaluates the influence of the  programme in raising the political consciousness of rural women in Enugu State. This helped to reveal whether the programme is achieving it set goals or not.

INFLUENCE OF ‘NNOKO UMUNWANYI’ PROGRAMME IN RAISING THE POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF RURAL WOMEN IN ENUGU STATE

LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE, ONITSHA

 

ABSTRACT

In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and the recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession, occupation or trade has its own variety of language for effective communication. In view of this, the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, a law enforcement agency under the Federal Republic of Nigeria adopts the English language as its official language and in addition to the English language also has other languages in use. Although the members of the Nigeria Police use the English language, the degree of their proficiency is dependent on the level of education of each police officer.

This is to say that different varieties of the English language are used within this community. The thrust of this research work is to highlight the linguistic features of the language of the Nigeria Police Force as used in the police journals and their everyday interactions. It tries to evaluate their use of the English language: how efficiently it has been used. This evaluation would be based on the phonological and syntactic analyses. In the light of the analyses conclusions were made on the linguistic features of the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha. Also this community would be looked at as a speech community because it has its own language apart from the English language which is intelligible to its members. The errors committed would be evaluated through the use of the concept of error analyses. Finally, this would be followed by the conclusion and recommendation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Human beings use language as a means of communication and communication becomes meaningful and effective especially when it comes from the same speech community. In fact, language is very significant because it is a tool for identifying people, their origin, culture or even social statues.
Gimson (1970) defines it as “a system of conventional signs used for communication by a whole community”. As a medium of communication, language does not exist in a vacuum, but operates in a context of situation. These contexts determine the variation of language.
Language is very crucial for human survival because it is the most important and most effective instrument for communication. It is the bond that holds societies together.
Consequently, a society must afford shared cognitive experiences and orientations, hence Aberle et al in Morrish (1980) emphasizes the need for a society to develop a corpus of cognitive orientation which will provide meaningfulness to social situation as well as a sense of stability derived from identity of experiences.On the other hand, for motivation to be sustained in individual and group activity, a society must provide a means of communication for its members. One of the essential elements of living in a society or in a community with others is the means of communication, and this can be achieved through language. One can invariably say that language is the principal means of communication. The primacy of language cuts across every sphere of life: law enforcement, technology, science, politics, religion as well as other interpersonal spheres.

The police use language as every other field does in the performance of their activities which includes enforcement of law and order, prevention and detection of crime, protection of life and property and, other numerous activities. This work is a linguistic inquiry into the language of the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, in Anambra State. The Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, is just like every other Police Force in Nigeria. What is obtainable amongst the Police Force in Onitsha is also obtainable in the whole of the Nigeria Police Force. The Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, has its main station which is referred to as the Central Police Station (CPS) in the heart of the town with many other police posts in many parts of the town. Because of the multi-lingual nature of the country, members of the Police Force are drawn from different ethnic groups and all these people use the English language as their official language for mutual intelligibility.

This study investigates linguistic features of the English language of the Nigeria Police Force. It examines their use of the English language. The English language is observed to play the role of official language in many countries of the world, and in Africa, it is the second language of most countries including Nigeria. It is the language of law, education, law enforcement and politics. It is the dominant medium of interaction in different professions. The language of the Police Force studied in this work is the Standard English as used by the Nigeria Police Force. This study will also discuss in the brief the use of jargon by the Nigeria Police Force.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study being a linguistic inquiry into the language of the Nigeria Police Force, aims at:
1. describing the language situation in the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha.
2. the variety of the English language found in this community.
3. the context in which they used, with whom and for what purpose.
4. the syntactic and phonological structure of the English language used in the community.
The Nigeria Police Force, a Federal law enforcement agency, is found all over Anambra State, with quarters and barracks in different parts of the State.
Nigeria is a multi-lingual nation with police officers drawn from different ethnic groups and languages. The languages spoken in the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, comprises Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Ibibio, Efik, Kalabari, Izon, Pidgin and several other Nigerian languages.
The official language used for the spoken and written activities is the English language. The English language is used for parades and drills, for lectures and seminars, for court records and for most discussions between the officers and members of the public. The Nigeria Police Force in the performance of her social functions of law enforcement employs language as a medium of interaction, preservation and dissemination of information. Communication of message both within and outside the Police circle is done in English. The diatypic variety of the language of law enforcement can be seen in the various activities and entries by the Police like reports, minutes, statements, parades, drills, and so forth.Going further, since this study is a linguistic investigation into the language of the Nigeria Police Force, it tries to evaluate the use of the English language in this speech community; how efficiently it has been used. This evaluation will be based on the levels of linguistic analyses and these are phonology and syntax.

Also the Nigeria Police Force in their use of the English language produces varieties. They are supposed to be using the Standard English that is the Received Pronunciation standard but this is not so. Their proficiency largely depends on the level of education of the individual officers. The English language in Nigeria has many varieties. This is as a result of the contact between the English language and the local Nigerian languages and because the English language is used within the local setting, with local ideas and local attitude to life. Another reason is that the English language is a second language.
According to Saville-Troike (1982) “ The range of varieties used for auxiliary national purposes even within a single country such as Nigeria runs from pidgin English on one extreme, through regionally marked varieties ( Hausa English, Yoruba English, Igbo English) to educate Nigerian English and finally to varieties which very closely approximate British or American norms”.
These varieties abound in the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha. Their use of the English language will be analyzed in the chapter four of this study. Also chapter two, this perspective on varieties would be discussed elaborately.

 

LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE, ONITSHA

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is pertinent to note that a lot of work has been done on language and other professions, but not much has been done with respect to the language of the police force. Therefore this study sets to: identify the varieties of the English language used by the Nigeria Police Force; determine the problem in the linguistic features of the English language of Nigeria Police Force; find out the causes of these problems; and finally, suggest how these problems can be solved to enhance the effective use of the English language by the Nigeria Police Force.

1.4 THE RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is designed to provide an insight into the unique use of the English language by the Nigeria Police Force and to bring out the influences on the choices and uses of the language. Ijomah (1973) states that “ the vocabulary of language reflects the physical and social environment of the people”.
This study also points out the importance of language as well as its flexibility in the context such as the one under study.
This research will help Nigerians to appreciate language of the Nigerian Police Force and this will, no doubt, enhance the relationship between the Nigeria Police and the public.
It will also help the government in reshaping the Nigeria Police Force with regard to the issue of qualification. The government, through this study will also put into consideration organizing workshops and seminars for members of the Police Force to help them improve on their use of the language.

 

 

LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE, ONITSHA

 STRATEGIES FOR PREVENTING COMMUNAL CLASHES USING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA

 

Introduction

Academic libraries are struggling with diminishing funds for acquisition of library materials. The price of books continues to rise, which has forced many  libraries to cut back on purchasing. Academic libraries are faced with the problems of meeting the information needs of researchers in different fields of study. This ugly trend affects learning and research in our academic institutions, and leaves researchers with few resources. Online resources can help alleviate these problems; however, there is a limit to the quantity and quality of information that one can easily access. Some electronic materials require subscription fees that may not be within the reach of the users.

Librarians must have a clear understanding of information needs and information resources used by researchers. One way to do this is by analysing theses to discover what materials are cited most by researchers. This will enable librarians to provide these materials and encourage learning and research. This can be done through citation analysis. The result of the analysis will help librarians base the acquisition of library materials on facts not on opinion. Citation analysis is a tool for measuring library collection use. It has been applied in the evaluation of journal collections, for deciding whether to acquire, continue, or discontinue the subscription (Smith 1981). Citation analysis is an aspect of bibliometrics, which studies the references used in documents.

Citation analysis involves counting how many times a paper or researcher is cited, assuming that influential scientists and important works are cited more often than others. Citation analysis was developed in information science as a tool to identify core setsof articles, authors, or journals in particular fields
(http://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/asis96/node4.html) The study was carried out to find out what journals were most cited, the major subject areas covered in the research, and the extent to which different library and information science resources were cited by postgraduate students in the Department of Library and Information Science. Citation analysis can be used to determine information sources used by doctoral students in their research projects (Kuruppu and Moore, 2008). Researchers need access to many different kinds and formats of information, including books, journals, etc.

The type of information sources used and their currency are necessary for both research and for national development. The poor economic situation and devaluation of the currency make it difficult to acquire the much needed resources to keep our resources up to date. The Internet has contributed to the provision and spread of information, information are accessed irrespective of time and location. Majority of the information we access are current and up-todate. Publishing in the Internet is quite easy. It is much faster and easier than with print publication. These are all recent innovations that have come in to easy the problem of accessibility of information materials, all it involves is to sit down at a computer and navigate from one information source to another by the click of the mouse. Information is power and there is need for it to be always current and up to date. This can be achieved through the libraries performing their functions in the provision of information. The understanding of the information sources used by postgraduate students will help the library to acquire regular and current journals and other information sources needed by these researchers.

Acquisition of needed information resources leads to availability of required current information and will help students to conduct effective research and sound comprehensive work. It is based on this background that postgraduate theses submitted in the department of library and information science University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN), from 1997 to 2007 were studied. UNN is the first federal university to start a postgraduate programme in library and information science in south eastern Nigeria. It is also the first indigenous university in Nigeria. It started its postgraduate programme in 1997, since then it has graduated many students from both the masters and doctorate degrees programmes. Objec tives of the S tudy The broad purpose of the study is to examine the references used by postgraduate researchers to identify the materials that are mostly needed in their research work while specifically the study was designed to: Analyze the extent of different library and information science resources cited by postgraduate students in the Department of
Library and Information Science. Ascertain the number of Internet resources cited.

Find the average number of citations per project. Determine which library and information science journals are cited most Discover the major subject areas

S c ope of the S tudy

The study covered a period of eleven years, from 1997-2007. This was chosen because it was when the Department of Library and Information Science began postgraduate studies. The years covered help ensure a sufficient number of works that have been assessed by external examiner.

 

STRATEGIES FOR PREVENTING COMMUNAL CLASHES USING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA

Literature Review

Citation analysis is an unobtrusive research method that identifies core lists of journals and monographs in a subject discipline (Kuruppu and Moore, 2008). The usefulness of a discipline is measured by the amount and quality of research completed in the discipline (Onyancha 2007). Lancaster (1991) stated that “research productivity and impact is measured through an analysis of the number of publications produced and the quality of the sources in which the published materials appears.” This implies that sources of citation are important in determining the quality of a work. Journals are accorded importance because they contain firsthand information. Sam (2008) reports that a majority of the items cited were journals (44.5%), while books accounted for 32.5%.

Gooden (2000) revealed the same findings. Kuruuppu and Moore (2008) examined the information sources used by doctoral students in agriculture and biological sciences, and found that journals had 24,072 out of 29,894 citations (80.5%). Okafor and Ukwoma (2007) discovered that journals are more frequently used than other resources. Tuńón and Brydges (2005) reported that of the 69.6 references, 47.7 citations (68.7%) on average were from
periodicals. Nkiko and Adetoro (2007) discovered that out  of the 14,655 citations generated from 557 projects with an average citation of 26.3% per project, monographs had 53.3%, journals 25.1%, online resources 7.7%, followed by others and grey literature with 2.7%. LaBonte (2008) discovered that out of 4,023 citations analyzed from 643 journals, 318 journals (49.5%) had one citation, and one journal (Applied Physics Letters) had 267. The mean number of citations per bibliography was 28.77, of which 90.2% was journals, 3.4 % conference proceedings, and 6.4% other formats such as books, patents, and personal communication. Omekwu and Popoola (1991) and Ogunleye (1996) found that monographs are cited more than journals. Megnigbeto in Nikiko
and Adetoro (2008) studied citation of dissertations of library and information science undergraduate students and discovered that the number of citations to online resources was very low. Tuńón and Brydges (2005) had the same findings.

The subject area of research is also an important consideration. Some studies cover different types of library service. Sam (2008) discovered that  academic libraries were the subject area covered most. Aina(1999) discovered that the most frequently covered area was professional education, with 12.3%, followed by information technology at 8.5%. Methodology Citation analysis is the research method used in this study. As Aina (2002) describes, references cited are systematically analysed to discover what journals are cited by researchers in a discipline.

 

STRATEGIES FOR PREVENTING COMMUNAL CLASHES USING LIBRARY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES IN SOUTH EAST NIGERIA