The Impact of Product Quality on Consumer Brand Loyalty

Project Topic- The Impact of Product Quality on Consumer Brand Loyalty (A Case Study of Intercontinental Distiller Limited, Ota, Ogun State)

ABSTRACT

 This research revealed extensively the impact of product quality on consumer brand loyalty. The main purpose was to find out the impact of product quality on consumer brand loyalty as generated high profit to Intercontinental distiller limited products in Ota, Ogun State. Both primary and secondary data collection method were used in gathering information, books journals and past project were used. Questionnaires were administered and personal interview were conducted. The major findings were those consumers who are strictly concerned about product features. It was also find that product quality has great influence in consumer preference as promotional message with great precision to advertising brand loyalty. It was therefore recommended that quality level of the product yield great influence on the consumer. It should therefore be strictly maintained and improved. They should also know every producer of products of any sort should pay great attention to most qualitative production within its ability.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

This research is on the impact of product quality on consumer brand loyalty case study of Intercontinental Distiller Limited, Ota, Ogun State. The researcher intends to find out if Intercontinental Distiller Limited produces quality products and how this impacts on the customer patronage and boost profitability.The study is also aimed at assessing the relationship between customer service and product quality with customer satisfaction and loyalty as it affect Intercontinental Distiller Limited Ota, Ogun State.

Product quality is beneficial to both consumers and manufacturers in the following ways: It serves as positioning tools, it has impacts on product performance, it helps to create customers value and satisfaction and companies should therefore choose a product quality level that matches target market needs and quality level of competing products.

  • Background to the Study

The consumer of goods normally hints on quality rather than quality as different from the company objective which is profit maximization. The success of every business adherence to the marketing concept, which implies the skillful satisfaction of what buyer believe to be their self-interest as an acceptable relationship between the buyer and the company.

The understanding of product quality and the role it plays in attracting consumer loyalty will effectively serve as a paddle to enable us dwell on the subjections of this work. Notably, our discussion so far has been the impact of product quality on consumer brand loyalty. A case study of Intercontinental Distiller Limited Ota, Ogun State. The finding of this work give an insight which every among at procession into which we regularly prefer certain product and not other in a variety of circumstances.

Manufacturers at the end of this work will be able to spot from marketing activities. The industry having only carry out some research and find out the impact of product quality on consumer brand loyalty, the product requirement are to convene this finding in to product concept and lastly into goods and services that can satisfy the identifiable wants.

The company has specification and requirement that the firm can be seen as an input/output system.

Project Topic- The Impact of Product Quality on Consumer Brand Loyalty (A Case Study of Intercontinental Distiller Limited, Ota, Ogun State)

  • Statement of the Problem

Many organizations have be experiencing low patronage from customers, which led to decrease in profitability of such organization.

  1. A common trend among customers who patronize these organizations is that they either complain of taste, colour, packaging, price of their product or poor product quality, and company’s corporate image.
  2. The problem of how to know which to offer and to what extent as always resulted in an attempt to make consumer loyalty to a product.

1.3   Research Questions

  1. Is product quality of useful tool for achieving organizational goal?
  2. Does the products of Intercontinental Distiller Limited have any impact on product quality on consumer brand loyalty?
  3. Is there any factor that affect brand loyalty on consumer product?

1.4   Research Hypothesis

        Hypothesis I

Hi:   There is a positive relationship between the usefulness of product quality and achieving organizational goal.

Hypothesis II

Hi:   There is a positive relationship between product quality and consumer brand loyalty.

Hypothesis III

Hi:   There is a positive relationship between the factors that affect brand loyalty and consumer purchase of product.

1.5   Purpose of the Study

  1. To find out if product quality is a useful tool for achieving organizational goal.
  2. To determine the impact of product quality on consumer brand loyalty.

iii.    To know the factors that affect brand loyalty.

1.6   Scope of Study

This study shall focus attention mostly on the youth. It is specifically given attention to this segment of the market for the frequent consumption of the product.

Under study i.e. Intercontinental Distiller Limited in Ota, Ogun State adds to this segment of the market is comparatively educated to understanding and answering questions relevant to the study. Geographically, this study covers Ogun State.

1.7   Significance of the Study

To marketing, this study will assist marketing expert to mass emphasis on the specific component of an element of marketing mix that attract most loyalty buyers towards a product.

To all Intercontinental Distiller Limited products, it will assist in spotting possible different that stops their potentials.

To student, this method will serve as a source of secondary data to related research work.

1.8   Limitations of the Study

A lot of problems were encountered by the researcher while conducting the research. Among them being that some respondent of Intercontinental Distillers product in Ota, Ogun State are presumable reserved in providing the researcher with some necessary information.

Secondly, an elaborate research work such as this could only be carried out within the limited available time frame. However, the researcher may be able to squeeze out enough time and found that guarantee exhaustive and reliable work.

1.9   Operational Definition of Terms

        Product Quality: Product quality means to incorporate features that have a capacity to meet consumer needs (wants) and gives customers satisfaction by improving products (Kotler, 2008).

        Product: Product is complex of tangible and intangible attributes including packaging, colour, price, prestige and services that satisfy needs and wants of people (Stanton, 2009). Product is anything that can be offered to someone to satisfy a need or a want.

Consumer Buying Behaviour: Consumer buying behavior is the study of the ways of buying and disposing of goods, services, ideas or experiences by the individuals, groups and organizations in order to satisfy their needs and wants (Kotler and Keller, 2011).

Consumer: A consumer can be a person (or group of people), generally categorized as an end user or target demographic for a product, goods or services (Kotler, 2008).

Brand Loyalty: Beerlie, (2009), stated that a true brand loyalty when the decision to repeat purchase is made on satisfactory experiences and positive attitude toward the preferred brand (Beerli, 2009).

Loyalty: Loyalty has been explained as an active loyalty when a consumer re-use the brand and recommend the brand to the others, and a passive loyalty that is characterized as an intension of not switching even when brand provides less positive conditions (Neriga and Vite, 2009).

Project Topic- The Impact of Product Quality on Consumer Brand Loyalty (A Case Study of Intercontinental Distiller Limited, Ota, Ogun State)

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BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON Morinda lucida AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis

 

ABSTRACT

Extracts of eleven plants namely Anarcadium occidentale, Anthocleista vogelii Planch, Alchornea cordifolia, Cassia siberinea, Danielli oliveri, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Mangifera indica, Morinda lucida, Nauclea latifolia, Triplochyton scleroxylon and Carica papaya which are used in Igala (Kogi State, Nigeria) folk medicine for the treatment of typhoid fever and other infective disorders were investigated for their antibacterial activities, using a modification of the agar well diffusion technique. The extracts that showed the strongest antibacterial activities, chloroform extract of Morinda lucida (ML) and n-hexane extract Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh (EC), were further investigated for phytochemical and proximate compositions, bioguided assays, anti-inflammatory actions and toxicological effects. Results obtained show that there is sufficient pharmacological basis for their use for the treatment of typhoid fever and other infective disorders caused by E. coli and S. aureus.

Chloroform extract of M. lucida was bacteriostatic against S. Typhi with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≤ 12.5 mg/ml. The most active fraction however was bactericidal with a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 100 mg/ml. These results compare favourably to those of standard antibiotics such as gentamicin, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol. Chloroform extract of M. lucida demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties and was not acutely or sub-chronically toxic to rats. N-hexane extract E. camaldulensis had an MIC of ≤ 12.5 mg/ml and an MBC of 25 mg/ml against S. Typhi, and these compare favourably with those of standard antibiotics. The most active fraction had an MIC and MBC of ≤ 12.5 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively. N-hexane extract E. camaldulensis demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties and was not acutely toxic to rats and there is no indication for caution in the administration of the extracts over a period required for treating typhoid fever. There is evidence for potentials of extracts of ML and EC for development of novel anti-typhoid therapy.

 

BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON Morinda lucida AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 PREAMBLE A number of important pathogens such as Salmonella, poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis and Shigella spp. gain entry through the gastro-intestinal tract. Some of these cause diarrhoeal diseases. Others pass through the intestinal tract to cause diseases in other organs (Lucas and Gilles, 2003). Different pathogens act in different ways. Some produce toxins or other substances which disrupt specific physiological processes, while others invade particular tissues (and may also form toxins) as in Salmonella (Singleton, 1995). Drugs have been used successfully for the treatment of endemic diseases. Infectious diseases are the world’s major threat to human health and account for almost 50, 000 deaths every day (Ahmad and Beg, 2001). The situation has further been complicated by the rapid development of multi-drug resistance by the microorganisms to the antimicrobial agents available. Multi-resistant Salmonella Typhi is widespread in endemic countries (Lucas and Gilles, 2003). Even before the discovery of modern antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents, traditional medicine had served as man’s resort when attacked by infective agents such as bacteria and fungi (Crafton, 1983). Herbal medicine has still maintained its popularity in all regions of developing world and its use is rapidly spreading in the industrialized countries (Patrick, 2002).

Herbal medicine represents one of the most important fields of traditional medicine all over the world. To promote the proper use of herbal medicine and to determine their potential as sources for new drugs, it is essential to study in a more intensified way medicinal plants which have folklore reputation (Zulfkar et al., 2009).Plants have the major advantage of still being the most effective and cheapest alternative sources of drugs (Pretorious and Watt, 2001). The local use of natural plants as primary health remedies, due to their pharmacological properties, is quite common in Asia, Latin America and Africa (Bibitha et al., 2002). Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased interest in the investigation of natural materials as sources of new antibacterial agents. Different extracts from traditional medicinal plants have been tested to identify the source of the therapeutic effects (Awadh et al., 2001, El-Faky, 1995). As a result, some natural products have been approved as new antibacterial drugs, but there is still an urgent need to identify novel substances that are active against pathogens with high resistance (Barbour et al., 2004, Recio, 1989, Cragg et al., 1997)

 

1.1 TRADITIONAL AFRICAN MEDICINE

 

Traditional Medicine is a major African socio-cultural heritage and it has obviously been in existence for several hundreds of years (Elejuba et al., 2005). By the World Health Organisation (WHO, 1978) definition, traditional medicine is the sum total of all knowledge and practices, whether explicable or not, used in diagnosis, prevention and elimination of physical, mental or social imbalance and relying exclusively on practical experience and observations handed down from generation to generation, whether verbally or in writing. With this description, a few element of traditional medicine includes, various forms of medicines and therapies such as herbal medicine, massage, homeopathy, mud bath, music therapy, wax bath, reflexology, dance therapy, hydrotherapy, mind and spirit therapies, self-exercise therapies, radiation and vibration. Others are osteopathy, chiropractic, aromatherapy, preventive medicine, radiant heat therapy, therapeutic fasting and dieting, spinal manipulation, psychotherapy, etc. It does show that a large country of the size of Nigeria, with diverse cultures and traditions, should be rich in traditional medicine and should have eminent and respected traditional healers to take care of the teeming population.

The traditional healer, as defined by the WHO (2003), is a person who is recognised by the community in which he lives as competent to provide health care by using vegetable, animal and mineral substances and certain other methods based on the social, cultural and religious background, as well as on the knowledge, attributes and beliefs that are prevalent in the community, regarding physical, mental and social well-being and the causation of disease and disability. Traditional medicine has developed in various communities in Nigeria in response to the health needs of the people. The British colonial masters brought in orthodox medicine and, today, both systems of medicine exist in the country. Both have the primary objective to cure, manage or prevent diseases and maintain good health.For most countries of the world, just as we have in Nigeria, a traditional healer may be able to perform many functions thereby becoming more versatile as a healer. However, there are various categories of traditional healers, perhaps specialists known in traditional medicine today and they include herbalists, traditional birth attendants (TBAs), traditional surgeon,bonesetters, traditional medicinal ingredient dealers, traditional psychiatrists and practitioners of therapeutic occultism (Tella, 1976).

According to Tella (1976), Herbalists use mainly herbs, that is, medicinal plants or parts of such plants-whole root, stem, leaves, stem bark or root bark, flowers, fruits, seeds. Sometimes they may use or add animal parts, small whole animal – snails, snakes, chameleons, tortoises, lizards, etc; inorganic residues – alum, camphor, salt, etc and insects, bees, black ants etc. Such herbal preparations may be offered in the form of 1. powder, which could be swallowed or taken with pap (cold or hot) or any drink,

2. powder, rubbed into cuts made on any part of the body with a sharp knife,
3. extract preparation, soaked for some time in water or local gin, decanted as required before drinking; the materials could also be boiled in water, cooled and strained
4. preparation pounded with native soap and used for bathing; such “medicated soaps” are commonly used for skin diseases,
5. pastes, pomades or ointments, in a medium of palm oil or shea butter, or palm kernel oil
6. soup which is consumed by the patient. Herbal preparations may also be administered as enema.
The herbalist cures mainly with plants which he gathers fresh. When seasonal plants have to be used, these plants are collected when available and are preserved usually by drying to eliminate moisture. It is important to stress the relevance of traditional medicine to the majority of Nigerians. Most Nigerians, especially those living in rural communities do not have access to orthodox medicine and it is estimated that about 75 per cent of the populace still prefer to solve their health problems by consulting traditional healers (Adesina, 2010). Where such access exists, the rising cost of imported medications and other commodities used for medicines have posed a big problem. Besides, many rural communities have great faith in traditional medicine, particularly the inexplicable aspects as they believe that it is the wisdom of their fore-fathers which also recognises their socio-cultural and religious background that orthodox medicine seems to neglect.
Plants will continue to remain man’s best source of natural, reliable and active drugs as synthetic drugs often come with side effects and adulterations (Adesina et al., 1998). According to Adesina (1995) there is abundant justification for the use of herbs by the various traditional healers identified.

1.1.1 TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN IGALA-LAND

 

Igala is a language of the Yoruboid branch of the Eastern Kwa sub group or the West Benue-Congo subgroup of the Niger-Congo language family, depending on the school of the observer. It is spoken by the Igala ethnic group of North-Central Nigeria. In 1989, an estimated two million spoke Igala, primarily in Kogi State, Delta State and Edo State (Gordon, 2005). Dialects include Ebu, Idah, Ankpa, Dekina, Ogugu, Ibaji and Ife. The Agatu and Bassa people use Igala for primary school. Igala is related to Yoruba.The Igala language as well as Igala culture and tradition has influenced other languages and cultures around the Niger-Benue River -Igbo, Idoma, Edo etc. The home of the Igala people is situated east of the River Niger and River Benue confluence and astride the Niger in Lokoja. The area is approximately between latitude 6°30 and 8°40 north and longitude 6°30 and 7°40 east and covers an area of about 13,665 square kilometers (Oguagha, 1982) The Igalas are the major ethnic group of Kogi State but can also be found in Delta, Enugu and Edo States of Nigeria.

BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON Morinda lucida AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis</h2

ANTILIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF WATER (H20) EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM LEAVES ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS

 

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the antilipidemic activity of water extracts from leaves of Desmodium velutinum on albino wistar rats. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, soluble carbohydrates, flavonoids, reducing sugar, steroids, cyanide and terpenoids. The animals were treated with known drugs (atorvastatin 2ml). There were significantly reductions in HDL 13.00 1.41 mg/dl LDL 1.20 0.14 mg/dl and triglyceride 39.00 0.14 mg/dl, compared with water extract of Desmodium velutinum (0.5ml). when administered was found to significantly reduce lipid plasma which was LDL 1.90 0.00mg/dl, triglyceride 50.00 0.00mg/dl and increase HDL 25.00 0.00 mg/dl which is the good cholesterol. The water extract of Desmodium velutinum leaf can possibly normalize the plasma lipid when compared with the group given atorvastatin. The phytochemicals analysis showed that the association between these complexes and compounds and other constituent play an important role in the biological activity of the leaf. This study suggested that the water extract of D.velutinum leaf posses hypolipidemic as well as antilipidemic effect.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities play a major role in the development and progression of coronary artery diseases. Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterols have been identified as independent coronary risk factors (Rodrigue et al., 2010). High level of blood cholesterol is responsible for circulatory system disorder. Increase level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) is alarming for cardiovascular diseases and their risk is increased many times (Harman et al., 2011).
In developing countries, the occurrence of heart diseases increases rapidly (Nordestgard et al., 2010). Medical studies show that about 70% of adults over 50 years old suffer atherosclerosis. (Sherien and Azza, 2009). A large number of synthetic hypolipidemic drugs are available in market. Long term use of these drugs cause serious side effects, and are costly.
A medicinal plant is any plant which in one or more of its organ, contains substance that can be used for therapeutic purpose or which is a precursor for synthesis of useful drugs (Sivakumar et al., 2007). Plant contains a large number of bioactive phytochemicals that are responsible for pharmacological action of plants and used for development of drugs. Many
medicinal plants have shown their antilipidemic effect and proved their efficacy in cardiovascular diseases (Nordestgard et al., 2010; Wang, 1999).
One of such plants used very often in the management of the disease by the traditional medicine practitioners of Eastern Nigeria is Desmodium velutium, a perennial plant erect or semi-erect shrub or sub-shrub up to 3m light. It is widely distributed in subtropical Asia and tropical Africa. (Amowi and Azode, 2012).
Extracts of Desmodium velutium are used traditionally in some disease conditions particularly aphrodisiac and headache. Hence, Desomdium velutium may be a source of a pharmacological active agent useful in the treatment of aches, pains and diarrhoea. In Ghana, native doctors mix the root of Desmodium lasincarpum with some hot peppers and use it as enema to cure blood in urine. In Eastern States of Nigeria, the plant locally known as “Ikeagwuani”. (Onyegbule et al., 2012). In these present studies, I investigated the antilipidemic activity of the water (H2O) extract of Desmodium velutinum Leaves on albino wistar rats.

ANTILIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF WATER (H20) EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM LEAVES ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS

 

 PROJECT TOPIC- LEACHATE, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE STREAM, TREATED WATER AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE AT UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA – IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

 

Abstract

These findings documented the physical, chemical and heavy metal contents in leachate, borehole water, surface stream, treated water
and soil samples around the municipal solid waste dumpsite at Uyometropolis, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Samples were collected during
the wet and dry seasons 2010/2011. The samples were analysed for the following parameters: heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb), anions
(PO3 4,SO2- 4,Cl-, NO- 3, NH+ 4-N), essential metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolve oxygen (DO), Chemical oxygen demand
(COD), pH, salinity, turbidity and conductivity. The results revealed that most of the parameters recorded for the leachate samples significantly
exceeded the WHO international standards for drinking water in both seasons. Fe (47.33 and 113.13mg(L), Cd (2.29 and 14.47mg/l), Cu (5.78
and 35.87mg/l), Cr (1.63 and 7.63mg/l), Pb (12.33 and 31.13mg/l), Z  (17.33, and 34.5mg/l), BOD (52.2 and 159.6mg/l), Cl- (284.37 and 536mg/l), NO- 3 (74.03 and 87.83mg/l), TDS (1709.5 and 2043mg/l) and DO (1.73 and 2.73mg/l). In leachate, all the heavy metals, Cl-, COD, salinity, and conductivity contents showed significant increase (P<0.05) while SO2- 4 recorded significant decrease (P<0.05) during the dry season. The physico-chemical contents recorded for the borehole water and treated water samples in both seasons agree with the international standards for drinking water, except for high PO4 – content (1.13 to 2.17mg/l) recorded for the borehole water samples in both seasons which exceeded the WHO permissible limit of 0.1mg/l for drinking water. The borehole water sample recorded significant increase (P<0.05) in Fe, Mn, Na, K. and a significant decrease in SO2- contents during the dry season. The stream water sample recorded high Fe (0.61 and 2.5mg/l) content in both seasons and high Mn (2.37 mg/l), Cr (0.42mg/l), Cd (0.46mg/l) and Cu (3.95mg/l) contents during the dry season which exceeded the WHO international standard for drinking water. The stream water samples recorded significant increase in BOD5, Cu, Mn, Cd and Cr contents during the dry season (P<0.05). The heavy metal contents recorded for soil samples from the dumpsite, from 10 and 20m east, west, south and north of the dumpsite and from the control site were all within the WHO international standards in both seasons. The heavy metal contents in the dumpsite soil sample in both seasons were significantly higher; pb (9.90 and 11.82mg/kg), Zn (1370 and 146mg/kg), Ni (12.56 and 11.82mg/kg), Cr (3.60 and 4.05mg/kg) Cd (9.05 and 12.2mg/kg) and Mn (94.0 and 91.2mg/kg) In both seasons than the control; Pb (3.78mg/kg) Zn (50.90mg/kg), Ni (2.19mg/kg), Cr (1.06mg/kg), Mn (44.27mg/kg), and Cd (1.09mg/kg). Heavy metal contents for soil samples 10 and 20m east of the dumpsite were also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. This study infer that the solid waste dumpsite is affecting the natural quality of the ambient environment. Therefore indiscriminate dumping of solid waste at the dumpsite should be prohibited.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The municipal solid waste dumpsite (MSWD) examined is located within the barrack’s road street at Uyo Metropolis; Akwa – Ibom State. The dumpsite examined contains both biodegradable and non biodegradable materials of all sorts. The different waste materials may contain different physical, chemical and biochemical properties. In the presence of atmospheric water, high temperature and high microbial populations, these waste materials may decompose and get dissolved in the presence of water to generate a waste liquid substance called leachate. This waste water produced may infiltrate into the ground water aquifer, it may be washed into a near by surface stream and it may affect the soil properties. When humans come into direct contact with such contaminated samples, it may lead to many health problems.
Pollution occurs when a product added to our natural environment adversely affects nature’s ability to dispose it off. A pollutant is something which adversely interferes with health, comfort, property or environment of the people. Generally, most pollutants are introduced in the environment as seawage, waste, accidental discharge and as compounds used to protect plants and animals. There are many types of pollution such as air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, nuclear pollution and oil pollution (Misra and Mani, 1991).
Solid wastes other than hazardous and radioactive materials are often referred to as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).
Municipal solid waste is useless unwanted material discharged as a result of human activity. Most commonly, they are solids, semisolids or liquids in containers thrown out of houses, commercial or industrial premises (Nyangababo and Hamya, 1980). Municipal solid waste varies in composition, which may be influenced by many factors, such as culture affluence, location etc. Municipal solid waste management depends on the characteristics of the
solid wastes including the gross composition, moisture contents, average particle size, chemical composition and density, in which knowledge of these usually helps in disposal plans (Sally, 2000).

In Nigeria, agencies like the Federal Environmental Protection Agencies (FEPA), Ministry of environment, Environmental Sanitation Authorities, for example Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection Agency (AKSEPA) and even local authorities are responsible for planning a defined line of action for the disposal of waste generated on daily basis in our society.

 PROJECT TOPIC- LEACHATE, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE STREAM, TREATED WATER AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE AT UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA – IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

 

The report that refuse dumps have caused traffic delays in some strategic parts of our urban centers and cities is an example of poor management of refuse dumps in Nigerian towns and cities (Umaakuta and Mba, 1999). According to Eddy, Odoemelem and Mbaba (2006), the series of problems are as a result of lack of designed strategies that can be based on scientific principles and approach.
However, human endeavours, such as technology, industrialization, construction, trade, commerce, as well as nutrition have rendered the whole environment system a “throw away society”. This is true because indiscriminate disposal of waste coupled with increasing world population and urbanization have combined to worsen the situation day in, day out (Eddy et al., 2006).
According to Holmes (1992), site selection for waste disposal is generally based on geographic rather than geological and hydro geological considerations, that is the closer the site to the source of the waste the better in terms of transport cost reduction. It is not uncommon therefore to find waste disposal sites within municipal boundaries and surrounded by residential areas. Clearly such sites pose-serious health risk just in terms of
problems associated with litter, stray dogs, scavenging birds, rats and air borne contaminants from mobilization of fine particulate matter.
Despite the best attempts at waste avoidance reduction, reuse and recovery (recycling, compositing and energy recovery), landfills and waste disposal sites are still the principal focus for ultimate disposal of residual wastes and incineration residues world-wide (Waite, 1995). The placement and
compaction of municipal wastes in land fills facilitates the development of facultative and an aerobic conditions that promotes biological decomposition of land filled wastes. Hence, leachates of diverse composition are produced, depending on site construction and operational practices, age of the landfill,
landfill method, climatic and hydro geological conditions and surface water ingress in to the landfill (Campbell, 1993).
A landfill is an engineered waste disposal site facility with specific pollution control technology designed to minimize potential impacts. Landfills are usually either placed above ground or contained within quarries pits. Landfills are sources of groundwater and soil pollution due to the production of leachates and its migration through refuse (Christensen and Stengmann, 1992).
According to Amina, et al., (2004), leachate corresponds to atmospheric water that has percolated through waste, interacting with bacteriological activity and especially organic substances. Its composition is a function of the nature and age of the land fill, type of waste, the method of burying, the geological nature of the site and climate.
Leachate pollution is a result of mass transfer process. Waste entering the landfill reactor undergoes biological, chemical and physical transformations, which are controlled among other influencing factors, by water input fluxes. In the reactor, three physical phases are present; the solid phase (waste), the liquid phase (leachate) and the gaseous phase. In the gaseous phase, mainly carbon (prevalently in the form of CO2 and CH4) is present.
The main environmental aspects of landfills leachate are the impacts on surface water quality, ground water quality as well as soil quality, if leachate is discharging into these bodies (Christensen et al., 1992).
According to Paster, et al., (1993); De-vare and Bahadir, (1994), uncontrolled leachates may exert deleterious effects on the environment, especially the input of high concentrations of organic leachate and inorganic solutions of metals at low oxidation states into water course which apparently depletes the dissolved oxygen content of the water and ultimately lead to extinction of all oxygen depending life. Also the nonbiodegradable organic compounds in the leachate will persist for a long time.

These compounds may adversely affect aquatic species when they are assimilated into food chains.
Ground water is that portion of subsurface water which occupies that part of the ground that is fully saturated and flows into a hole under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. Groundwater occurs in geological formations called aquifer. An aquifer (gravel/sand) may be defined as a geological formation that contains sufficient permeable materials that yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs; this implies an ability to store and transmit water (Chae, 2000). Groundwater is an important source of drinking water for human kind.

It contains over 90% of the fresh water resources 5 and is an important reserve of good quality water. Groundwater, like any other water resource, is not just of public health and economic value it also has an important ecological function (Armon and Kitty, 1994). Groundwater contamination by landfill leachate is increasingly recognized as a serious problem (Hussan, et al., 1989; Loizidous and kapetanois, 1993; kwanchanawong and Kootlakers, 1993; Al-Muzains and Muslamani, 1994).
Soil is the collection of natural materials occupying part of the earth surface that may support plant growth, and which reflects the pedogenetic processes acting over time under the associated influences of climate, relief, living organisms, and parent materials. Soil pollution is caused by the removal or addition of substances and factors that decreases it

 PROJECT TOPIC- LEACHATE, GROUNDWATER, SURFACE STREAM, TREATED WATER AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VICINITY OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DUMPSITE AT UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA – IBOM STATE, NIGERIA

 

POSTNATAL CARE PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS
IN THREE RURAL COMMUNITIES OF YAKURR LGA
OF CROSS-RIVER STATE

 

ABSTRACT

Reports show that most maternal deaths occur during the post natal period, yet this is when coverage and programmes of maternal and child health are at  their lowest along the continuum of care in the local government, state, country and African region at large. Therefore it is important to investigate postnatal care practices carried out by mothers to reduce the trend. The aim of this is study was to assess postnatal care practices with respect to, perineal wound care, breast-feeding, nutrition, the management of vaginal loss and Personal hygiene practices of mothers. The study was descriptive non-experimental cross sectional design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select two hundred and seven nursing mothers who met the inclusion criteria and gave their consent to participate in the study. A self-developed structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using Chi-square tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Result was presented using descriptive statistics, averages and percentages. The result revealed that majority (82.1%) of the respondents delivered out of health facility and 61.8% sustained tear. 52.8% of the respondents accepted that they were taught how to take care of the wound daily using sitz bath and 38.7% of them were taught that wounds should be kept clean. Majority of the respondents (74.5%) cared for the wound at home by cleaning the area with hot water only while 11.3% respondents cared for the wound daily using sitz bath, 10.4% respondents applied ointments and 2.8% respondents applied herbs. Most of the respondents (70.0%) started breastfeeding immediately after delivery and gave the first yellowish fluid to their baby after birth while (30%) gave the yellowish fluid six hours after birth. When breast milk was not enough 73.9% respondents gave water to their babies and 60.9% respondents drank palm wine to stimulate breast milk.

Majority of the  respondents (70.0%) had particular food they ate after delivery such as hot pepper soup with rice or yam, tea with milk and pounded  yam/garri with vegetable soup. Most of the respondents (71.0%) took fruits and vegetables after delivery, but some of the respondents (56.4%) took them from the fourth day after delivery and (29.0%) did not take fruits and vegetables for reasons that it was not presented to them and (16.7%) said it purges them. 31.4% of the total respondents had heavy bleeding; to stop the bleeding, (15.4%) respondents drank palm oil, 24.6% took herbs, while 26.2% were given injection. Majority of the respondents (60.4%) took their bath twice a day and 58.0% changed their pads twice a day.

A  total of 46.6% of the respondents met the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of best practices. Place of delivery was a significant factor (p < 0.05) influencing perineal wound care practices. Respondents’ occupation influenced their feeding practices (p < 0.05). There was a significant variation (p < 0.05) in the management of vaginal loss among the various communities. Personal hygiene practices and socioeconomic status was only significant (p <
0.05) based on respondent’s occupation. It was discovered that best practices exist that must be emphasized and harmful practices capable of
increasing morbidity and mortality also exist and need to be stopped. The study has helped in emphasizing postnatal care practices as a point of concern to health care professionals. It is recommended that Post natal care should be integrated as a routine health care activity and build partnership with communities, families and individuals. The post natal period should be utilized maximally at community and health care facilities where health providers have contact with nursing mothers and their babies to educate them on healthy post natal care practices.

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of the Study

In Africa, at least 125,000 women die every year and 870,000 newborns die in the first week after birth, yet this is when coverage and programmes are at  their lowest along the continuum of care. According to Warren, DaIly, Toure, Mongi, (2005) 18 million women in Africa currently do not give birth in a health facility. This poses a lot of challenges for planning and implementing postnatal care (PNC) for women and their newborns. According to WHO (2012), up to two-thirds of the 3.1 million newborn deaths that occurred in 2010 can be prevented if mothers and newborns receive known, effective interventions. A strategy that promotes universal access to antenatal care, skilled birth attendance and early postnatal care will contribute to sustained reduction in maternal and neonatal mortality. A little less than half of all mothers and newborns in developing countries do not receive skilled care during
birth, and over 70% of all babies born outside the hospital do not receive any postnatal care (WHO, 2012).

Basic care for all newborns should include promoting and supporting early exclusive breastfeeding, keeping the baby warm, increasing hand washing and providing hygienic umbilical cord and skin care, identifying conditions requiring additional care and counsel ling on when to take a newborn to a health facility. Newborns and their mothers should be examined for danger signs during home visits. At the same time, families should be counselled on identification of these danger signs and the need for prompt care seeking if one or more of them are present (WHO, 2012). Regardless of place of birth, mothers and newborns spend most of the postnatal period (the first six weeks after birth) at home. The post natal period begins one hour after the birth of the placenta and stretches to six weeks after childbirth (Liu, 2006). During this period the uterus and other reproductive organs and structures return to their pre-gravid state.

The period is marked by physiological and psychological adjustments following a normal or traumatic delivery. The postnatal period marks the birth of the baby, which can be a time of great joy as well as enormous stress (Northern Rivers General Practice Network, 2008). The woman is stressed following pains accompanying labour and blood loss which can lead to shock and possible exhaustion. During the postpartum period the mother is at risk for such problems as infection, hemorrhage, pregnancy induced hypertension, blood clot formation, the opening up ofincisions, breast problems, and postpartum depression. The postnatal period is often marked by cultural practices that keep the mothers and their babies in doors. Majority of mothers are contented and happy, some are anxious, apprehensive and sensitive (Ojo and Briggs, 2006).

Some are contented and happy if their expectations concerning childbirth were met especially in terms of sex preference. Some are anxious because of transition from pregnancy to parenthood. Whatever the state a woman finds herself during the post natal period, the care she receives will either affect her positively or negatively. The postnatal care practices essential for all mothers are checking and assessing bleeding and temperature, breast feeding support and observations of the breast for mastitis. Promoting nutrition and managing anaemia, encouraging mothers to use insecticide treated bed nets and provision of vitamin A supplementations, counseling of mothers for family planning, dangers signs and home care, refer for complication (sepsis), postnatal depression and care of the newborn (Warren, DaIly, Toure, Mongi, 2005).

Other practices include personal hygiene to prevent body odour, lochia (vaginal loss) management to prevent infection and promote involution, stress management to enhance emotional stability, rest and exercise for proper body mechanism and healing of perineal wounds. Drug intake to prevent wound breakdown and spiritual care to enhance connectedness with self, others and higher power (Erb and Kozier, 2008). Childbirth poses a lot of challenges to the mother, family, community and health facility where the woman delivered. These challenges range from selfcare, parenting roles and official roles in life endeavours. Postnatal care practices will either assist the woman to adjust faster or may pose more challenges to her general well-being.  Postnatal care practices should aim at promoting the mothers speedy return to physical, mental and social wellbeing. Every activity must be carried out to return the mother to her pre-pregnancy state and prevent postpartum complications from developing and survival of the newborn.

The major focus of postpartum care is ensuring that the woman is healthy and capable of taking care of the new born, equipped with all information she needs about breastfeeding, reproductive health and contraception and the imminent life adjustment. Information on post natal care practices that are useful to the general wellbeing of the mother should be made available to the mother on discharge where the woman delivers in the hospital, but where the mother delivers at home, it is the responsibility of the midwife or community health nurse to give them health education in their homes and traditional birth attendant’s home. Quality postnatal care practices are needed in the rural communities where majority of births take place outside health facilities (Nigerian Partnership for Safe Motherhood, 2004). Even where the births take place in the health facilities in the rural areas, the health providers are mostly inexperienced junior community health extension workers.

These categories of care providers are ill-equipped and may not have adequate information on post natal care practices that are useful and necessary for the total wellbeing of the mother. Hence there is increased risk of postnatal complications resulting from inexperience. Since the practices vary from family-to-family, community-to- community, country-tocountry, and even among ethnic groups it was important to investigate the various practices in each community because some practices can affect the woman’s wellbeing and hinder her return to her pre-pregnancy state and vary with availability of resources, beliefs and educational level (Nigerian Partnership for Safe Motherhood, 2004).

POSTNATAL CARE PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS
IN THREE RURAL COMMUNITIES OF YAKURR LGA
OF CROSS-RIVER STATE

 

Statement of Problem

Half of all postnatal maternal deaths occur during the first week after the baby is born, and majority of the deaths occur during the first 24 hours after child birth (Warren, Daily, Toure, Mongi, 2005). Yet postnatal care programmes are among the weakest of all reproductive health programmes in the local  government, state, country and African region. In cross River State maternal mortality ratio is l200/100,000 higher than national figure 1100/100,000 (Nigerian Partnership for Safe Motherhood, 2004).In 2008 it dropped to 831/100,000.However, the figure rose slightly to 940.6 / 100,000 live births at the end of 2009 (Agan, Archibong, Abeshi, Edentekhe, Bassey, 2010) as against national rate of 545/100,000 live births which is still highly unacceptable. The very poor maternal health indices from Cross River State has been attributed to poor antenatal, intra-natal and postnatal practices, and to various socio-economic factors which place women at risk of adverse maternal health outcomes.

The paradox remains that most of the deaths are preventable by simple, affordable and available technologies as well as attitudinal change, but the circumstances under which women become pregnant and deliver babies in the country remain a huge challenge. Findings/observations made by the researcher from clinical practice show that some women in communities of Yakurr Local Government Area die during pregnancy and childbirth
especially early postpartum. Within one month up to four deaths were reported during routine activities in the area of study. The rural women are prone to several health problems after child birth including their new born. Researcher observed that several health problems are prevalent in some communities
which range from perineal wounds that are painful, stinking and offensive. Pale, tired and malnourished ill looking mothers, breast engorgement, breast abscess, prolonged vaginal loss with offensive odour.

These problems are all preventable problems. According to Witt (2006) untreated complications during postnatal period may result in increased morbidity and mortality of the mother. Based on the observed health problems and high mortality rate it was necessary to carry out this research to investigate the postnatal care practices mothers adopt in communities studied.

 

POSTNATAL CARE PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS
IN THREE RURAL COMMUNITIES OF YAKURR LGA
OF CROSS-RIVER STATE