The project work is aimed at critically examining “The roles of police public relations as a mechanism for improving police community relation in Dunukofia local Government Area”. It attempts at critically evaluating the roles the police plays to improve their relationship with the publics at large. It equally aims at ascertaining the mutual relationship between police and the people of Dunukofia Local government Area. Moreover, survey method is used in the design of the study while the primary source of data collection is the self administered questionnaire. Thus, the source of this study was taken from the target population, which consist of six towns existing in Dunukofia Local Government Area which includes Ukpo, Nawgu, Ifitedunu, Umunachi, Ukwulu, Umudioka both male and female. Systematic Random sampling technique was employed and a total of 180 respondents were administered. The responses were tabled in a frequency and later converted into sampling percentage as the method of data analysis. Hence, the findings showed that police plays an important role in trying to create a good community police relation with the people. It equally adopted the social responsibility theory which focuses on maintaining a two-way communication in order to continuously ensure understanding or resolve conflicts of interests between individuals, institutions, organizations and their publics, the police makes sure there is safety in the society and equally makes sure laws and orders are being maintained and obeyed so well in the society. It is then recommended that the police force of Dunukofia Local government Area must address itself to issues and problems the community considers as crucial and should pay serious attention the community’s yearnings and should equally, at every stage inform the community of the relation behind such benevolence and the community on the other hand, should reciprocate, using appreciative words towards the police kind gestures. The researcher hoped the suggestion of conducting a further study on the topic could be done if possible.




It is most often agreed and rightly that community relations is an indispensable tool of every worthwhile organization. Even more to bureaucratic and segmented organizations, public relations is vital to the overall success of any establishment within the community in which it serves and their programme can introduce a friendly atmosphere in a hitherto antagonist environment to such an extent that the organization and the community can work together as partners in progress.

Any establishment that is worthy of its name owes the community in which it operates and serves a responsibility and the community too owes the organization, if the two are to exist in a conducive atmosphere to solve their neutral problems and evolve a better community. Good public Relations can serve an organization from liquidations in terms of crisis and poor public relations may result in the death of a hitherto healthy organization.

Full information of police public relations in Dunikofia and its relations with the community can induce great regard organization firstly for its good work to the community and then for its success in business. Once this favourable impression is not created in the minds of the people of the communities. The reputation of the organization is bound to sour within that community. The measure of successful policy public relations will be indicated by the regard which people have for an organization i.e regard based on their knowledge and understanding because an organization has been able to create a favourable image of itself within the community it serve.



Public relation practices is a phenomenon which is meant to use mutual understanding towards individuals ot organization and an organization like the police force to operate successfully in any community with its attendant, socio-cultural, economic, political and religious problems a necessity for such police organization and who should own polices.

On the other hand, a public relation is a deliberately planned and sustained effort which is geared towards maintaining mutual co-operation between organization and its policies. Every organization operates on a particular area, which it owes some social responmsibility. If the organization comes out of its duties effectively the community it operates on, would resituate and when this happens, there is likely to be mutual understanding in them otherwise, hostility will flame up.


  1. To investigate the extent the public relations has improved the police community relations.
  2. To determine how the services of police are understood and appreciated by the community it is being purported to serve.
  3. To examine if the activities of the police accords with the provisions of the law establishing it.
  4. To access the categories of officers qualified for the action.


  1. To what extent do public relation improve the police community relations?
  2. How far are the services of the police understood and appreciated by the community it is purported to serve?
  3. Are the activities of the police agreeable, with the provision of the law establishing it?
  4. What categories of officers is most guilty for this action?


This study will aid to bridge the gap between contradictory position and practice of public relations.

Also, the public is always suspicious about police for their unbecoming service. It will help to create mutual understanding and relationship between the police and the public they offer service to.

In academic field, it will aid for further study or research. It will equally help the governments to set a better policy for good public and police friendship for better security.

Lastly, this research work will enable public relations practioner’s carry out their functions with a good insight.


The scope of this study is the six (6) towns in Dunukofia. These ones under studies includes: Ifitedum, Nawgu, Ukwulu, Umunachi, Umudioka and Ukpo which is their headquarter. Also, it is the activities of the community police relations committee in these towns that are examined.


  1. PUBLIC RELATIONS: Is the deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain a mutual understanding between an organization and its publics.
  2. POLICE: Is anyone or an official organization whose job is to make people, obey the laws and orders, prevent and equally solve crimes.

POLICE PUBLIC RELATIONS: According to Alozie practice, “Is an attempt to achieve the goal of a favourable public image, sometimes, both may not be emphasized rather truth is manipulated in order to gain an acceptable public image”.


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This study was undertaken to find out the availability and use of grey literature for scientific and technological research in university libraries in
south eastern Nigeria. The design of the study was a descriptive survey. Six research questions bothering on extent of availability; use made of
available grey literature; problems affecting the availability; problems affecting the use; strategies for overcoming the problems of availability;
and strategies for enhancing the use of grey literature were formulated to guide the study. The sample consisted of seven (7) university librarians
and two hundred and forty (240) postgraduate researchers in science and technology drawn from seven (7) universities in south eastern Nigeria.
Data was collected using a combination of questionnaire and observation checklist. The data collected were analysed using percentages, mean and
standard deviation. The findings of the study showed that grey literature was marginally available for science and technology research in the libraries; the available grey literature was used to a high extent; the availability of grey literature in the libraries was hindered by such factors as inadequate funds, and absence of library acquisition policies; while the use of grey literature for science and technology research was hindered by difficulty in finding needed materials among others. The findings had implications drawn for the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in designing appropriate policy for the capture, storage, dissemination and use of grey literature; the administrators of the university libraries in Nigeria; the users of scientific and technological literature in the libraries; as well as the staff of the university libraries. Based on these implications, some major recommendations were made. These included the revision of the national policy on scientific and technological information to include measures on grey literature acquisition and use; allocation of adequate funds to university libraries to ensure grey literature availability and the digitization of available grey literature to enhance access to them. 


Background of the Study

The term, grey literature, came into the professional vocabulary of librarianship about three and half decades ago. Despite this relatively long
history, some librarians and information professionals are yet to be aware of its existence. Others who at all know about it appear confused over its
exact meaning. (Auger,1998). This state of confusion, it seems, has given way to several varied definitions of grey literature. In some attempts to define it, authors have often used equally obscure terms such as semi-published, nonconventional, and elusive (Schmidmaier, 1986; Keenan, 1996).

have become rather simplistic in approach and defined it as that material which is not available through normal book selling channels (Wood,
1982; Auger, 1998). The British library (1994) also viewed it as any document, which is not a book or a journal, or any document (other than a
journal), which will not stand up on the shelves on its own. Further efforts have been made at overcoming the definitional problem of grey literature by listing the materials that fall under it.

This usually included a long list of such items as technical reports, theses and dissertations conference proceedings, preprints, official publications, fact sheets, standards, patents, working papers, business documents, newsletters, symposia, bulletins. Aside from being endless, the list can be equally confusing because, according to the Science and Technology Section (STS), Subject and Bibliographic Access Committee (2003:1), “virtually everything we read outside of journals and books can be considered grey literature”.
However, the list is often broken down into four component categories. The first category is made up of publications issued by pressure groups and similar bodies with special interest. From time to time, such organizations have the need to publish quickly, their funds are limited, and there is no time for the niceties of sales or return and trade discounts. In consequence, sales are achieved by direct mail or through specialist outlets. The second category is made up of privately published materials ranging from small volumes of poetry through carefully researched family and local histories to topical stories presented with a particular point of view.

 The third category, sometimes referred to as alternative literature, consists of materials on topics or perspectives unknown or marginalized in the mainstream of publishing and usually absent from library collections. The fourth category, often called ephemera, consists of materials that carry verbal messages and are produced by printing or illustrative processes but not in a standard book, periodical or pamphlet formats. Most items of ephemera are produced for short-term purposes, e.g. bus tickets, timetables, and posters.
What appears to be an international consensus at defining grey literature emerged at the third International Conference on Grey Literature held in Luxembourg in 1997. The conference defined grey literature as that (information resource) which is produced by government, academics, business and industries, both in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishing interests and where publishing is not the primary activity of the organization. (Aina, 2000: 25). 

Debachere (1995:94-95) has further distinguished between two major groups of grey literature based on content. The first group consists of publications with scientific content: reports of studies, research, meetings, proceedings of conferences and seminars not published by a publishing house, and doctoral dissertations. The second group is made up of unconventional documentary material: in house publications by companies, publications by chambers of commerce and industry, associations, political parties and trade unions, non-administrative statistics; economic letters and correspondence, plans and expertise for development, leaflets, tracts, etc

For the purpose of this study, grey literature is taken to mean the overall body of human knowledge having scientific and technical content but are produced by organizations without commercial publishing interests and without publishing as their primary activity. This includes technical reports, theses and dissertations, conference proceedings, patents newsletters and fact sheets. There are many and varied reasons why authors do not use commercial circuits in publishing. Sometimes, as the urgency of the demand for the content requires, authors are deterred by the times taken between the writing of an article and its appearance in a periodical or for a  book.



At other times, authors think that their report is targeted to a narrow group of specialists and hence may be too long or too short to be treated as a commercial publication. Another important reason is derived from the need to publish inexpensively by utilizing the in-house automation faculties.
In spite of these benefits, grey literature appears to receive lackluster treatment by librarians and information professionals. The major reasons for this are apparent difficulties in identifying, procuring and processing it.

Generally, due to its diverse origins and unconventionally published nature, grey literature can be difficult to find. It is often found by searching for the agency or institution that is most likely to produce the literature. Such search may require looking at a large number of sources, some of whom may not have a list of what they produce in the first place. As Wood (1982:278) noted :
As well as being the subject of haphazard or specialized distribution arrangements it also has a number of other distinguishing characteristics –small print runs, variable standards of editing and production, poor publicity, poor bibliographic control, unacceptable format… and poor availability in libraries.
Availability can be seen in four perspectives – physical, bibliographic, intellectual and online. Physical availability, which is the thrust of this
work, refers to the existence of the grey literature document in a library. 

This means that users have the opportunity to undertake detailed consultation of the contents. Bibliographic availability implies the presence of references made to the documents or their content without necessarily having the document itself in the library collection. Efforts at bibliographic control of grey literature have been made in some countries. In Europe, for instance, a grey literature policy has resulted in the creation of the European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation (EAGLE).
International conferences have also been held on grey literature since 1993 and these have awakened national interest in grey literature in such
countries as Sierra Leone, Sudan, Benin, Lesotho, Senegal, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Tanzania (Debachere, 1995; Muswazi, 2001). Intellectual
availability means the existence of critical or interpretative works on the host grey literature documents. Intellectual access in most cases may
satisfy the users’ information need without the extra need to see the document.

Online availability on the other hand, refers to the existence of the grey literature in computer systems that are accessible through computer-to-computer interactions. In this case, the content can still berendered physically available (by downloading) even though the documents containing them are not physically available in the library. Availability remains, perhaps, the greatest problem affecting the appreciation of the value as well as consequent use of grey literature in libraries. Even though items may be available in libraries without being accessible (due, perhaps, to poor organisation), they may not be accessible without being available in some form. 

This seems to imply that the use of grey literature is dependent upon its availability in libraries. When items of information are available in libraries, use studies become strong indicators of the value attached to such materials by the users. However, this may not always be entirely true because sometimes people use what they see not because it is what they desire but because it is what is immediately available.
In any case, data emanating from use studies are major ingredients of library collection development policies. Such data are, however, often difficult to generate as a result of confusion arising from how to determine what amounts to real use of library materials.

To some, use is best measured by collecting data directly from the users themselves and relying solely upon their responses , whereas to others, evidence of use become more realistic when it is built up from references made by the users to what they have used. The measurement of use by inference from citations to used items by the users has been criticized as being unreliable because people are often constrained to use what is available. With particular reference to grey literature, which suffers from availability problems, a more reliable data on use can only emanate from a direct interaction with the users themselves.
The problems associated with the use of grey literature have made people, librarians and end-users alike; lose sight of its benefits. As observed by Wood (1982), it contains information likely to be of use to a considerable number of people.
The advantages of grey literature 






In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and the recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession, occupation or trade has its own variety of language for effective communication. In view of this, the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, a law enforcement agency under the Federal Republic of Nigeria adopts the English language as its official language and in addition to the English language also has other languages in use. Although the members of the Nigeria Police use the English language, the degree of their proficiency is dependent on the level of education of each police officer.

This is to say that different varieties of the English language are used within this community. The thrust of this research work is to highlight the linguistic features of the language of the Nigeria Police Force as used in the police journals and their everyday interactions. It tries to evaluate their use of the English language: how efficiently it has been used. This evaluation would be based on the phonological and syntactic analyses. In the light of the analyses conclusions were made on the linguistic features of the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha. Also this community would be looked at as a speech community because it has its own language apart from the English language which is intelligible to its members. The errors committed would be evaluated through the use of the concept of error analyses. Finally, this would be followed by the conclusion and recommendation.




Human beings use language as a means of communication and communication becomes meaningful and effective especially when it comes from the same speech community. In fact, language is very significant because it is a tool for identifying people, their origin, culture or even social statues.
Gimson (1970) defines it as “a system of conventional signs used for communication by a whole community”. As a medium of communication, language does not exist in a vacuum, but operates in a context of situation. These contexts determine the variation of language.
Language is very crucial for human survival because it is the most important and most effective instrument for communication. It is the bond that holds societies together.
Consequently, a society must afford shared cognitive experiences and orientations, hence Aberle et al in Morrish (1980) emphasizes the need for a society to develop a corpus of cognitive orientation which will provide meaningfulness to social situation as well as a sense of stability derived from identity of experiences.On the other hand, for motivation to be sustained in individual and group activity, a society must provide a means of communication for its members. One of the essential elements of living in a society or in a community with others is the means of communication, and this can be achieved through language. One can invariably say that language is the principal means of communication. The primacy of language cuts across every sphere of life: law enforcement, technology, science, politics, religion as well as other interpersonal spheres.

The police use language as every other field does in the performance of their activities which includes enforcement of law and order, prevention and detection of crime, protection of life and property and, other numerous activities. This work is a linguistic inquiry into the language of the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, in Anambra State. The Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, is just like every other Police Force in Nigeria. What is obtainable amongst the Police Force in Onitsha is also obtainable in the whole of the Nigeria Police Force. The Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, has its main station which is referred to as the Central Police Station (CPS) in the heart of the town with many other police posts in many parts of the town. Because of the multi-lingual nature of the country, members of the Police Force are drawn from different ethnic groups and all these people use the English language as their official language for mutual intelligibility.

This study investigates linguistic features of the English language of the Nigeria Police Force. It examines their use of the English language. The English language is observed to play the role of official language in many countries of the world, and in Africa, it is the second language of most countries including Nigeria. It is the language of law, education, law enforcement and politics. It is the dominant medium of interaction in different professions. The language of the Police Force studied in this work is the Standard English as used by the Nigeria Police Force. This study will also discuss in the brief the use of jargon by the Nigeria Police Force.


This study being a linguistic inquiry into the language of the Nigeria Police Force, aims at:
1. describing the language situation in the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha.
2. the variety of the English language found in this community.
3. the context in which they used, with whom and for what purpose.
4. the syntactic and phonological structure of the English language used in the community.
The Nigeria Police Force, a Federal law enforcement agency, is found all over Anambra State, with quarters and barracks in different parts of the State.
Nigeria is a multi-lingual nation with police officers drawn from different ethnic groups and languages. The languages spoken in the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha, comprises Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Ibibio, Efik, Kalabari, Izon, Pidgin and several other Nigerian languages.
The official language used for the spoken and written activities is the English language. The English language is used for parades and drills, for lectures and seminars, for court records and for most discussions between the officers and members of the public. The Nigeria Police Force in the performance of her social functions of law enforcement employs language as a medium of interaction, preservation and dissemination of information. Communication of message both within and outside the Police circle is done in English. The diatypic variety of the language of law enforcement can be seen in the various activities and entries by the Police like reports, minutes, statements, parades, drills, and so forth.Going further, since this study is a linguistic investigation into the language of the Nigeria Police Force, it tries to evaluate the use of the English language in this speech community; how efficiently it has been used. This evaluation will be based on the levels of linguistic analyses and these are phonology and syntax.

Also the Nigeria Police Force in their use of the English language produces varieties. They are supposed to be using the Standard English that is the Received Pronunciation standard but this is not so. Their proficiency largely depends on the level of education of the individual officers. The English language in Nigeria has many varieties. This is as a result of the contact between the English language and the local Nigerian languages and because the English language is used within the local setting, with local ideas and local attitude to life. Another reason is that the English language is a second language.
According to Saville-Troike (1982) “ The range of varieties used for auxiliary national purposes even within a single country such as Nigeria runs from pidgin English on one extreme, through regionally marked varieties ( Hausa English, Yoruba English, Igbo English) to educate Nigerian English and finally to varieties which very closely approximate British or American norms”.
These varieties abound in the Nigeria Police Force, Onitsha. Their use of the English language will be analyzed in the chapter four of this study. Also chapter two, this perspective on varieties would be discussed elaborately.




It is pertinent to note that a lot of work has been done on language and other professions, but not much has been done with respect to the language of the police force. Therefore this study sets to: identify the varieties of the English language used by the Nigeria Police Force; determine the problem in the linguistic features of the English language of Nigeria Police Force; find out the causes of these problems; and finally, suggest how these problems can be solved to enhance the effective use of the English language by the Nigeria Police Force.


This study is designed to provide an insight into the unique use of the English language by the Nigeria Police Force and to bring out the influences on the choices and uses of the language. Ijomah (1973) states that “ the vocabulary of language reflects the physical and social environment of the people”.
This study also points out the importance of language as well as its flexibility in the context such as the one under study.
This research will help Nigerians to appreciate language of the Nigerian Police Force and this will, no doubt, enhance the relationship between the Nigeria Police and the public.
It will also help the government in reshaping the Nigeria Police Force with regard to the issue of qualification. The government, through this study will also put into consideration organizing workshops and seminars for members of the Police Force to help them improve on their use of the language.







Meaningful agricultural development in any society largely hinges on extension system in place. Agricultural extension assists rural people in the community through educational procedure in improving their farming methods and techniques, thus increasing their production efficiency, income, social and living standard. To bring this to pass requires continuous training of extension personnel in order to cope with the emerging roles cropping up as a result of developmental programmes established by the government to improve food production and reduction in the poverty level of rural dwellers. The study focused on the personal sociodemographic characteristics, emerging roles of extension personnel, training needs to cope with the emerging roles and frequency and type of training programme organized for the extension personnel.

It also identified the major problems affecting the continuous training and retraining of extension personnel in Kogi State ADP. The study covered twenty one local government areas of Kogi State which is divided into four agricultural zones: Zone A, B, C, and D. Data used were collected from one hundred extension personnel using questionnaire items. The study reveal that there is need for continuous training of extension personnel but some major constraints such as inadequate fund, administrative bottleneck, lack of continuity of extension policy
have to be overcome.

The Kogi State government should provide financial support as well as regular payment of personnel wages interms of salaries, bonus and arrears. Fund should be released to KSADP as at when due for proper, planning and execution of training programme for her personnel. Motivation of personnel should be taken into consideration to enhance their regular attendance to training programmes.

There should be continuity of extension policy to backup consistent training of extension personnel. Necessary training facilities and equipment should be provided by Kogi State ADP in order to enhance good training of her staff.



Background Information:
Nigeria is basically an agricultural country and about 65% to 70% of the population earns their living from agriculture (Idachaba, 1990). However, despite abundant oil, or mineral wealth, Nigeria faces acute food shortages as a result of low agricultural productivity to march the increases in population. The level of technology in Nigeria agriculture is relatively low because technologies developed through research and development activities are not reaching the peasant farmers. This situation calls for a virtue extension that will link the farmers with the researchers effectively (Oladele and Afoloyan 2005).

Extension is a comprehensive programme of services deliberately put in place for expanding, strengthening and empowering the capacity of the present and prospective farmers farm families, other rural economic operators (processors, marketers, rural agro-industrialists) that need to succeed in farming and farm related occupations. This is done through participatory stakeholdership with researchers, policy makers, extensionists, educators, agro investers and farmers themselves to put in place a strong programme of improved agricultural production and farm investment environment. It is thus a farmer centred programme at building agriculture through building of the farmers (Adedoyin 2002).

Agricultural extension is the main vehicle for the dissemination of technical and economic information hinges on training as the key to sustainable agricultural development. A well trained extension personnel, especially an extension, agent is the most important single element, for achieving the aims and objectives of extension organization as they relate with the clientele directly in their rural setting (Madukwe 2005) According to Amalu (1998), agriculture has changed at an extra ordinary rapid pace over the past fifty years.

The changes have included rapid shifts in agricultural technologies and practices as well as fundamental adjustments in the social relations of agricultural production and food distribution. The failure to achieve the numerous rural development objectives of the federal government has led to the introduction of an integrated approach represented by the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) system (Amalu, 1998). The system is based on the premise that a combination of factors comprising the appropriate technology or innovation, effective extension access to physical inputs, adequate market and infrastructural facilities are essential to getting agriculture moving.

This was to improve Agricultural productivity supported by basic infrastructure needed to raise the living standard of rural dwellers (Amon 1982). Infrastructural facilities development include sequential construction of rural roads, small dams, farm service centres, seed multiplication units, input distribution centres, demonstrating linkages among institutions. According to Emmanuel (1998) the ADP have proved to be the most result yielding programmes in Nigeria since its inception. These programmes emerged in the Second National Economic Development Plan between 1970-1975.

The development of the agricultural development projects in Nigeria fall into three distinct generations. The first generation comprised of enclave projects that covered a limited number of local government areas in the Northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria in 1975. (Funtua, Gusua, and Gombe). Other ADPs were establish in different states of Nigeria between 1978 and 1986 Kogi State Agricultural Development Programme came into existence with the creation of Kogi State in 1991.

The personnel came from Kwara and Benue ADP to form the staff strength of the organization. It was supported and financed by the joint efforts of the World Bank, federal and state governments before the World Bank withdrew her support in recent year? Some programme activities engaged in included provision of information on input supply and distribution, rehabilitation service, rural infrastructure development, technology transfer and adoption techniques among others. The achievement of the objectives of agricultural extension is possible only within the framework of a formal organization and organizational structure.

For effective coordination and implementation of the ADPs, each project has an executive committee known as Agricultural Development Executive Committee (ADPEC) headed by the state executive governor, commissioner for agriculture, project manager and adjudged relevant federal and state top functionaries of ministries and parastatals. This committee coordinates project activities, approve annual work plans and budgets, appoints and supervises senior staff, reviews project performance, awarding contracts, and supervising procurement activities.
Next is the project management unit (PMU), which is headed by programme manager, assisted by the sub-programme heads or directors in the project and the zonal managers.

The PMU ensures the implementation of all policies and directive approved by ADPEC. It meets every three months to review the  performance of the project and takes vital policy decisions for operation of the programme. The organizations of ADPs are undertaken through the activities of two major programmes, namely, the core and support service programme.

The core programme includes: the technical extension, engineering and commercial sub programme while the support service comprises the administration, finance, and account, planning, monitoring and evaluation, human resources development and training sub programmes. The human resource development and training is to ensure continuous supply of necessary skills both qualitative and quantitative for the attainment of the project goals and objectives. It handles human resource screening, man power audit, planning and record, staff  development and training performance approval and skill gap analysis.

According to Boxter (1989), the qualifications of extension personnel in Nigeria are mostly National Diploma (ND), Higher National Diploma (HND) and some university graduates. Most of these have long years of experience and continuous training through monthly technology review meeting (MTRM), fortnight training (FNT), seminars, workshops and conferences. (Boxter 1984). The regular training enables them to perform their job better.
According to Ali and Halium (1998), the better trained an employee is, the more productive he can perform.





Statement of Problem.

Nwachukwu (1988) asserted that many employees have failed in organizations because their need for training was not identified and provided for as an indispensable part of management function. Employees performance is a function of ability, will and situational
factors. An organization may have employees of high ability and determination with appropriate equipment and managerial support, yet production falls below the expected standards.

The missing factors in many cases are training and development. The ultimate wealth of a nation is its human resources. It is the human resources that can explore mineral and natural endowment, develop and regulate its economy in the path of progress.

Nwachukwu (1988), asserted further that to achieve the development of agriculture, the training of agricultural extension personnel is important in order to ensure that they are adequately prepared in the acquisition of skills and expertise knowledge required for effective
extension service. Emerging farm technologies such as integrated pest management and improved practices in horticulture call for actual field experience. Extension personnel need training not only in technological aspects but also in human relations, problem solving, sensitivity
towards disadvantaged group and basic concept of management. Blackburn and Haberty (1994) observed that the emerging role of extension personnel is closer to that of a socioeconomic community worker than a technical expert but their training is insufficient for the
rural people.

To benefit maximally from their interactions with the extension personnel, the agents need a broad based training and exposure (Hayward 1990). Morover, there is a current emphasis on the natural resources management for sustainable land use system and the environment, mobilization of farmers, conflict resolutions and poverty alleviation. Other issues of global emphasis include the structural changes in extension organization, changing in emphasis on extension goals and objectives, functional relationships with other agencies, needs based and demand-driven extension service.

This demands means that extension personnel need to respond to the technological, socio-economics, environmental and other needs of the local people as well as national and global issues if they are to remain relevant in the present and future extension service delivery. This is not possible without consistent training of extension personnel. Therefore, the extension personnel should be trained towards involving in the various groups of their clientele in planning and implementation of their development programme as the agricultural extension clientele have expanded to include rural framers and HIV/AIDS affected farmers.

(Ogunbameru 2004). The introduction of Fadama II and III, Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP), Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS) and other programmes in line with the Federal Government Development for goals call for additional demand in the area of capacity building for the existing extension personnel. According to survey conducted by Kogi State ADP in 2005, much success was recorded by the farmers in terms of productivity and the acceptance of innovations, improvement of the rural dwellers and the less  rivileged. This was possible as a result of the efforts of well trained extension personnel or agents through monthly technology review meeting and fortnight training programme.

There was also remarkable improvement in the linkage between research approach offered: On Farm Adaptive Research, (OFAR), On Station Research (OFR), On the Farm Adaptive Research, Small Plot Adoption Technique (SPAT) and Monthly Technology Review Meeting (MTRM).
The new challenges such as Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP), Special Programme on food security (SPFS), ICTS, Fadama II and the emerging role of extension personnel call for upgrading or updating the knowledge and training of extension agents in specific areas in order to meet these challenges and additional responsibilities given to the extension agents as facilitators. This is coming at a time when the World Bank has withdrawn her financial support.

The roles of the extension personnel have increased to face the challenges of this present generation after exposure to these newly  introduced programmes. Continuous training on the new skills will help to equip and upgrade the effectiveness of extension personnel in order to achieve the millennium goals among the rural dwellers, the less privileged and the disables in the communities. The pertinent questions therefore are.

(a) what are the personal socio-demographic characteristics?
(b) what are the emerging role of extension personnel in Kogi State ADP?
(c) what are the areas of competence of extension personnel in Kogi State ADP?
(d) what type of training is required to perform the emerging role?; and
(e) what are the constraints to continuous training of extension personnel in Kogi State






This research work is designed to develop effective strategy for pension administration in the Nigeria public sector, using pension commission as a study. The research work reveals how some retirees are forced to continue to work throughout their life, not out of choice but for lack of means of sustenance at old age.

The sources of data collection for this work are primary and secondary sources, the researcher in this process of data collection for the research regarded the questionnaire to serve as the most important instrument used in the research, and the data gathered from questionnaire are analyzed by simple percentage, the chi-square techniques was employed to test the hypothesis and interpret the information for better understanding. The findings reveal that, a non-effective and efficient strategy of pension administration can be likened to poor pension administration and budgeted income to pensioners is not implemented as at when due. The implication were that, committees should be set up to audit the performance of pension boards and other pension bodies and responsibility should be assigned to the right people who must have access to the right information concerning retires and also retirees should not solely depend on pension after retirement, alternate plans should be made from day one of the start of one’s working years, this could include setting aside a percentage of one’s salary in anticipation of retirement.



The greatest challenge to government worldwide remains the issue relating to pension fund management. A financial analyst called Alexandra Forbes argues “Pension Management, world over, has become an increasingly great concern to most government and countries of the world”. And coming to Nigeria, the country was guided by a number of pension regimes prior to the promulgation of the pension Act 2004, pension schemes in Nigeria had been bedeviled with many pitfalls.

The public service operated an unfounded defined benefit schemes and the payment of retirement benefits were budgeted annually. The annual budgetary allocation for pension was often one of the most vulnerable items in budget implementation in even where budgetary provisions were made, inadequate and untimely release of fund resulted in delays and accumulation of arrears of payment of pension rights. It is then obvious that, the defined benefit scheme could not be sustained.
In the private sector on the other hand, many employees were not covered by the pension scheme put in place by their employers and many other schemes were not funded. Besides, where the schemes were funded, the management of the pension funds was full of malpractices between the fund management and the trustees of the pension board.
The scenario agitated a re-think of pension administration in Nigeria by the then President Olusegun Obasanjo`s administration, accordingly, the administration initiated a pension reform in order to address, eliminate and eradicate the problems associated with pension reform act 2004.
Good times come and go, retirement is definite, and the question therefore is “Can people still live a good life after retirement”? The non-implementation of budgeted income to pensioners, a non-effective strategy for pension administration is seemingly a growing problem in Nigerian economy. Some retirees are forced to continue to work throughout their life not out of choice but for lack of means of sustenance at old age. They are therefore forced to go in search of menial jobs to make ends meet, since they are not even sure of getting their pensions.
Apart from the stress associated with working at old age, how relevant can an individual be at age 70 or 80 in the face of ever changing knowledge brought about by advancement in technology? Besides, of what use is life without rest at old age? Even where one is willing and able to continue working, the opportunity for the elderly to continue working is declining. However, it is against this backgrounds that the researcher wishes to develop effective strategy for pension administration in the Nigeria public sector.


First comes the layoffs then pay cuts finally a delay in the payments of benefits due to poor policy formulation and implementation, incorrect record keeping and inadequate accountability of public funds. The non-implementation of budgeted income to pensioners, delay in the payment and denial of pension accrued to pensioners leading to pensioners protesting over non-payment of pensions and non-compliance with ethics of public financial management.


The aims and objectives of the study are to ;-
1. To proffer solutions to the problem that brings about a non-effective and efficient management in pension administration.
2. To identify measures and steps dealing with the issues of poor implementation of budgeted income to pensioners.
3. To examine the quality of personnel in various pension boards.
4. To ascertain whether the administration of pension funds are done judiciously.


For the purpose of the study, the following hypothesis were put forward;-
1. Ho : Non-effective and efficient management cannot be compared to poor pension administration.
2. Hi : Non-effective and efficient management can be compared to poor pension administration.
Ho : The budgeted income to pension are not implemented as at when due.
Hi : The budgeted income are implemented as at when due


1. Can people still live a good life after retirement?
2. Why poor policy formation and implementation of pension benefits?
3. Does incorrect record keeping and inadequate accountability of public funds case delay pension benefits?
4. Does non-implementation of budgeted income to pensioner leading to pensioners protesting over non-payment of pension?
5. Does non-compliance with ethics of public financial management cause problem of pension?


Holistic change is required in order to create a framework that will enable consumers have a greater financial security at old age. This study signifies a whole lot; it is intended to find out the intrinsic and extrinsic cause of poor pension administration. The findings will hopefully: