This study was carried out to investigate the effects of modern office automation on the productivity of secretaries. In order to obtain the required information, questionnaire were administered to secretaries. Data collected are presented under discussions and findings in chapter four. From the data collected, the researcher was able to identify the effects of modern office automation on the productivity of secretaries. It was revealed that technology (office automation) aids the secretaries to a large extent in discharging of their duties. However, for these newly introduced equipment to function, and to bring the designed goals, someone is always needed in the office. In the same vein, majority of the respondents were of the view that introduction of modern office automation lead to training and retaining of secretaries. In summation, the finding of this research work was that technology has had a tremendous effect on the jobs of today’s secretary. It was also deduced that technology cannot endanger raised the productivity of secretaries in the recent years based on the findings, the researcher concluded that technology cannot endanger the further prospect of flexible secretary. Finally, organizations have the duty to send secretaries on new courses on refresher course from time to time. And they should acquire modern office automation to improve the productivity of their secretaries.



Background of the study

Work was the major activities of man before the industrial revolution that was the period marked with mechanization of work, presently computer is representing mechanization thereby turning the work into automation. The 21st century has witnessed a lot of advancement both in science and technology. This advancement has been growing rapidly since the end Second World War both in manufacturing, aviation, medicine, engineering, finance and administration, such advances has affected adversely in all aspects of life. These technological advancement includes the modern office automation which we use in our day to day activities in he business organizations.

However modern automation in all works of life does not exempt secretarial productivity. The required unchanged while the procedure continues to change as more and more sophisticated machines are introduced in the office. The impact brought about by the invention of new office machines are immeasurable many of those office automation out-ways the secretaries performance due to their effectiveness, speed and time saving. The introduction of most office automation might go as far as costing secretaries their job as a result of limited numbers being employed.

The fear of cost of craftsmanship as new product (automation) replaces the old ones becomes the issue of stake. Consequently, the issue of bearing extra cost in training and retraining secretaries becomes a problem. These and many other reasons motivated the researchers into investigating and ascertaining how true these statement are with regards to the effects of modern office automation to the productivity of secretaries.


Statement of the Problem

The world is undergoing a raid change due to the innovation of modern automation as we are the new millennium and the evolution continues in order to cope with the modern age needs to know the effects of all these automated machines.

What are the effects of these changes on the productivity of secretaries in the offices, her ability to cope her job security, her relevance to the office work for which she is employed and moreover, the training which is o prepare her to meet the challenges of her over-changing work environment.

For government to equip their offices with modern automation they need enough capital to import these machines since they are not produced in Nigeria.

Modern office automation we all know needs expertise as regards to repair and procurement of spare marts.

Some of these automated machines need suitable environment like air-conditioned room, isolated pace and wide space. For Oru West L.G.A to acquire these equipment, they will have to re-adjust their environment to suit the new machines that is to be acquired.

Purpose of the study

  1. To identify the effects of modern office automation on the productivity of secretaries.
  2. To identify the use of office automation.
  3. To examine the importance of automation.
  4. To identify the problems secretaries encounter in using those automation.

Significance of the Study

The research is carried out in the sense that its findings will reassure the secretaries who thinks their skills is no longer useful in the offices as a result of the introduction of new modern automation. This ought to be done in order to boost their morale and increase their productivity as well. It will also be useful to both practicing secretaries and secretaries to be, not to fear about the future prospect of their profession, the study will also be very handy to various institutions where secretaries are trained to design healthy training programmes for secretaries in schools so that experience gained will be useful in the world of work if all the study will be immensely important to the general public especially the government to appreciate the best way to make use of automation available to them.

The Scope of the study

The scope of this research work is delimited to the effects of modern office automation on the productivity of secretaries in Oru West Local Government secretarial complex, Imo State.

Research Questions

  1. What are the effects of modern office automation on the productivity of secretaries.
  2. What are the uses of office automation
  3. What are the importance of automation

4.        What are the problems secretaries encounters in using those automation.


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This project is aimed at the effect of communication on organizational performance, communication subsist and impact upon everything that is, an event or occurrence worth nothing. It is this pervasiveness of communication that has, with the development of man, animal and the elements developed into a major area of study as well as formidable social force. It is an every day thing because it pervades our very existence.

Moreover, survey method is used in the design of the study and questionnaire, personal interview, personal observation, official record etc were used to gather primary and secondary data which were used to analyze using statistical technique like simple percentage. The population includes both senior and junior staff of Nnewi North Local Government area secretariat. Random sampling methods were adopted to elicit the responses. The methods used in disseminating information, the effect of such information on staff, how management takes suggestions from others as it relates to organizational policies were also discussed. However, the result of the survey revealed that the organization agrees that communication is imperative in the successful operation of management. In the cause of the research there were some recommendations made. And one of these recommendations was that the way communication process should be use by the members of the staff.




Every needs to communicate with those around him to share experience, jokes, furniture, hopes and ideas. By the time we read our teens, we probably take the ability to communicate for granted as merely doing what comes naturally. Whether we realize it or not, each of us has learn about language and communication by the time we become teenagers. In early childhood, we learnt how to write and interprete numbers and digrames. We even come to understand the silent language of communication expressed in false gestures and body movement which is the body language of non verbal communication.

This army of skills has helped us to be active members of the family, school, work group and society at large. Communication occurs when a person transmits meaning understanding message to another person or group. Having known this, it is of require goo communication since it is regarded as the foundation upon which an organization system must be developed and maintained to get an idea passed to others in order to bring intended performance.

Without the process of communication the various part of organization would not be bound together and the organization would not exist. In other to be successful, the organization needs people who can communicate effectively and efficiency. Communication is very important tool in every organization. John MP Fiffner saw communication as a galaxy of connotation each of which is valuable and useful for its particular context. It is indeed common that the mere mention of the world communication conjure s pictures of the letters, telegram, radio, cable, telephone etc. in the mind of the people in the street.

The word communication came from a Latin word “communication”, meaning to share. It is a way of sharing ideas, thought, feeling, message or information by speech, visual signals writing or behaviour. According to Lee (2011) without the means, the capacity and the will to communicate, what we knew as business government and community activities could not be but is not enough for people to talk with each other, they need to know how to talk with others too.

The first executive fixation according to Bernard (1990) is to maintain a system of communication. It is only when people have come to know others work, play or study that they are prepared to open up and to trust others with their secrets communication is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures, hence animal language. It can be act by which human pass information, knowledge etc. According to Uzozie Raphael (1992 : pg 10) he says that communication is all the possible method of conveying or passing information, idea, feeling etc from one source to another, in a systematic way (sentence formation ways) using channel which are recognized and accepted by all the participant in the communication gap.

Uwadiegwu (2010 : pg 155) defines communication as a process of giving peoples information through the means of previews agreed symbols, signs, signals, or patterns.

Mbiti (1987) sees communication as the transfer of information from one person to the other, information sent out all supposed to be understood and react to it with the desired response. in the same vein, Graham et al (1992) state that communication must include facts, intention and attitude. The chief purpose of communication is to make the receiver of the message to understand what is in the mind of the sender. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to assert that communication is playing operation of our business. We have more people to inform more people to listen to and more people to help us solve our problem and more things to talk about. Its function is the means by which social inputs are fed into social system or organization, the means by which behaviour is modified, changed is effected, information is made productive and goal are achieved, be it in business, the military, the government etc. very organization is get up to obtain same defined objective. Some business organization like Nnewi North Local Government Area Secretariat is set up to improve the standard of education and render social service. The co-operative in this case is not that of making profit.

However, the objective of any organization has been achieved through the instrumentality of individual persons who form the basic nucleus of any organization. The people have to be managed effectively and efficiently in order to ensure their readiness to perform for the attainment of goals and objective of organization.

“Management” is defined by Denyer (1972: pg 46) is concerted with the direction and control of an enterprise and involves planning and direction of the work of other. These managerial functions cannot successfully carry out in the absence of communication is what all managers do. It breeds life into planning, organizing, motivating, controlling and budgeting. It is the way we get meaningful work accomplished by coordinating the effort of their individual and groups.

Communication as defined by Brown (1950:pg 16) is the process of transmitting ideas or thought from one person to another for the purpose of creating understanding in the thinking of the person receiving the communication. It is also the act of imparting information or the mutual exchange of information and understanding by the use of symbols, language and signs. The goals of any communication his either to change behaviours, get actions, get information or to persuade and ensure understanding.

Drucker (1954:pg 12) while discussing the importance of communication said: The managers has a specific tool which is information. He does not handle people, he motivate, guides, organize people to do their own work and to do this, is the spoken and written word or the language of numbers. No matter whether the managers job is engine accounting, legislating or selling, his effectiveness depends on his ability caused by the lack of effective communication are among the greatest problem managers faces in today’s competitive business world. Skill are needed to get ideas and thoughts across other people as well as skill in finding out what other people are after, a kind of impulse feeling. Drucker assertion implies that communication are needed to convey information necessary for on going operation and that communication can have an effect on the attitude of people in the organization and consequently on the general performance of the organization.

Managers spend a lot of their time in order to co-ordinate human and physical resources of an organization into effective efficient and co-ordinate work unit. It is only through this, the human and material elements of an organization can be achieved.

As average manager spend between 80 to 95 percent of his time communicating in one form or the other, interviewing applicants for position, holding meeting, writing letters, memos and repots, telephoning clients, listening and reading. Relevant information, facts, feeling and ideas must be communicated within an organization before any organizational decision can be made. Communication in recent years has been regarded as a managerial function because of its indispensable important in any organization coupled with the fact that it has been realized that communication is need in born but has to e learnt and developed along line.

Language, which is deemed the most important tools of communication. Researchers have proved that there are more than 280 languages in Nigeria. It was also observed that the organization Nnewi North Local Government Area Secretariat which serves as a study for this research have worker from different ethnic groups with different languages, different social and cultural backgrounds. This shows that effective communication in any organization cannot be predicted accurately. As S.I Hayakawa (1979:pg 1) said “the meaning of words are not in the word”. They are in its and no word ever has exactly the meaning.



Misunderstanding and distrust caused by lack of effective communication are among the greatest problems Nigerian managers face today’s competitive business world. This is why the attention of many organization today and focused on the task of improving communication. List of obstacles of effective communication is almost unless each failure can mean serious losses, errors, delays, bottlenecks and misunderstanding.

One need not to emphasize on the simple fact that communication is the way management gets it job done. The ability to communicate is the most important of all the skill a manager must develop and when the most valuable ability administration may exercise.

It is estimated that close to 70 percent of our communication efforts are likely to be misunderstood thereby any human society. There are several reason for these, some of the reasons include lack of clarity of the message, receiver’s perception of the sender and the sender’s bias regarding the message. Other may be due to lack of interest in the message, poor listening and inability to concentrate.

Therefore, it becomes imperative to undertake a study on how communication is handled coupled with communication problem in the organization.

  1. In the light of this, the following formats are the statement of problems. In what ways have the use of effective communication in Nnewi North Local Government Areas Secretariat contributed to the achievement of its objectives?
  2. Has the achievement of the objectives been encumbered due to lack of proper communication facilities?
  3. Which process of communication does the management of the organization adopt in passing down their message?
  4. Has this process been suitable enough to get done at when expected or has it been a hindrance to work progress?


The objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine whether there is resultant effects of communication gap in Nnewi North Local Government Area Secretariat.
  2. To find out the process and identify barriers in communication.
  3. To find out the most appropriate communication method for better organizational performance.
  4. To investigate whether there is any communication gap between the employees and the management.


  1. Is there any resultant effects of communication gap in Nnwei North Local Government Area Secretariat?
  2. Do communication gap exist between the employees and the management?
  3. Is there any appropriate communication method for better organizational performance?



This research topic limited its study to Nnwei north local government area secretariat to communication gap in respect to its effect on organization performance with special attention. Nnwei north local government area secretariat comprises of female and male staff who are involved in various work. There are also student who are doing industrial training. The study also covers the role of communication in organizational mobilization in Nnewi north local government area secretariat.


Communication has remained an essential and an indispensable aspect of any organization as far as administration and management are concerned. Although most managers do not share the same view, however it is imperative that I spot out any gap in communication and to find a good solution to such problems. The worked will also focus on the task of providing a milieu for improving communication in Nnwei north local government area secretariat or government owned, individual association infact, every human society will benefit immensely from this study. Finally, it is expected to provide a basis which further research work covered be conducted in future. This study will highlight the important of communication as a vehicle organizational mobilization in a transition era.


  1. COMMUNICATION: The act of impacting information or the mutual exchange of information and understanding by the use of symbols language and signs. It is a social transaction which involves getting ones ideas across in a way a person can be understand by the other person of whom the message is been addressed.
  2. INFORMATION: Information knowledge, items of knowledge news.
  3. MOTIVATION; It is a force that influence human behaviour. In other word, it is a force that drives individual towards communication or acting in a particular way.
  4. PUBLIC: A section of the community grouped because of a common interest or activity. It can also refer to employee and the group of people, the organization conduct business with.
  5. ORGANISATION: A business concern united and constructed for a particular end.
  6. FEEDBACK: Process of bringing a response to the original speaker/sender or source. It is the ultimate judge of effectiveness of communication.

7. GAP: Break, incompleteness and unwholesome.







Background to the Study

English language is an international language used all over the world as a means of communication. It plays an important role for the people all over the world for political, commercial purposes and event tourism matters. English is a compulsory school subject. Mastering good English is very important thing in learning English grammar. Grammar is the study of words and their functions; one of its aspects in learning is adverbial. According to Douglas (2004) explains that ‘’adverbs and adverbials are similar but not the same. Though they share the same modifying function, their characters are different. An adverbial is a sentence element or functional category. It is a part of sentence that performs a certain function.

An adverb on the other hand, is a type of a word or part of speech. An adverb may serve as an adverbial, but an adverbial is not necessarily an adverb.’’ In a similar View Endley (2010) differentiates between adverbs and adverbials as ‘’ the former term is a label for syntactic category, covering familiar single word items such as quickly, happily and spontaneously. The latter term refers to a function. Linguistic elements that have this function include adverbs plus other linguistic elements such as phrases (on the other hand, at the bookstore, next week, last year, etc,) and clause e.g (after he saw the movie).

’’Basically, most adverbs tell you how, where, or when something is done. In other words, they describe the manner, place or time of an action. Most of adverbs are created by adding ly to the end of an adjective, like slow (adjective) slowly (adverb) hopeless (adjective) hopelessly (adverb). However, this is not a reliable way to find out whether a word is an adverb or not, for two reasons; many adverbs do not end in -ly, some are the same as the adjective form and many words which are not adverbs do end in -ly such as kindly, friendly, elderly and lonely, which are adjectives. Here are examples of adverbs which are the same as adjectives; fast, late, early’’. (http;//www.keepandshare.com/ doc/3270332/complete list of adverbs docx).

However,’’ the possible variation between the fixed and shift placement of adverb makes adverbs more difficult to teach, with this fact, learners have difficulty in learning and using them correctly. The complexity of adverbs is as a result of its syntactical and semantic behavior which is determined by its position in the sentence. The position of the adverbs possibly makes a sentence grammatical or ungrammatical or changes the meaning of the sentence. ‘’adverbs are difficult for students to identify.

The -ly trick is helpful, but as with everything else in the English language, there are exceptions (ugly, friendly and family). Plus, the adverbs that do not end in -ly are the hard ones to recognize.’’(https;//pinterest.com/pinning teacher/teaching). Despite the important of adverbs and adverbials students still take them to mean nothing. This can be as the result of problematic areas in the use of adverbs and adverbials.

According to the chief examiner report Eguridu (2015), states that “in Nigeria, 1593442 candidates sat for the may/June 2015 West African Senior Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in Nigeria. Only 38.68% obtained credits in five subjects and above including English Language and Mathematics”. The major cause of students’ poor performances is wrong use of adverbs and adverbials. Furthermore, a trick problem for students learners of English is to be conversant with  the words that go with -ly, as can be seen in these examples taken from Nwagu (2009),’’ she expected everybody to take them serious (wrong).

She expected everybody to take them seriously (correct). Outright is both adjective and adverb. As an adjective, the word outright means complete and clear without any doubt. E.g. an outright ban, rejection/victory.  She was the outright winner. As an adverb, the word outright means (a) openly and honestly, without hiding anything; I told him outright what I thought of his behavior. (b) Not gradually or immediately; most of the crash victims were killed outright. (c) Clearly and completely; she denied outright having been there. There is no English word as out rightly. Thus the correct expression should be;’ the principal often tells us outright that delay in life is dangerous’. And not … outrightly tells us … she behaves friendly (wrong). She behaves in a friendly manner. (Correct). Friendly is an adjective but has been made to function as if it were an adverb. He allows them to pay my school fees instalmentally (wrong). He allows them to pay my school fees in instalments (correct). There is no word as instalmentally in the English language. Payment spread over a period of time is said to be made in instalments. Hunston (2000) rules out adverbial modifiers in lexical patterns, stating that ‘’on the whole … patterns of adverbs are hard to capture … and since there is no parallel to complementation patterns adverbs can be better described in positional terms.’’

Regarding meaning, adverbs express ideas such as place, time, manner and location. Some adverbs of manner have a noticeable form that is they end in -ly. Most other adverbs can not be easily noticed by their form because they do not have a specific suffix. According to Agwu and Nweke (2000), describe adverb as a word that describes or modifies a verb, an adjective and another adverb. It adds to the meaning of the words it modifies.

Finch (2000), notes that an adverb may modify a verb by given circumstantial information about the time, place or manner in which an action, process takes place. In addition to the characteristic of modifying verbs, adverbs can modify adjective, a verb or another adverb. Such adverbs can answer the questions where, when, how, how often, how much, etc.  However, Orji (2001), posits that ‘’adverbials include not only single word adverbs but also particles and phrases.’’ The position of adverb can be found in the beginning, middle or at the end of the sentence. Ekechi (2006), explains that adverbials may be a single word adverb, adverbial phrase or adverbial clause. He went further to explain that adverbs are divided into three classes in relation to their functions. The three classes of adverbs are explained below; (a) adjuncts; these are adverbs whose functions indicate place, time, manner, condition, reason, degree etc

(B) Disjuncts: these adverbs indicate the state of mind of a speaker. For instance;

  1. Sincerely speaking, I never stole any money.
  2. Frankly speaking, the man loves his wife.
  • To be candid, I never knew we would lose the match

(c) Conjuncts; these are words or phrases that are used to link ideas. They play the role of conjunctions or linkers. Examples; the patient came to the hospital but he never saw the doctor. (But is used as a linker).

Though the students came late, the lecturer was absent. Conjuncts are also used to introduce new ideas. These conjuncts are transitional words or phrases like; in the first place, secondly, also, furthermore, before I proceed, in addition to the above, finally, in conclusion, etc.

Quirk (2000), also adds that adverbials may be integrated to some extent into the structure of the clause or they may be peripheral to it. If integrated, they are termed adjuncts. If peripheral, they are termed disjuncts and conjuncts, the distinction between the two beings that conjuncts have primarily a connection function. An adverbial is integrated to some extent in clause structure if it is affected by such clausal processes as negation and interrogation.

Ogbulogu (2004), defines adverbials as particles of adverbs used especially after verbs to show position, direction and movement. E.g. come back, break down, fall off, off down, back, etc. he went further to maintain that adverbs refer to all those words ending in -ly and which are mainly derived from adjectives. There are other structures that do not end in -ly or which are not just one word structures, but which are used as adverb. They are referred to as adverbials. According to Awa (2013) defines an adverb as “any word that modifies any part of language except noun, which is primarily modified by adjectives and determiners” that is adverb can modify verbs, adjectives, clauses, sentences and other adverbs, but most often they modified verbs.

Adverbs answer such questions as ‘how’, ‘which’ where’ to what extent and in what way. Obasikene (2001) maintains that adverbs exhibits three degree of comparison, the positive, the comparative and the superlative.  He further classified the comparison of adverb into: “regular and irregular adverbs”. The regular adverbs take the suffixes “–er” and “–est” to add to the basic adverbs to form their comparative and superlative form. The wrong use of adverbs and adverbials affect the students performance in the external examinations and in their construction of English language grammar. According to the chief examiner report, Mr. Eguridu (2015) states that in Nigeria, 1593442 candidates sat for the May/June 2015 West Africa senior certificate examination WASSCE in. only 38.68% obtained credits in five subjects and above including English language. This failure might be as the result of poor construction of grammar by students.

The competence of the students in the English language is challenged as a result of several problems in the construction and use of grammatical structures especially adverbs and adverbials. This may be as the result of non English language teachers teaching English language in some schools. According to little word (1984: 250) in Odoemenam (2007: 7) states that the learner uses his previous mother tongue experience as means of organizing the second language data. However Obeka (2011) says that most English language textbooks in our schools are too stereotyped. That is written as if they for learners of English as a native speaker.   Hence there is need to access problems with teaching and learning the use of adverbs and adverbials in secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area.




Statement of the Problem

A problem with the use of adverbs and adverbial is a problem in the construction of grammatical structures which mars proficiency competence in use 0f second language. The inability of the students to identify or use adverbs adverbials correctly gave rise to this study as errors in the use of adverbs in writing and speaking are clearly identified. It is obvious that the expressions of the students in English language are not worth listening to. This study sets out to identify the problems and prospects with the use of adverbs and adverbials among students of secondary schools in Ezza North Local Government Area, and to find out the extent to which the problems influence competence in the English language.






This work is the study of the user’s patronage in the institute of Management and Technology Enugu library. The research focus on the clientele use of the library. The research high-light the problems encounter by the library and solution to those problems. To achieve this study, research method was used, and also questionnaires where designed to serve as a measuring instrument for data collection. This project is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is made up of the introduction the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, Hypothesis and Definition of terms. Chapter two entails such topics as review of related literature sources of finding of academic libraries, the caliber of library staff, need for user education in academic library, users of academic library and the material needed and motivating users to make use of the library. Chapter three is made up of Design of the study, Area of the study, Population, Sample and Sampling Technique, Treatment procedure, instrumentation, validity of instrument/ Test, Distribution and retrieval of the instruments and Data analysis technique. Chapter four Presentation and Analysis of Data, presentation and data/findings, Data Analysis interpretation/Discussion of findings Chapter five, summary, Conclusion, Recommendation Suggestions for further studies bibliography/reference and appendices.



Library is the back bone of every sound education. Library is regarded as the store house of information and knowledge. Students should be able to use the library to enable them solve their problems. They need to acquire information in order to expand their knowledge and understanding; students should use the library to do their assignments, research and preparation of their examination. Regular consultation of library materials can help students to achieve them.

According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, library is defied as a room or building containing books that can be looked at or borrowed or a set of books, records etc. that are produced by the same company and have the same general appearance. According to encyclopedia Americana, the word library is derived from the Latin word libber. Meaning “book” the library initially stocked collections of clay tablets, papyrus and even scrolls were housed in libraries long before the concept of the book emerged.

In other words the library is a place where books and non book materials are kept for consultation of the users. Library is referred as a store house of information. Library stores the intellectual records of the society, retrieve and decimate them for the benefit of the society. Library as an institution has the responsibility of collecting books and other information materials and make them available to people for reading, study or reference.

People use library resources to obtain information of personal interest or to obtain recreational materials such as films and novels. Students use library to supplement and enhance their classroom experiences, to learn skills in locating sources of information and to develop good reading and study habits. Public officers use libraries to research on legislation and public policy issues. They provide information and services that are important to learning and progress.



Users patronage of the institute of management and Technology Enugu library. The institute of management and Technology Enugu library was as old as parent organization. It was established in 1973. The library was formerly located in campus (II) of the institution with a branch in campus (III). But in 2002, the library was located in campus (III) fully with the construction of new library of congress in campus III. The library has 480,000 volumes of books. It has been growing from strength to strength. The library consists of the following Sections/Departments. Cataloguing and classification Department, Bindery and acquisition Department, Serials/ Government Document Department.



This project is to find out the problems that libraries in our Country are facing, for example inadequate use of library both Academic library and other types of libraries inadequate trained staff or libraries who will be guiding or directing students. Poor finding of the libraries, especially Academic library, it faces the problem of money to acquire their materials. Un conducive atmosphere such as noisy environment. Inadequate strategic position where the library should be situated for easy entrance of people, for effective use of library by students and others, these problems must be solved.



The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality of students’ patronage of the institute of management and Technology library Enugu as stated in the following objectives.

  • To determine who are the users of the institute of management and Technology Enugu library.
  • To find out what collection development exists in the library.
  • To asses the teaching of use of library.
  • To find out how effectively the library holdings will made use of the library.
  • To examine the quality of the library staff.



This study is focused on the users patronage of the institute of management and Technology Enugu library. This study is within the institution. The students to study are the old students, this group of peoples are choose because they have been in the school for a long period. They have acquainted with the school environment.


1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY               

Since Academic library is part of the parent organization, students of the institution are advice to be making effective use of library because it was established for the benefit of students. Academic library plays a vital role of teaching, research, dissemination of information and serve people that live around the area. In academic library, materials are provided to support learning as well provides materials that will assist students in their own personal reading and self development.

This project serves as a reference point of other schools and libraries because after reading it amendment can be made to their own library. It helps them to know the areas where they will play a vital role in the educational upliftment of the student in the library. It will serve as a reference point to the researchers as well as draw the attention of the government both state and federal government to the importation of library to an individual. It will attract the attention of those students who find it difficult to use library, it will help them to make library their second home.


1.6a       RESEARCH QUESTIONS                   

[1]    Who are the users of the institute of Management and Technology Enugu library?

[2]    What collection development problems exist in the library?

[3]    How effectively is the library holdings are made use of?

[4]    How does the library staff relate to students in finding their needed information?

1.6b       HYPOTHESIS

[1]    The students of institute of Management and Technology Enugu are the users’ of institute of Management and Technology Enugu library.

[2]    The collection Development problems exist in the institute of Management and Technology Enugu library are science and engineering materials.

[3]    The library holdings are made effectively in the Institute of Management and Technology Enugu library everyday but the peak period is during the examination.

[4]    The staff of the Institute of Management and Technology Enugu library helps them in finding their needed information.                                                                                                                                                                 


According to oxford Advance Learners Dictionary. User’s are defined as a person or thing that uses something.

Patronage is defined as the support, especially financial, that is given to a person or to an organization by a portion.

According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Institution is defined as a large important organization that has a particular purpose for example a University or bank.

According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary Management is defined as the act of running and controlling a business or similar organization.

According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary Technology is defined as scientific knowledge used in practical ways in industry, for example in designing new machine.

According to Advanced Learners Dictionary, Library is defined as a building in which collections of books, tapes, news papers etc are kept for people to read, study or borrow.





This project is aimed at examining the problems and prospects of reference services in academic librarians, using the Anambra State University Uli campus library as a case study and how to evaluate the strength and weakness of the reference services in an academic librarian. It will also help to know the problems caused by the library clientele and profile solution toward the problems. This project work is design to know the functions of reference librarian and services to make prospect in the reference section of a library. Chapter one of this project works treats Background to the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of some terms as it concerns to this work. Chapter two treats literature review which covers areas like Reference materials, staffing of the reference section, management of reference section, problem facing reference section. Chapter three treat methodology which comprises of research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technologies, research instrument, and method of data analysis. Chapter four treats data analysis, presentation of result and discussion of findings. While Chapter five treats summary of the work conclusion and recommendation for further study.



  • Background to the study

Reference service is one of the essential services of the library. Meaning reference service is the activities, roles, functions and services rendered by the reference librarian constitute reference service. According to Prytherch, (2002) He states that: “reference service deal with the provision of reference work by library staff”. According to Ohio Library Council, (2005) Reference services is “A way for libraries to meet the needs of their user (clientele) communities”. Reference service involves instructing clients to operate independently and at own pace to uses electronic and print resources of the library, it also involved personal assistance given to the users to enable them meet their needs.

James (2005) states that reference work started in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to respond to several forces and trends. In the next several decades from the 1930s through the 1950s, a new technology that provides, access to the library to a lager member and much wider variety of people was introduce. That technology is obviously, the telephone and the reference literature of the day speaks of its advantages but also its challenges.

For example, having distinguished between “important questions coming in via the telephone those business men and involving important topics from less important” ones from club woman planning programs, context questions like should this service be centralized or dispersed? Should it be staffed differently from the desk? What information resources should be dedicated to it? And many more.

According to (ALA RUSA, 2008) reference service includes reference transactions and other activities that involve the creation, management, and assessment of information or research resources, tools and services. Creation and management of information resources includes the development and maintenance of research collections, research guide, catalogues, database, web-sites, search engines etc that patrons can use independently, in-house or remotely to satisfy their information needs.

Assessment activities include the measurement and evaluation of reference work, resources and services. According to Esharenana, (2008) sees reference section as that section of library which provide a variety of services and perform functions necessary to assist the users including provision of information service on demand and in providing institution in the use of library, selected of documents and organization of reference materials.

According to Obiora, (2004) states that reference sources are publications – book and non-book materials consulted only within the library for specific facts or definite piece of information on a subject. There are two types of reference sources, general reference sources which include Encyclopedia, Directories, Dictionaries, Yearbooks and Handbook while special or subject reference sources are Mathematics, Biology, and Library Science.

According to Esharenana, (2008) states that reference question is a sentence, phrase or word posed by a patron to the reference librarian asking for information or assistance in order to meet the need. According to Ramum (2003) reference policy is regarded as a kind of set of plan and as a kind of framework within which reference staff and clienteles work. Ahi Rusa, (2003) states that a reference librarians is person that provides reference service. He should posses a wide range of intellectual interest, desire to assist the patrons, flair for organizing documents ability to search literature and adequate knowledge of the library and external resources.

According to Scott (2007) is pubic service counter where professional librarian provide library users with direction on how to make use of library materials, advise on library collection and services and expertise on multiple kinds of information from multiple sources. According to Anderson (2005) digital reference is a service and the reference transaction is a computer mediated communication.


  • Statement of Problems

The aim of this study is to critically analyze the problems and prospect towards the services in the reference section and equally to view the problems that have prevented it from executing effectively and efficiently the bibliographical functions in the library. One observes that the very rapid expansion of our reference sources have reached a stage of concern. One finds that the library does not tackle the problem of acquisition of up-to-date reference materials like journals to keep the clienteles (students and lecturers even the parent institution) abreast of the new trends in their various field of study.

Development of the reference collection and organization which effect in the backbone of a reference eservice should also be looked into. A maximum attention would equally be paid to the relevance of the exiting services, to see how it meet the needs of the patrons, because the effective use of these materials depends on the services provided by the reference personnel or librarians.


  • Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study is to know the problems and prospect of reference services. Therefore the researcher will be able to find out the following purposes:

  1. To know if the reference section of the academic library is well organized.
  2. To know if there reference services are being rendered in line with other reference services in other libraries.
  • To identify the strength and weakness of the library’s reference collection because any effective reference service may not be feasible without an appropriate and adequate reference collection.
  1. To enable the researcher carry out the findings so that to make recommendation for effective reference services in the library.
  2. To take the library to another level through the reference services.


  • Research Questions

For the success of this study, this study demands an answer to the following questions:

  1. Is the reference section of the academic library adequately organized to perform its functions?
  2. To what extent can the reference materials in the library said to be appropriate for the needs of the clientele?
  • Are the reference services being rendered in-line with other reference services in other libraries?
  1. Does the library make available all the useful reference materials needed by the users for them?
  2. Does the library clientele find it easy with the reference librarian in terms of research?


  • Significance of the Study
  1. This study will lay on the reference services in academic library users.
  2. It will provide a useful information on how reference services are being searched by the users.
  3. It demonstrates to library staff the feelings of its clientele towards the type of reference materials they provide for them.
  4. The recommendation to the made will be the one that if implemented will enhance an effective reference information services of the library to its user.
  5. To enable adequate access to the materials be the library users.


  • Scope of the Study

This study is restricted to the university of Anambra State Uli Campus library. The reference services rendered to the users are deeply discussed.

Reasonable conclusion and recommendation was made because of limited time and space placed on this research, make it impossible to evaluate in details everything about the problems and prospect of Anambra State University reference library section. Only activities performed in the library and the general overview of their statistical record and their reference materials have been look into.

The quality of staff was also evaluated, the nature of their work and services towards their users.


  • Definition of terms

Reference Services:      According to Ala, (2008) reference service involves reference activities that includes the creation, management and assessment of information, research resources, tools and services. Creation and management of information resources include the development and maintenance of research collections, catalogues, research guides, databases, web-sites, search engines etc.

So that patrons can use independently to satisfy their information needs. Therefore reference is sees to be an act of documenting important materials for future use while services is the ability to make sure that reference section is functioning effectively. It deals with provision of reference work by library staff.