PROJECT TOPIC- ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The topic of this research work, assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria is self emphatic and the research focus on the private broadcasting media of Umuahia North, Abia State Nigeria. Private broadcasting media depends to a large extent on the government and the private media owners reason that the government who deregulated broadcasting media  and set up (NBC) in decree 38 of 1992 who are in-charge of the private broadcasting media licensing renewal, and revocation should endavour to see that it thrives well also the private media owners should make efforts to see they avoid any form of operational problem. So in order for there to be progressive operation in private broadcasting media there is need to identify and curb various operational problems militating against private broadcasting media organizations in the country.

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

1.1   Background of the Study

        Broadcasting is a global phenomenon. As an essential aspect of any nation’s social and cultural life, its significance cannot be over emphasized. Combining audio, vision and motion the broadcast media effectiveness in communicating information with speed and accuracy to heterogeneous audience has been proven over the years. However, in Nigeria for several decades following the inception  of broadcasting in 1957 (Obazele, 1996), the industry led a sheltered life shielded from the winds, the free market forces as successive regimes ensured that the sector remained an exclusive monopoly of the central government. Even the 1979 constitutional provision for the establishment of private electronic media could not change the trend.

        Heralding the emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria, to be or not to be generated diverse opinions. Some is of the thought that the best way to use the broadcast media as a facilitator of development is to have them owned and controlled by the government, others opined that the best result will be achieved by the private sector.

        Against the background of the Nigeria public yearning for a greater variety in programming as well as alternative sources of information to the mainstream government controlled stations, the federal government during Babangida’s regime promulgated decree N0. 38 which liberalized the industry and also established the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC). This decree (38) of August 24 (1992) empowered the NBC to regulate the entire broadcast industry, both public and private.

        This singular act by the Babangida’s military presidency eclipsed the over 50 years of sole government domination of the sector in Nigeria. The NBC’s major responsibilities are, insurance, renewal and revocation of licenses as well as setting and enforcement of standard in context and quality of programmes on Radio and Television etc.

        As excepted the NBC has recorded some achievements, some of the first set of private broadcasting organization whose presidential approval secured by the NBC, had already begun full operation. These includes clapper board television Lagos, Minaj system television Obosi, Ray power in Lagos, Vision Africa Umuahia, and latter Family love Fm Umuahia.

        In the light of the original blue-print of their establishment, the private broadcasting organization are excepted to adhere to the regulatory broadcasting policies, codes and standard in the course of their operations towards attaining a set of predetermined goals laid down by the regulatory bodies such as NBC.

        The deregulation of the broadcast industry which finally kicked off in May, 1993, with issuance of television and cable satellite redistribution licenses to private organizations saw DAAR communication Limited Lagos in 1992 emerge as the first recipient of the radio licenses (Guardian Oct. 1995).

        Thus, a study directed towards examining or assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria using Family Love Fm and Vision Africa Fm as a study, is a worthwhile exercise.

PROJECT TOPIC- ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA

  • 2 Statement of the Problem

In view of this discussion, this study look at the operational problems of private broadcast media (radio) in Nigeria using Vision Africa 104.1 Fm and Family Love 103.9Fm Umuahia as a case study.

Most private broadcast media (radio) are faced with a lot of problems in their operation. This is so because, since they are not owned by the government and cannot serve as the mouth piece and to some extent, this affect them because, the government is not responsible for their finances they are only sponsored by their owners and incase of financial constraint, they will surely be affected.

Most private broadcasting media lack the tactics in the management of its staffs and resources available to them and this causes lack of commitment by its workers thereby causing more harm than good to the organization.

Most private broadcasting media are faced with impediments that lead to ineffective coverage which leads to distortions in their operation.

1.3   Objective of the Study

The research objective is not the problems of private broadcasting in Nigeria but these are the specific objectives which led to the main objective:

  1. To know and identify the challenges and setbacks encountered by broadcasting organization.
  2. To know if private ownership affects private broadcasting organizations from carrying out its duties effectively.
  3. To know if there is any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations.

1.4   Research Questions / Hypotheses

These are the various research questions that guides this study:

  1. What are the challenges and setbacks encountered by private broadcasting organizations?

2,     To what extent does private ownership affect private broadcasting organizations from carryout its duties effectively?

  1. Is there any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations?

1.5   Significance of the Study

These are the various significant of the study in broadcasting:

  1. It provides insight into more effective broadcasting towards achieving the predetermined goals and obligation.
  2. The research work is of benefit to students of mass communication, who are notably the future broadcasters who will definitely get to face the challenges faced by the private broadcasting organizations, as it lists out guides towards effective and result oriented broadcasting operations.
  3. The research work can serve as a material for reference to individual in the field of broadcasting.

1.6   Scope of the Study

PROJECT TOPIC- ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA

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ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN ANTI-CHILD ABUSE AND TRAFFICKING CAMPAIGN (A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI METRO-POLIS)

PROJECT TOPIC- ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN ANTI-CHILD ABUSE AND TRAFFICKING CAMPAIGN (A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI METRO-POLIS)

ABSTRACT

This study on the role of the mass media in anti-child abuse in Nigeria. A survey of Owerri metropolis. The study is aimed at addressing the role of the media on their campaign against child trafficking and abuse in Nigeria and to examine their effort being made as well, and also to have an overview of their encumbrances and their performance so far. A total of two hundred questionnaires we given out to the mass media audience and one hundred questionnaires were issued to the mass media practitioners. The response rate of the mass media audience was one hundred and ninety. While the mass media practitioner’s respondents were ninety. The data collected was analyzed to determine their responses. The response favourable and in support of the role of the media against child trafficking and abuse was analyzed and it was discovered that most of the victims of this ugly vices were from impoverished homes.

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The word “ROLE” according to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is “the function or position that somebody has or is expected to have in an organization, society or in a relationship. This will help in electing meaning to the role of Nigeria mass media in their anti-child trafficking and abuse campaign.

Harold lass well (1945) say; that the mass media performs three function viz; surveillance of the environment, correlation of parts of the society transmission of the social heritage from one generation to another, and Wright (1975) adds, fourth role as “entertainment” Okunna (1999, 274)child trafficking and abuse an emotional and contentious issue that has enormously eroded the societal values.

This in humanity of man to young persons has an age long history. In the last twelve years the crime has greatly increased as children are moss-led by deceit or forced to summit to servitude for economic purposes due to dissemination. This act is perpetrated both internally and externally, Nigeria happens to be one of the destination points for child abuse as the “crime harming a child physically, sexually and emotionally”. Maduewesi (1990) argues that there are no statistical records on how the media have churned out news on this menace.

In the recent times, studies have shown that trafficking of children basically for house helps service is a global issue. Also Lutz (2002)  affirms that house help in different places were largely young, single girls of age 14 years and above. Ti is consistent with the findings of Gidoy (2002) who reported a study of the 100 children sampled in EL salvader working in domestic services most of them were between 12 and 17 years of age.

Nevertheless, the media’s role in creating awareness in child abuse and child trafficking by churning out programmes in a dramatized way, extensive reportage on child trafficking and abuse through films, print and broadcast media is a worth while venture. The mass media campaign coverage on information few people directly experience and unraveling happenings that relates to this scourge.

Therefore it is believed that the Nigerian mass media can through their campaign bring about a social change in child trafficking and abuse within Owerri municipality.

PROJECT TOPIC- ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN ANTI-CHILD ABUSE AND TRAFFICKING CAMPAIGN (A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI METRO-POLIS)

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

I beat every sound minded Nigerians imagination why such act like child trafficking and abuse that is akin to slavery should continue after more than 200 years since slavery was stopped all over the world. Unfortunately, Nigeria has been indicted as a transit point irrespective of efforts of the media, government and non-governmental bodies towards finding a lasting solution to the change.

The exploitive and slave like conditions meted out on young persons under the age of seventeen is better described as cruelty to the Nigeria child. This indecent and ungodly act-should not strive. In Nigeria if the provision of the United Nation Conventions in 2000 and the Nigerian 1999 constitution is something to go by given the abuse emotional trauma and neglect the child in Nigeria undergoes, one can therefore agree that an average Nigerian is not much aware of the child right bill.

Several publication have been made by the Nigerian mass media concerning children that are continuously abuse and trafficked to foreign countries and within the nation in deceit for child labour, abuse and trafficking. Based on this premise, this research will further explain the danger the scourge portends and the need for all hands to be on deck for the mass media campaign on anti-child trafficking and abuse to be a success. Also we cannot continue to allow undesirable element to destroy the destinies of our children.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

The nefarious act of child abuse and trafficking is no longer news in the country. Also to say that Nigeria is a catchment ground and as well as dumping point for child traffickers can not in anyway raise eyebolt. No one can ever deny the fact that child abuse is on the increase in Nigeria. Based on these issues, government bodies and good spirited individuals are expected to take the bull by the horn to motivate, encourage and participate directly on the Nigerian mass media role in the anti0child abuse and trafficking campaigns.

Better still, the study calls for ways to address these under listed steps with a view to find lasting solution to this menace.

  1. To look inwardly as to discover the things that has impeded the Nigerian mass media anti-child trafficking and abuse campaign.
  2. To appreciate and explain the Nigerian mass media role in their anti child trafficking and abuse campaign as well as,
  3. Identifying and addressing the root cause of the scourge.
  4. The study should also ascertain the government and non-governmental bodies’ effort in this campaign.
  5. And to suggest some other measures that would be of help to the media in their quest to eradicate the scourge.
  6. To investigate the level of ignorance exhibited by some media claimants.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study tends to provide information on child trafficking and abuse in the country. Also the need to address the Nigerian mass media encumbrances in their bid to fight the menace.

The research will be of immense help to guardians, parents, and children the nation and the entire world. The causes and measures to tackle these mysterious vices will be treated.

The study will help people understand how ungodly the menace is and the bad image it has created to Nigerians especially at times like this when the country is leading a crusade on re-branding the image of the nation.

The work among other things will go a long way in protecting the destinies of our children and the research shall serve as a referential material to other researcher who would like to embark on similar research work in due course.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • What are the mass media roles?
  • If given the enabling apparati, can the Nigeria mass media effectively carry out their anti-child abuse and trafficking campaign?
  • Have the Nigerian mass media live up to expectation so far?
  • What are the factors adversely impeding their effort in their anti-child abuse and traffic king campaign.
  • Which other relevant institution and people can be of immense help in this campaign by the Nigerian mass media.

DELIMITATIONS / LIMITATION

The study will be restricted to the role of Nigerian mass media in the anti-child abuse and trafficking campaign in Nigeria. The study is limited to Imo state alone due to financial and time constraints. At any rate, the problem encountered in the cause of this research is getting of reports and materials on the Nigeria trafficking and abuse campaign and how to source out other relevant data.

Be that as it may, the research was able to obtain material from the press, books, and internet and media outlets.

DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPT

ROLE:  Function or part that one is expected to perform in an organization or society or in a relationship

MASS MEDIA: Sources of information and news such as newspaper, magazine, radio, television, internet, films that reach and influence the attitude and opinions of large people.

Anti: Something a person does not agree with or accept

Child Trafficking: The illegal sending away of children to foreign countries and within the country. Child abuse: It is a crime that harms a child in a physical, sexual or emotional way.

Campaign: A series of activities that is well articulated planned and organized to achieve or accomplish a particular goal.

PROJECT TOPIC- ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN ANTI-CHILD ABUSE AND TRAFFICKING CAMPAIGN (A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI METRO-POLIS)

 

PROJECT TOPIC- NEWSPAPERS READING HABIT OF FEMALE STAFF OF NANAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

Abstract The study was focused on readership habit of female staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. The survey research method was adopted, and the researcher obtained a sample of 288 from the population of the study from whom data were obtained and analyzed. Data collected were presented in table and analyzed in simple percentage findings revealed that, most female staff of Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching Hospital, read newspaper occasionally. The researcher concludes based on the findings that the newspaper reading habit of the respondents is low. The researcher recommends that the management of the institution should endeavour to expand the subscription for national newspapers.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY

Newspaper readership studies do perhaps seem to be confined to an observe corner of extent literatures. This probably many be as a result of the assumption that almost everybody reads newspapers for clear reasons;  therefore, doing a newspapers readership study to ascertain how frequently, newspapers are read, why they are read and preference for a particular newspapers to the other appear rather to easy to deal with. However most researchers seem to concern themselves with matters of newspapers coverage of events in the society. As elementary as newspapers readership studies may appear to be, their centrality as forming sound foundation upon which further studies are built cannot be exaggerated (Layefa et al, 2016).

        Readership studies, besides being the hub of further studies function as a key marketing tools. Advertisers probably would prefer a newspapers of wider coverage with a wider readership reach. Evidently, newspapers readership tends to indirectly influence the what and why of coverage of news events; for reporters, editors give space for events they know would be of interest to the readers. Oloruntola cited in Morka & Orukamayan, (2015) states that news should not only be in an absolute sense of being news, it should be the sort of news that the reader of the paper will likely want to read, a newspapers that satisfies the curiosity or readers is mot likely to be preferred to others.

        There are plethora of newspapers researches; a greater percent bordering on newspapers coverage, ownership influence, and editorial readership. But none of those studies ever touched on newspapers reading habit among female civil servant. Therefore this study is different from existing ones in that it centers on newspapers reading habit among female staff in Tertiary institution.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Newspapers are known for the provision of up-to-date information on local, state, national and international events. Newspapers often contain current and interesting information   meant for the reading pleasure of the vast majority readers in all walks of life. As an important print medium of mass communication, newspapers provide the most current analysis, debate and criticism of socio-political, economic health and a host of other issue as information, education and entertainment of the readers. The newspapers is no doubt, one of the most widely-read periodicals available and accessible to all on daily basis in print and electronic versions.

However evidence from large body of empirical literature suggest that newspapers readership is on the decline. Dominick (2002, P.14) notes that newspapers readership has been declining over the last couple of years. Udie (2002,p.100) also reports that the frequencies of newspapers readership among Nigerian youth is less then 50%. Biag. (2003,p.83) states that since the 1970s the overall number of newspapers has declined due to non readership.

        Therefore, the problem of this study is to ascertain newspapers readership habit of female staff of tertiary institutions, with particular focus on Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital-Nnewi; Anambra State.

 

PROJECT TOPIC- NEWSPAPERS READING HABIT OF FEMALE STAFF OF NANAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is to know the newspapers reading habit of female staff of Nanamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital.

        However the specific objectives are as follows:

1      To determine the pattern of newspapers readership among female staff of NAUTH

  1. To ascertain the newspapers need most by the female staff.

3      To identify the uses female staff of NAUTH put newspapers into.

  1. To ascertain the reasons for preference for a particular newspapers among female staff of NAUTH.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

        Based on the research objectives, the researcher proposed the following research questions.

–       What is the pattern of newspapers readership habit of female staff of NAUTH?

–       What is the newspapers read most by female staff of NAUTH?

–       What uses do female staff of NAUTH put newspaper into

–       What are the reasons for the preference for a particular newspaper to the others among female staff of NAUTH?

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The result of this study will help editors of different newspapers to know the demography of their audience with the result obtained they will know what material to retain or remove from their newspaper content. The work also help newspapers to have better information characteristics of their audience and also what factors influence the preference of one particular newspaper over the other it will equally help newspaper house to learn what cause about shift in interest in certain category of their reading audience.

        It will equally help editors to and publishers to know the psychological disposition their audience towards certain information.

1.6   SCOPE OF STUDY

PROJECT TOPIC- NEWSPAPERS READING HABIT OF FEMALE STAFF OF NANAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

PROJECT TOPIC- NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF FOREIGN NEWS IN NIGERIA. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF DAILY CHAMPION AND VANGUARD NEWSPAPER

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  INTRODUCTION

 

The concept of news, journalism and freedom of press have for many years now been a major sources of disagreement between developing countries eg. African and developed nations of the world. Developing countries often feel ill served by the western news media claiming that foreign writers distrust the story about African growth and development or at times failed to report it at all.

          The developing nation at other hand often see the developing nation as hindering the report of news. Members often from the news media in industrialized nations say a free press as it existed in the United States of America (U.S.A) and Great Britain is virtually unknown in Africa and other part of the developing countries. They argue that information and communication has a vital note to play in the development of any nation.

          In about mid 70s, there was a cry over the poor coverage of event in the industrialized world by the African press while the African press has said the same thing about the industrialized world. As a result of this problem, the maintenance of an open flow of information across national boundaries lies assists to create and maintain a source of nations hood, it also perform development task such as improving educational, health care delivery, science and technology, political stability and offers inter-cultural information. It also help information public opinion as well as acts as a form of entertainment. It also acts as watch dog on government in a country where such is permitted.

          The developed countries have been accusing the third world. They claim that the third world countries used their media primarily for economic and social development and to promote the government inn power. These arguments have had poor coverage of foreign event by many newspapers.

          They argue further that news about developed countries are often published negatively and started to suit the ideology of the third world news agencies. The nature of news is always changing as a result of national interest and standards are always changing and because of this, the structure of news for the developing nation’s especially African countries must be redefined to reflect the effort being made by different government in Africa to transform their societies.

          The Western definition of news on the other hand emphasizes on events that is out of the ordinary, exceptional, existing, sensational of “man-biting the day” varieties. This concept of news has influenced Western consensus.

          Sequel to this 1997 meeting was a new international commission on communication problem was set up. The commission was headed by Seen Macbridge, former risk foreign Minister. The commission submitted its reports in 1990.

          However, apart form the commission’s recommendation, the committee was surprise after analyzing the content of the third world newspaper to team that the developed countries newspaper radio and television ahs the same bias reportage of foreign events. The developed nation argues that the bulk of information said to developing nations were saluted to suit the power that be.

          In addition to that, the commission pointed out that there is a tendency for journalists in developing countries to write in a manner in which facts are distorted to perpetuate pejorative attitude and also to use terms that is dividing and insulting.

          The study therefore analyze the coverage of foreign news by Daily Champion and vanguard newspaper to see whether the two dailies has the same reportorial bias as was discovered by the international commission on communication problem.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In the cause of this project work, certain reporters in what they gather and write as news about Africa are obscene. To them news are made in the third world countries only when there are scandals, coup d’etat, civil war and insurgence etc.

The developing nations are still batting to challenge this western definition of news of stretching the definitions to include and emphasize constructive news, embracing stories on social change, economic development, social, cultural, agricultural, technology and industrial progress, news that highlighted the culture and of people’s life and promotes trade and commerce.

The developing countries have also complained about the imbalance in order of global news flow which ensures that eighty percent of the world news comes from the industrialized counties with only about ten to twenty percent concerned about the third world.

One of the situation of this dissatisfaction which the situation was in the advocating for a new world information and communication order (NWICO) an order with a broader base include necessary for the preservation of world peace.

PROJECT TOPIC- NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF FOREIGN NEWS IN NIGERIA. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF DAILY CHAMPION AND VANGUARD NEWSPAPER

In 1976 at the United Nations Education Scientific and cultural Organization (UNESCO) general conference in Nairob, Kenya, the issue of new world information and communication order was first raised. In 1998, UNESCO accorded what amounted to defaults recognition to the issue by granting it a compromised factor has contributed seriously to the impediment of this research work. It was a great puzzle movement to assemble these dairies and on the other hand, the interview of the personnel’s of these newspaper companies.

In consonances with that, there has been a great battle between developed countries and the developing countries on the issue of news imbalanced. The right coverage of such news will help mould public opinion concerning any of the nations. The developing countries hinder the free flow of information into such countries.

It is against this background that this study analyzed the coverage of foreign news in daily champion and vanguard Newspapers.

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The principal aim of this research work is to find out the extent to which Daily Champion and Vanguard Newspapers reports foreign news. The specific purpose of this study is to

  1. To find out if the political ideology of Nigerian affects its press reportage of foreign news.
  2. To evaluate between Daily Champion and Vanguard newspaper rate of foreign news coverage.
  3. To know the type of news about foreign counties that is reported by Daily Champion and Vanguard newspaper.
  4. To critically examine the extent at which the Nigerian press show interest in the countries.

1.5                   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The most topical and persistent issue in international communication and politics today is the issue of global news flow controversy. This is essentially a demand to the necessity for a drastic change in the present pattern of information flow between and among nations of the world.

     Experts argue that the research for solution will be in high emphases because of the influence of mass communication in international politics and peace. This project will help correct the negative view held by he public concerning the coverage of foreign news by Nigerian newspapers.

     Finally, this work will indicate the shortcoming of Nigerian newspaper in the coverage of foreign events.

1.5                   RESEARCH QUESTION

  1. To what extent does Nigerian press show interest in the development of foreign news?
  2. Does government policy affect the foreign news coverage?
  3. Does the press cover more negative news about foreign countries than development news?

1.6                   LIMITATION OF STUDY

This project is limited only to the Daily Champion and vanguard newspaper. These dailies has been picked at random for easy content analysis of he newspaper pages at the cause of this research, a lot of problems were encountered. These problems include lack of adequate textbook in the library needed for this study. As a result of that, the researcher was unable to visit major towns and cities where there are better equipped libraries. Time was another constraining factors, the research was carried out in a short period of four months.

This study will embrace the historical back ground of new world information and communication order (NWICO) discuss its short comings, travails and importance

1.7     DEFINITION OF TERMS

          The concept of this study are:

1)      Nigerian press

2)      Negative news

3)      Development news

4)      News imbalance

NIGERIAN PRESS

Periodicals, mostly newspapers that are published and owned within Nigerian.

NEGATIVE NEWS

News about drought, famine, political instability, loop, war and poverty.

DEVELOPMENT NEWS

 

PROJECT TOPIC- NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF FOREIGN NEWS IN NIGERIA. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF DAILY CHAMPION AND VANGUARD NEWSPAPER

PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

PROJECT TOPIC- PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

This study is geared towards exploring the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modern / new communication technologies in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Modern technology has developed our society today through its beneficial impacts in transmission of information which enhances societal developmental change both cultural and moral values which Awka South is equally among. Traditional mode of communication through research shall be viewed as a major instrument that imbibed modern trend in communication. In other to show case its aid in community development through information dissemination and management, the traditional mode has greater in information dissemination in ensuring effective transmission of cultural values of Awka South into modern communication. The finding of the study are that various traditional modes of communication in town which are very important since they tend to unify modern communication with that of traditional mode. The method adopted in this research is random sample; systematic sampling was used to enable the three villages under case study to select at least 250 people needed for this research work.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction

 In this examination of communication and society, it is necessary to have an idea of what the two basic terms means by way of definition and explanation. Communication has been defined by the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of current English as the process of imparting thought, knowledge or intelligence verbal or written form from a source to a receiver. Edward Sapir also recognized “communication as a fundamental social process”.

Another definition of communication is that communication is the passing on or transmission of message with the use of language to heterogeneous audience. From the above definitions, it is seen that the two concepts have something in common; that holds them is the relationship that exist between them. Communication generally is a fundamental social process which essentially has to do with any discipline or activity that is concerned with human society and behavior.

Therefore, it has been identified as “the basis of human existence, for it is at the heat of all society intercourse. In our day-to-day life, we interact with one another by way of communication. This society cannot exist without communication for it is the only mechanism through which human interaction exists.

Living generally also depend on communication for even our body system cannot function without communication with one another through contact.

Communication also takes place when an individual talks to a follow individual, when an idea is made known to a group and when a concept is disclosed.

There is also a need for communication among human groups, as this is the Chief factor for creation of unity and continuity for the society and the vehicle for the conveyance of the culture. But it does not suffice to say that communication itself can be meaningful and effective without its association with other thing and other processes.

This is because, communication does not exist on its own in a vacuum, rather it exist in the society and function among persons.

It emanates from members of the society and assumes a social network. Going form one person to another and linking itself to means of its transmission through a channel, which is the mass media. This leads to a chain of process. Thus “through communication which exist between two persons or one person as the source to a group of person, ideas, needs information is conveyed through the channel. This message is decoded at the society who is the audience. By way of this life in the communication process, the channels of communication contributes tremendously to the propagation of information and the continued existence of the society.

It is pertinent to point out at this juncture, that every communication or message has its targeted audience to whom it is directed to. And when such a message gets to the audience an aim has been achieved. Also, when the audience is able to decode the encoded message as the effect compliance, another aim which is the ultimate aim is equally achieved in the face of these, what then is the essence of communication.

The aim of communication is to create awareness, education or enlightenment and through such awareness created, to elicit response, compliance, a change of attitude in respect or re-enforce them.

PROJECT TOPIC- PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Traditional Communication in Igbo Land

Before the white man came in Igbo land, the oral communication was the system of interaction in the area. The town crier performed a very important function by collecting and spreading very important information among his people, he served as an intermediary between the heads of the people and report their feelings to them.

Most of the time, the town criers had to embellish whatever message they had for the villages with riddles, idioms and proverbs or may even code the message in order to drive home the news in the light of this, the town carier were and are very popular among the village-folks, who are always ready to listen to them so as to be abreast with current news and events even today. In spite of the numerous electronic, broadcast stations with their educative and informative program, most villages still enjoy the functions of the tradition town carriers which are often more effective.

The main instrument of communication used by the town caries in Igbo land is the gong and flute. In addition to this there are other instruments used in non-herbal communication in Igbo land. Among these are the metallic and wooden instruments, signs and symbols. Wooden gong (Ekwe) metallic gong and xylophone (ngelegwu) etc are metallic and wooden instrument used for communication while the palm fruit at its tender stage (omu) is also an instrument of communication.

The notes from this communication instrument signs and symbols are interpreted very well by the people, to whom they are directed. The sounding of the wooden gong (ekwe) and the valorous gong (ikoro) in the night normally depicts dangers in Ngwo. This could be that, thieves or armed robbers are around and they are used to keep everybody at alert.

Much importance is attached by the village folk to non-verbal means of communication. Achebe attested this in “Things fall Apart”, when he wrote that …Umohia was still swallowed up in sleep and silence when the Ekwe began to talk, men stirred on their bamboo beds and listen anxiously.

Equally writing on the important characteristics the place of traditional mode of communication, Ugboajah (1979) pointed that “communication in traditional Nigeria communicates is mainly a matter of human inter.-relationship so to accept action will effect established relationship that is what said is as important as who said it. He referred to traditional mode of communication as “traditional Media” it is however to juxtapose the mode in terms of their effectiveness.

 There is no gain saying that fact that the various mass media get to their targeted audience spontaneously within a twinkle of an eye, reading wider spectrum of human being of heterogeneous background and in a very sizeable number. This ability of mass media to but across ethnic geographic and social background is really the strength of the mass media over the traditional mode of communication.

 In other words, the traditional mode of communication is delimited in its scope of coverage as capable of reaching a wider size of the population at a time unlike the media which blast everything open to all sundry spontaneously. This delimitation also affected the traditional mates in the scene that it cannot be used to heterogeneous audience, consisting of various geographical ethics, social political and lingual backgrounds.

 Despite the afore-stated differences, the traditional mode of communication could be ranked the same with the mass media in terms of its places to bring about desired results expected from the audience. In fact, in some cases where the mass media fail as a result of some inherent barriers, the traditional mode of communication is applied and the expected result is obtained. It is therefore logical to assert the traditional mode despite it shortcomings as mentioned above, are very effective as a means of communication.

This assertion finds support in the facts of the ultimate in communication is the creation of awareness, to reinforce erode existing response (which the traditional mode do) they are therefore very effective on the other hand, if the traditional mode can be effective, where the mass media fails it follow that the traditional mode of communication are complementing or supplementing to mass media effective role.

 However viewed from another perspective, the most communication that made use of the traditional mode are never intended to be so wide or limited in it scope, its targeted audience. By their nature, traditional modes are often used within and about confined geographical location like a town or district. It therefore follows that message come through traditional mode of communication are intentionally traditional mode to be two persuasive and wide in scope, it became improper to fault it own that score or carry a comparative analysis on it in the same premises of coverage with mass media.

1.2     Background of the Study

In any given society that is developed, there must be a mode of communication in which they interact with each other example internet service, mobile phone, radio, television, email etc.

          The traditional mode of communication in Awka South play a positive role in communication they are:

          The town carriers and other signs and symbols, town carriers performs a very important function by collecting and spreading information among his people.

          He serves as an intermediary between the heads of the communities and the villagers. This is because he conveyed the message of the community’s head to the people and reported their feeling to them. The main instrument of communication used by the town carrier in Awka South is the gong and flute.

          Other signs and symbols are wooden gong, metallic gong, xylophone are metallic and wooden instruments of communication while the palm frond at its tender stage is also an instrument of communication.

          The sounding of wooden gong and the various gong in the night normally depicts danger.

1.3     Statement of the Problem

          The issue that inspired or motivated the researcher to carry out this study is to understand the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modem / new communication technology in Awka South.

          To know the benefits of communication also the traditional modes of communication in Awka South.

          The second issue of the problem is to know whether modern communication has been able to influence the people of Awka South than traditional mode of communication. To also know if the people of Awka South prefer traditional mode of communication to modern communication.

1.4     Research Objectives

Generally, this research work is focused on traditional mode of communication and its aimed at examining its place in modern communication era at Awka South. This work intends to find out the followings.

  1. The relevance of traditional mode of communication.
  2. To find out whether Awka South people still make use of this traditional mode of communication.
  3. To find out if the people of Awka South are abreast with modern communication technology.
  4. To find out the extent at which the traditional modern of communication has effectively help in mobilizing the people into action.

1.5     Research Questions

  1. Is there any relevance of traditional mode of communication?
  2. Do people of Awka South still make use of this traditional mode of communication?
  3. Are people of Awka South abreast with modern communication technology?
  4. Is the traditional mode of communication effective in mobilizing the people?

1.6     Significance of the Study

The study has the following significance

  1. The traditional mode of communication help to transform the people’s way of life that is their custom and culture this extends to non-Awka South people.
  2. To enlighten the people of Awka South to know the benefits of traditional mode of communication.
  3. To promote and elevate the traditional mode of communication as well as its relevance to people residing in rural communities like Nibo.

1.7     Scope of Study

The scope of this study is delimitated to the place of traditional mode of communication in the era of modern / new communication technology in Awka South

1.8     Limitations of the Study

Throughout the research of this study the author encountered many difficulties in other to make this research a credible one.

Also, time factor was another challenges but be it as it may, the researcher took time to go into many places in the community to get the real fact in other to make this study a credible one as well.

 In line was financial constraints this occurred during the time of gathering information for this project, also, it extended to the typing printing and binding but by God’s grace all these challenges were surmounted and the work was successfully produced to  the best.

Operational Definition of Terms

The under listed assertion signifies the general ideas on experimentation of this study general ideas on experimentation of the study.

  1. Traditional: The native belief and way of doing things according to ancestors.
  2. Mode: The process through which information is conveyed
  3. communication: The interactive transmission of a message from the source to the targeted audience.

4        Culture: The general belief or moral principle and laws of a native area.

5        Traditional Mode of Communication:– These various channel through which native or Africa institution or way of life is being transmitted.

6        Modern / New Communication Technologies: The new medium through which information is disseminated in a easier and faster channel.

PROJECT TOPIC- PLACE OF TRADITIONAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN THE ERA OF MODERN / NEW COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY