INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES

 

ABSTRACT

This project work looked at the influence of leadership on the attainment of organizational objective it is the content of this research that leadership plays prominent role in the organization effort to achieve its goal. The data for their   research work was collected through primary and secondary source. Thus the information for this work is obtained from questionnaires textbooks and internet some of the finding of the study are that leadership is essential in the attainment of organizational goal, the leaders direct the activities of the subordinate towards the achievement of organization goal. The leaderembark on different styles in leading subordinate depending on the leaders and the situation on the leadership process in organization. Base on pining of this study, such recommendation which spell out the functions of the leaders sent on training in human and group dynamic are made. 

 

CHAPTER ONE:

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Successful organization   differs from the inefficient organization in many ways. One of the differences is the pattern of leadership.In most case, successful organizations are characterized by dynamic practice and effective leadership. While the unsuccessful organization are characterized by relative and ineffective leadership. Recognition of this is one of the crucial impart underlying the vest amount of working and research on leadership.

Leadership is the process of inducing people to desire objective could be organization objective the subordinate objective or the objective of the leader.Leadership most take place within the context of a group leading, most leader recognize is of controlling, planning, organizing nature of the modern business environment, leadership is important because success of leadership adopted by various organization is leading their subordinate towards the realization of organizational objective. This is the true because workers relationship and satisfaction with their leadership style can affect their performance in the organization.

It is in view of this, that this research work top to look at the influence of leadership on attaining organizational objective.    

INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Works in an organization have some needs to satisfy, and the way the needs are being satisfy in organization can affect performance. Leadership of some organization is sometimes ignorant to certain things that induce workers to perform in order to attain the objective of the organization.The leadership style adopted by leaders can greatly affect the performance of workers, especially if such leadership style helps the subordinate in achieving their objective in the organization. Thus when leadership influences the subordinate by meeting his needs, it will have impact on attainment of organization objectives.

The influence of leadership on attaining organizational objectives, using feeds and flour mills, Dangote as a case study, however in the course of the study, we shall look at what is meant by leadership style, whether workers of Dangote plc are satisfied with the leadership style of the superiors, the nature of relationship between workers and leaders or superiors of Dangote Plc does leadership style of superior geared towards meeting the needs of workers for performance

 

INFLUENCE OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES

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ROLES WHICH THE MEDIA PLAYED AND THE VOTING PATTERN ADOPTED BY THE ELECTORATES IN THE 2015 GOVERNORSHIP ELECTIONS HELD IN EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- ROLES WHICH THE MEDIA PLAYED AND THE VOTING PATTERN ADOPTED BY THE ELECTORATES IN THE 2015 GOVERNORSHIP ELECTIONS HELD IN EBONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

  • Background of Study

The mass media are important partners in political communication. This is reflected in the news they transmit about political parties and their manifestoes, contestants and the general electoral processes which help voters make choices that are deemed reasonable. Television and radio, in particular, have proved to be immensely popular in enhancing political education and participation.

The government, non-governmental organizations, political parties, contestants and voters all recognize that media broadcasts as powerful tools to be employed during times of election. What the media chooses to show, say or write about the candidates and the electoral processes affect citizen’s participation and may help to determine electoral results.

In Nigerian elections, the vote is the foundation of political equality and the avenue through which ordinary members in a political system attempt to influence others. Voting in an election is the most important political decision that resolves who rules (Berman and Murphy, 1996, P.369). “The act of voting occupies a central place in political behaviour. Elections are a direct and generally accepted approach to popular consultation and are a basic component of democratic government.

By selecting one candidate or party over another, citizens express preferences regarding who should govern and which government policies should be adopted or changed” (Ethrigde and Handelamn, 2008, P.88). Nigerian is characterized by great history and great people of divergent culture and traditional values. These have initially been adopted to maintain unity in diversity and a strong federal constitution.

But one major obstacle that has been in Nigerian federation is ethnicity, tribalism, regionalism and strong religious affiliations that embedded the political system, democratic processes, the civil service and even the economic sphere of the country (relating to employment, banking sector and other financial agencies and institutions). Consequently, Nigerian politics continues to be the way it used to be, even though there were allegations of election rigging in the history of Nigeria’s elections, but the 2015 general elections remained an exception in Nigeria even in Africa.

Albeit there were cases of voting based on religious and ethnic ties, Nigerians have to a reasonable level voted democratically by ignoring ethnicity, religion and regional affiliation. Political communication is very important in any political system. Politicians, party supporters and political parties’ trade on effective political communication. The media are essential to democracy and a democratic election is impossible without media.

A free and fair election is not only about the freedom to vote and the knowledge of how to cast a vote, but also about a participatory process where voters engage in public debate and have adequate information about parties, policies, candidates and the election process itself in order to make informed choices. This is where political communication comes to play a role in influencing, informing and mobilizing the electorates.

Despite the fears and anxieties that preceded the 2015 general elections, the governorship elections conducted in Ebonyi State witnessed mass turnout of voters. Ebonyi state residents and indigenes across the country came out in their thousands to exercise their civil right to vote. The introduction of electronic registration and use of card readers for the election gave Nigerians hope for credible elections.

That was the first time that technology would be used for conduct of elections in Nigeria as against the manual process in previous elections, which is subject to election fraud. The introduction of electronic voting is an improvement on the manual on many fronts. For instance, the electoral umpire, Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), was able to give Nigerians the exact figures of registered voters and number of Permanent Voter’s Card collected because records were captured electronically.

This, to an extent made malpractices difficult. The use of manual methods made this difficult in previous elections due to human errors and inadequacies, providing opportunities for reckless rigging. However, there were complaints in several polling units of non-functioning of the card readers. While in some cases it took a long time before the problems with the card readers were rectified, in others the problems experienced was due to lack of familiarity with the equipment.

For instance, there were many cases of non-functioning Card Readers that were due to the failure to remove the protective cover was one of the reasons for the Card Readers problem which called to question the training of personnel deployed for the elections. Adelaja (2015). Also, the few card readers that had to do with network problems were quickly resolved with the change to another network provider.

The elections were not all perfect but in our electoral history there is none fairer, freer and credible as this. Our research revealed that the April 11, 2015 governorship elections held in Ebonyi state which forms the crux of this research was conducted successfully with a candidate from People’s Democratic Party (PDP) emerging as winner, details will be discussed in the course of this study.

PROJECT TOPIC- ROLES WHICH THE MEDIA PLAYED AND THE VOTING PATTERN ADOPTED BY THE ELECTORATES IN THE 2015 GOVERNORSHIP ELECTIONS HELD IN EBONYI STATE

  • STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Elections in Nigeria are often controversial, even disputed. In the 2015 general elections, the two main parties – APC and PDP had fought a hard and divisive campaign full of intemperate language. Politics in Nigeria has always been expressed through political parties, which are created to achieve political power. Political parties are structured around specific ideologies and ideas of human societies, these ideas and ideologies are communicated to the party faithful, the electorate and other members of the public.

The mass media therefore becomes the means to communicate these ideologies. The electorate in Ebonyi State witnessed an unprecedented increase in number and style of political advertising messages and campaigns in the 2015 Ebonyi governorship election. Most of the political parties sponsored one form of political advertising or the other, in order to bring to the attention of the voting public, the parties political manifestoes as well as the parties candidates for the various elective offices to the public. The essence of their campaign was to sell their parties and candidates.

However, that messages were disseminated does not inevitably mean that it was received; nor does it indicate that it was understood and accepted as true, whereby its influence on the behaviour of the electorate in Ebonyi State during the governorship election of 2015 could be implied. It is in the light of this that we sought to evaluate the influence of the mass media messages on the electorate’s choice of candidates in Ebonyi state governorship elections of 2015.

All political advertising must have a message capable of influencing attitude, behavior and opinion (Nwosu and Nkamnebe, 2006). However, it was also not clear whether voters’ choice of candidate during the gubernatorial election were informed by the unique selling propositions used in the political advertising campaigns. More so, it is not evidently clear whether the majority of voters who voted during 2015 election in Ebonyi State made informed voting decisions or choices as a result of their exposure to political advertising messages.

In political communication, the credibility of the source and medium used impact on the message believability. Voters too were faced with the dilemma of either accepting or rejecting the message based on the above fact. During the electioneering campaign, the governorship candidates used different media in delivering their message and some of the media used had a different confusing message which is not really clear if they had any impact on voters choice of candidate on the Election Day.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The general objective of this study is to assess the roles which the media played and the voting pattern adopted by the electorates in the 2015 governorship elections held in Ebonyi State.

Specifically, the study was meant to:

  1. Determine the role the media in the political communication with the electorate during the 2015 governorship elections in Ebonyi State.
  2. To ascertain the electorates primary channel of exposure to political communication during the 2015 governorship elections.
  3. To examine the extent this electorate was influenced by media messages on their choice of candidates during the 2015 governorship election in Ebonyi State.
  4. Identify the gaps associated with reading out to the electorate through political communication during the 2015 governorship elections in Ebonyi state.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study was guided by the following research questions.

  • Did the media play any role during the 2015 Ebonyi state governorship elections?
  • What was the electorates primary channel exposure to political communication during the elections?
  • To what extent is the electorate influenced by political media messages on their choice of candidates during the 2015 Ebonyi state governorship elections?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

In the course of this research study, to achieve the targeted end, we put forward the following hypotheses as the imperative factor of explaining the phenomenon of “mass media, political communication and electorate voting pattern in the 2015 governorship election in Ebonyi state” there by raising the following hypotheses viz:

HYPOTHESIS ONE:

Ho1: The media did not play any role during the 2015 Ebonyi state governorship elections.

Ho2: The electorates had no primary channel of exposure to political communication during the elections.

HYPOTHESIS TWO:

Ho3: Voters’ choice of candidate in the 2015 governorship elections in Ebonyi State was significantly influenced by unique selling proposition of candidate’s political communication campaign

H04: Voters’ choice of candidate in the 2015 governorship elections in Ebonyi State was not significantly influenced by unique selling proposition of candidate’s political communication campaign

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant in that it examines the use of mass media as a form of political communication, and the voting pattern of the electorates during the 2015 governorship elections in Ebonyi State. In essence our interest is in mapping out the patterns of voting and to see to what extent such patterns are directed by political party influence and media communications.

Election is believed to serve several purposes in a democracy. Apart from the equal chance to participate in politics, it is used to gauge the political health of a society or government by serving as a stamp of legitimacy for the government of the day. At the same time, election acts as checks on the government, since the elected are aware that they may not be re-elected for another term unless they fulfilled their electoral promises to the satisfaction of the electorate who gave their mandate. Election is both a process of changing governments and making governments alive to their responsibility. It is a means of bringing periphery into the political arena. Nnabuihe et al  (2014)

Election is seen as providing peaceful change of government, it also provides social groups with the chance of resolving their conflicting needs peacefully. Voters are considered to be rational and intelligent in their choice among candidates.

However, an opposing view sees elections as merely symbolic ‘in character. According to this position, elections are a secular ritual of democracy (Niemi and Weisberg, 1976; 3). This view is in opposition to the one which holds that voters are intelligent and informed about their choice of candidates and that voters vote as a fulfilment of their civic duty. Voters are aid to know next to nothing about the candidates is irrelevant to governance.

This study is therefore significant

  • To the Researcher: It is believed that the research study will be of tremendous help to the research at the end of the findings.
  • Democratic Nations: the study deems appropriate for true democratic nations for rapid growth and development.
  • To Government: The state government will benefit much from this research because most of the pitfalls and voting pattern observed during the 2015 governorship elections in Ebonyi State have been examined and analyzed for successful subsequent elections.
  • To scholars: Our present and future scholars will see this research worth having in their private and official libraries for future research and consultation.
  • The public: This research will be very imperative to the Ebonyians in particular and Nigerians in general as well as true democratic nations within the world.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
In the study of political communication, there has been a continuous debate about the more or less powerful effects of the media on the public. Instead of reviewing these positions and their empirical claims as far as political communication and the 2015 governorship elections are concerned in Ebonyi State, we have examined in more general terms the role of the media within the broader framework of the media influence on their audiences as well as the social, cultural, political or economic power structures of society.

In order to focus this discussion better, we limit it to the news media, and in particular to Radio and Television broadcasting thus de-emphasizing the undoubtedly pivotal role of Newspapers and other media genres of mass political communication in the State during the period under study. We believe that this covers more appropriately political communication in the urban and rural areas of the state as Radio in particular is more common for political communication in those areas because of the ability to use batteries to operate radio when there is any power failure or erratic electricity supply. Broadcasting is the most pervasive and therefore, one of the most powerful agents for influencing men’s thoughts and actions, for giving them a picture, true or false, of their fellows and of the world in which they live, for appealing to their intellect, their emotions and their appetites, for filling their minds with beauty or ugliness, ideas or idleness, laughter or terror, love or hate”.

The personalities on whom political communication in the State focused during the period were mostly/mainly election contestants under the All Progressives Congress (APC) and the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). There were other less focused parties in the race. In particular, the personalities were the Governorship candidates of the APC, PDP, SDP, Labour Party, among a host of others.

1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

POLITICAL COMMUNICATION
According to Olayiwola  (2016) Political communication is a sub-field of Political Science and Communication that deals with the production, dissemination, procession and effects of information, both through the mass media of communication, the newspaper press, radio, television, social media, ora-media and interpersonally within a political context.

MASS MEDIA

The word media is the plural of medium, which comes from the Latin medius for middle (Media, 2001). There are three senses of the word media. The first is as an “intervening or intermediate agency or substance”, the second is a “conscious technical sense, as in the distinction between print and sound and vision as media”, and, lastly, “the specialized capitalist sense” in which a newspaper or broadcasting service that already exists is seen as a medium for something else- as in advertising (Williams,1983, p.203). Overtime, all three of these senses seem to have converged and formed the way that people currently think about media.

Mass media refers to “technological tools, or channels, used to transmit the messages of mass communication” Mass media include print media such as books, magazines, newspapers, and electronic media such as audio, television, movies, and the Internet (Hanson, 2010).

ELECTORATE

Electorates refer to all the people in a country or area who are entitled to vote in an election. The independent electoral commission of Nigeria puts those eligible to vote from the age of 18 years.

VOTING PATTERN

Voting  pattern also known as voting behaviour is a form of political behavior which explains how and why decisions were made either by public decision-makers, which has been a central concern for political scientists, or by the electorate.  To make inferences and predictions about behavior concerning a voting decision, certain factors such as gender, race, culture or religion must be considered. Moreover, key public influences include the role of emotions, political socialization, tolerance of diversity of political views and the media.

PROJECT TOPIC- ROLES WHICH THE MEDIA PLAYED AND THE VOTING PATTERN ADOPTED BY THE ELECTORATES IN THE 2015 GOVERNORSHIP ELECTIONS HELD IN EBONYI STATE

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS, AND IMPACT ON

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS.

 

ABSTRACT:

IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE READER CAN DEDUCE THE MEANING OF THIS WORK BY REQUESTING FOR THE DETAILED MATERIAL

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Politics seeks to govern a group of people with rules or regulations. It is the whole system directed at acquiring power to rules. This process of acquiring power is affected by a combination of many processes: democracy, autocracy, military, nepotism, plutocracy, and aristocracy, anarchy.
Organizational politics earns from the general knowledge of political culture in the outside society. It includes all that employee does to rise from one step to another that effect promotions and all the policies guiding employee rewards and discipline right from the day he is recruited to the day he leaves the organization.
According to Robbins (1990:64), it is a continuous process that sees employees develop personal tricks on reeling with employees, maneuvering his way to the top echelon of power. According to him, it is a game of intrigues meted against compatriots, demeaning them before higher authorities or favor.
This makes organizational polities seems as warlike phenomenon. But according to Otanka (1995:706), it is not all negative. In fact he notes that it has more positive contribution to the organization. He observes that it spurs every employee to be at alert to contribution his best to the growth of the business for appreciation so glaring to be denied by the higher authorities and everybody within the organization.
According to Witlessly (1936:19), organizational politics is the game of who gets what, how, when and where in any enterprise. It tries to pitch one employee against another. Organizational politics is the network of interaction by which power is acquired, transferred and exercised. Dalton (1966:15-21) reveals areas for political tension in any organization;
– Long run vs short run politics and programme
– Labour vs management interactions
– Struggles for promotions
– Distribution of rewards
– Interaction of organization doctrine. From these, we see that organizational politics tries to enable employees to be dynamic and appreciate a particular position, do all in their arsenal to get at it. It is left for the incumbent occupant to desire to shift upwards or downwards. This he does by his character. It pitches an employee against the other in ideas and performance; labor against management in polities as well as in nature of politics and programmes of action and rewards.

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS, AND IMPACT ON

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

 

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Many perceive organizational politics as a bad omen for any enterprise. They do this in line with the nature of intrigues that largely follow them. However organizational politics is inevitable whenever people converge and carry out a purpose. The quest for supremacy and outwits must surface. In a manufacturing as well as service concern, it can result to both positive and negative outcomes in an organization.
The pertinent question therefore, is how to articulate and channel organizational politics towards productive ends. The issue of the activities of employees and management, grapevine, discipline, promotion, organizational structure, public relations determine organizational politics.

ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS, AND IMPACT ON

ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

IMPACT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF JUDICIAL PROCEEDING AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY STATE OF ANAMBRA STATE)

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF JUDICIAL PROCEEDING AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY STATE OF ANAMBRA STATE)

ABSTRACT

The work examined the impact and effectiveness of judicial proceeding and democratic devidence in nigeria with reference to anambra state, the methodology adopted was content analysis which was analytical and descriptive in nature with our sources of data deriving from a combination of secondary and the primary sources and involving the use of text book, questionnaires, journals, and internet materials etcetera. The work examined some activities of judiciary as well as the problems and prospects of the arm of government. The finding revealed that judiciary has performed greatly in discharging of justice but still, there are a number of problems facing judiciary which ranges from political interference, slow pace of judiciary procedure, poor remuneration etc. base on the above the research recommends that the government should provide judiciary with modern communication and information facilities to enhance her work, political interference should be minimized and more funds should be allocated to the commission coupled with public enlightenment for the public to be further aware of the activities of judiciary.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Judiciary is the third arm of government. The formation of government is specifically for peace and protection of life and property in the society as well as protection and promotion of democratic dividend. The agreement for the formation of government was contained in the constitution. Constitution is the system of law, customs, and fundamental principles established for the guidance and government of state. It is the supreme authority of each democratic system.

It is also within the constitutional frame work that there are division of powers between the three arms of government, each within its own sphere co-ordinates and independent (Ndoh 2003). The constitution has assigned to the judiciary the responsibility of the interpretation of the constitution, a responsibility which contributes in ensuring that other arms of government and member of the public under them, perform their respective functions as it envisage by the constitution and in accord with the law (Nnaemeka Agu, 2002).

In the light of above, Nigerian judiciary particularly in Anambra state has been playing vital rules in the political system of the state since independent, but due to corruption, redtapism, political interference by other arm of government and worst military incursion or intervention in the politics and government of Nigeria particularly Anambra State has been a set back on the independent and judicial proceeding in the state. According to Okafor (quoted Okpata et al 2000)

The independent of the judiciary has suffered greatly in Nigeria especially under military rule. The military promulgated decrees with outer clauses which denied the judicially authority over certain matters. The judicially seem also teleguided or manipulated to delivered certain judgment.

In addition, it is beyond dispute that sustenance of democratic dividend in modern world, an independent, impartial and upright judicially is necessity for sustenance of democracy in Anambra state and Nigerian in general. Nevertheless, this work will focus on the impact and effectiveness of judicial proceeding in providing democratic dividends in Nigeria with focus on Anambra state.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF JUDICIAL PROCEEDING AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY STATE OF ANAMBRA STATE)

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM   

Federal Republic of Nigeria gave the judiciary of the power to interpret the constitution and laws of the land, the constitution maintained that the judiciary should be independent, impartial and upright in the function. Nigeria judiciary suppose to help in the consolidation of democracy and act as the last hope of common man as well as help in their achievement of democratic values. Nevertheless, several problems are encountered by the Nigeria judiciary in carrying out their constitutional    assigned functions.

This problems has hampered them from discharging their constitutional responsibilities, they are as follows: corruption, lack of financial autonomy, delay in the judiciary process, lack of independent machinery for the enforcement of its decision and influence of political office holder etc. this actually has made Nigerian judiciary ineffective in sustenance and consolidation of democracy in Nigeria political system.

 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NIGERIA JUDICIARY

THE EVOLUTION OF JUDICIAL IN NIGERIA

Before the coming of the coronial masters in Nigeria, there was no former or identified institution for judicial review of government acts as we know it today, however according to Osaai (2001) Some communities have a system of checks and balances and in some important respect, restraining influence on the tendencies of traditional rulers to excesses. However, with the coming of the colonialism, judiciary founded on the British legal system was introduced as an instrument of coercion, consolidation and legitimating of colonial rules.

The judiciary then was not separates from the executive, but was in fact a department of and controlled by the executive arm of government under the colonial system, the judiciary operated more in line with the dictates of the colonial masters than in accordance with the British idea of justice, also appeals from our court lay to the judicial committee of the privy council as final court appeal (Elias 1955:3356).

In 1963 appeals to the privy court were abolished following the constitution of Nigeria act of 1963 section 120. The supreme court of Nigeria then become the final court appeal in Nigeria, and the federation court of appeal was created in 1976 to function as intermediate court of appeal between the high court and the supreme court.

THE STRUCTURE OF NIGERIA JUDICIARY

The structure of Nigeria judiciary is hierarchical in nature with the Supreme Court at the apex and customary court at the base.

1.3  RESEARCH QUESTION

       This research would address the following research question.

  1. To what extent has judiciary impacted positively or negatively in the consolidation of democratic dividend in Anambra state?
  2. What are the real challenging facing or confronting judiciary in the consolidation of democratic dividend in Anambra State?

1.4  OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

       The aim of objective of this work is as follows:

  1. To find out the impact of judiciary in the consolidation of democracy in Anambra State.
  2. To identified the real problem confronting the judicial in the sustenance and consolidation of democratic dividend in Anambra state.
  3. To identified different levels and structures of court and their working towards the consolidation of democracy.

1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this research work is as follows:-

  1. The research will aid the judicial to enhance the consolidation of democratic dividends
  2. The aims would be also to contribute to existing knowledge of political science.
  3. It will equally be source of data to scholar student and even policy makers who will consult the work
  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

The scope of the research is delimited to studying the impact and effectiveness of judicial proceeding in sustenance of democratic dividend in Nigeria with focus on Anambra State and some limitation are encountered in the course of carrying out this research, the first is scarcity of material due to dearth of library, material, secondary the problems of finance, and short duration of time posse as problem in the research, although those problem were made lighter because of visit to internet websites, law firm and literature.

 

1.7  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The research hypothesis positioned in lined with the statement of the problem as follows:

  1. The judicial has impacted positively on the sustenance of democratic dividends in Anambra State.
  2. Political interference and lack of independent of the judicial are some challenges facing the judiciary.

1.8  THEORETICAL FRAME WORK OF ANALYSIS

Structural-functionalism is the theoretical frame work adopted in this work; the theory was established by Emile Durham, Herbert Spencer and other in the field of sociology. The theory views the society as a system which is a set of interconnected part which together forms a whole.

This theory was adopted in political science and specifically in the field of comparative politics as a result of inter-disciplinary drives of political system. The theory sees the political system as interrelated and reciprocally related regulated pattern that have need for the maintenance and survival of the system. In the field of politics structural functionalism are seen as explaining basic function of political structures in the political system and it can be seen as a tool of investigation and analysis (Emekwe 2002:92).

structure of the polity and it is only examine by these function that one can understand the political process in the society. When political satisfy the demand made upon it by the citizens, it is said to be functional but if the system does not satisfy the demand made by its citizens, it is dysfunctional moreover, the structural-functionalism theory explains function, impact and effectiveness of judiciary in sustenance of democratic dividend in Anambra state because judiciary is the structures that perform the function of constitutional interpretation and adjudication or cases between other structures of the system an settlement of dispute between individuals and government etc. and enthroning democratic values and ethos in Nigeria.

 

1.9         DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. Judiciary:- The judiciary is the

third arms of government with the primary duty of interpretation of law to apply the existing law to individual cases, an by so doing, settled dispute between one private citizen and the government, it is the court and all those who work in the vineyard of justice Obikeze and Obi (2004)

  1. Democracy: The term democracy has no conclusive acceptable definition, Abraham Lincoln sees democracy as “government of the people by the people and for the people” however, there arises the problem who are the people or what, Dahd (1989) refers as the problem of inclusive, but the fact that democracy is a system of government where powers is legitimized and executed by the many (Osagbue etal 2003)
  2. Rules of Law:- Means resort to law and order in a polity in preference. For arbitrariness, anarchy, violence welfare and strite. It dictates the government must be conducted, according to law and that in case of doubt or ambiguity the matter must be resolved by judicial decision on (Nnaemeka-Agu 2002).
  3. Constitution:- Is the collection of rules which establish and regulate or govern the government and the people, this rules are partly legal in the sense that court of law would recognized and apply them … (Obikeze and Obi, 2004)
  4. Court:- A court is a judiciary institution created by law or constitution to decide legal dispute authoritatively (schmic AOUSER 2001)
  5. Judicial Review:- Means the constitutional right of court system to review or cancel government registrations, decision and actions that is held to have done illegally
  6. Consolidation:- Is maintenance of stability in the system, also it involves the dissemination of those who makes for smooth running of their affairs of the society such that cooperation is encourage while conflict discouraged (Nnoli 2003)
  7. Structures:- It means the way in which the part something things are connected with each other and form whole, or to means to arrange the different part of something into a pattern or system in which each parts is connected to the other (Longman Dictionary 1995)
  8. Judicial Activism:- Is an anti-thesis of judicial passivism, it concedes the fact that judge cannot ignore the law as enacted however, it is essential to develop and if necessary to change it (Nweze 2002)

1)    Judicial Passivism: Implies that judge should concern themselves with application of law as it is, hence, the role of judge is seen as merely declaration, as the saying goes judicium est quasi dictim-judgment is a declaration of law (Okere 1987)

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF JUDICIAL PROCEEDING AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY STATE OF ANAMBRA STATE)

PROJECT TOPIC- POLITICS OF AID AND DEPENDENCE: AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA- U.S RELATIONS, 1999-2007

 

ABSTRACT

Nigeria U.S relations can be best desirable as a tale of two giants representing the periphery and the centre. Since the inception of democratic
governance in 1999, the U.S has not only invigorated its diplomatic relations with Nigeria but has also been willing to increase its financial assistance to
the country. The central aim of this study was to critically evaluate how the foreign aid from U.S fosters Nigeria’s dependence on the U.S undermine the
development aid and food security support from the U.S undermine the development of indigenous health care and food security programmes.
Likewise it tried to establish he link between U.S ODA and Nigeria’s external debt burden. The study was guided by three research questions and
three hypotheses to analyze the issues raised. The study was anchored on the dependency theory. The theory x-rayed the structural inequality in the
international system and how the centre states such as U.S uses strategies like economic assistance to ensure the continued dependence and
exploitation of periphery states such as Nigeria. Our research design was expost facto. We made used do both primary and secondary sources of data.
The primary sources included official documents from government agencies of both the U.S and Nigeria on flow of economic health care and food
security assistance from the U.S to Nigeria. Likewise the secondary sources included current textbooks, journals, seminar and conference papers on the
topic of study and other similar topics. The research questions were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis and statistical tables. After a detailed
review of existing literature and analysis of available data, the following findings were made: the U.S intervention aid impedes the development of
indigenous health care and food security programmes. The U.S official development Assistance (ODA) predisposes Nigeria to external borrowings
to finance western modeled projects thereby increasing external debt burden.

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION

 

Nigeria is a neocolonial state, whose economy is greatly influenced by external factors. Basically Nigeria occupies a peripheral status in the global
economic order. Thus she is dependent on the external support of the western capitalist countries, for the promulgation and enforcement of
programmes aimed at the development of her economy. Many scholars such as Ake (1996); Offiong (1980, 2001) and Adegbite (2008) have considered
the negative impact of the dependence status of the Nigerian economy on its development objectives.

The dependence status of Nigeria has greatly influenced her quest to achieve economic growth. Nigeria relies on the advanced capitalist countries for basically, everything; starting from technology, economic reform packages and most importantly finance. This excessive reliance have greatly affected and deepened Nigeria’s ‘Dependence status’ in the global economic order. The dependence status of Nigeria has greatly influenced her quest to achieve economic growth.
Nigeria relies on the advanced capitalist countries for basically everything; starting from technology, economic reform packages and most importantly
finance. This excessive reliance has greatly affected Nigeria’s ‘Dependence status’ in the global economic order.
In fact, Nigerian leaders and policy maker’s believe that Nigeria can not do without external aid; so they keep borrowing funds for phantom and
white elephant projects. Nigeria faces intense pressure to accept multibillion dollar loans for railroads, power plants, roads and other infrastructure
(http://www.nigerianembassyusa.org). These borrowings in turn increases Nigeria’s debt burden. Moreover our leaders advocate foreign aid as a panacea for resuscitating our ailing economy. The point here is not only about the quest among Nigerian leaders for foreign aid but more importantly
on how such foreign aid engulfs Nigeria in a cobweb of conditionality.

This conditionality consequently ensure that Nigerian economy remains open for the continued exploitation by the advanced capitalist countries such as; the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Japan and Italy. Offiong (2001:195) corroborates the foregoing assertion by noting that “cheered on by the Western countries that dominate the World Bank, IMF and the Paris Club, the key aid donor, the two International Financial Institutions (IFIs) impose incessant conditionalities to make sure that these poor countries continue to pay their debts” The irony of the whole situation is that “a country rated as the 6th largest exporter of crude oil, is also among the least developed countries of the world” (Olurunfemi: 1998:3).

Thus the abundant wealth of the nation has not been transformed into tangible improvements in the lives of her citizenry. The Nigerian government is basically, withdrawing from her status as the dispenser of social amenities to the masses and gradually the development agencies of the advanced capitalist countries are taking over. The point been made here is that Nigerian economy have over the years suffered from economic stagnation and general underdevelopment. Which cannot be properly analyzed and understood outside the context of colonialism and neocolonialism. Put in another form, colonialism led to the integration of the Nigerian economy into the world capitalist economy.
Before the exit of the colonialists, they created a class that would accommodate and protect their economic interests in Nigeria. Thus the formal ending of colonial imperialism has ushered in neocolonialism.

PROJECT TOPIC- POLITICS OF AID AND DEPENDENCE: AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA- U.S RELATIONS, 1999-2007

Neocolonialism has continued to preserve the colonial relationship of western dominance and Nigerian’s dependence in the global capitalist
economy by means other than direct political control (Ake, 1996) Nigeria remains a peripheral state, who’s economic and foreign policies are greatly
shaped by the advanced capitalist nation. The Nigerian state has been crippled by abject poverty, spiraling inflation, unemployment, diseases and general underdevelopment.

As a panacea to this problem, Nigerian leaders have over the years sought various from of assistance form the advanced capitalist countries. Experts on economic growth have called for more foreign direct investment (FDI), loans and grants from these western capitalist countries. However, the disenchantment with how such foreign assistance is managed by local authorities led to the establishment of agencies, which are charged with the administration of such aid.
Such agencies like the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Department for International Development
(DFID) of Britain are now charged with the direct administration of Aid funds in benefiting countries. These agencies have a country Mission,
containing key areas that have posed a major problem to underdeveloped countries. In contradistinction, it is pertinent to note that the activities of
such agencies, greatly affect the ability of home governments to evolve indigenous development programmes. Thus they remain tied to the
conditionalities of these advanced capitalist countries. With this new pattern the underdeveloped world would remain in perpetual dependence and
reliance on the advanced capitalist countries.
The programmes of USAID in Nigeria covers the key areas of the government’s responsibilities. They assist the Nigerian government in
formulation and execution of health care and agricultural programmes.

They even reach the grassroots more than the government of Nigeria. With this development, it is evident that the
Nigerian state is just, an appendage of the U.S territory. Thus the aid from the U.S deepens Nigerian dependence. Meanwhile, our leaders prefer that
their duties are done by external donors, ignorant of its consequences on the development of the country.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problem of Nigeria’s underdevelopment cannot be properly analyzed without recourse to the roles of neocolonialism and dependence of
her economy on those of the advanced capitalist nations. The United States has over the years been involved in Nigeria’s quest to achieve sustainable
economic growth and development. The emphasis on Nigeria by the United States is based not only on the formers stated rejection of global terrorism
but also on the trade relations between the two countries (albeit a patronclient trade relationship).

The United States is the largest consumer of Nigeria’s petroleum product Moreover; most of her oil multinational corporations are operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. So the United States gains a lot of material benefit from Nigeria. This favourable disposition of Nigerian economy to American foreign policy and economic interests attracts a concern with the problems of development and poverty; that have constituted a cog in the wheel of development of the Nigeria economy.

However, it is pertinent to note that the concern shown by the United States government to Nigeria’s problems of underdevelopment and poverty stems from her continued enjoyment of the latter’s support of her foreign policy and economic interests within her territory and the African continent. Thus United States government Aid to Nigerian government can be viewed as a veritable tool for maintaining the patron-client relationship between the two countries. The United States uses its foreign assistance to Nigeria to perpetuate the dependence of Nigerian economy on the United States.

Despite the economic and political underpinnings of United States Aid to Nigeria; Nigerian leaders perceive U.S aid as a veritable means for achieving rapid economic growth and development. The foregoing is in congruence with the western model of foreign assistance. The western capitalist nations adumbrate the use of foreign aid to attract economic development to the third world countries. Goldstein and Pevehouse (2008: 419). Thus they conceptualize foreign aid as overseas development assistance; which is essential for the take off for third world countries economic development. However, the dimension of United States aid to third world countries have changed considerably, in the after math of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the United States (Goldstein & Pevehouse: 492). The United States subsequently raised its aid budget with the aim of fighting poverty, which breeds extremism.
The United States aid to third world countries such as Nigeria have not been left on the hands of the recipient government to administer. Rather
the United States Agency for international Development (USAID) is charged with the responsibility of administering aid in recipient coun

PROJECT TOPIC- POLITICS OF AID AND DEPENDENCE: AN ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA- U.S RELATIONS, 1999-2007