The African traditional society is a homogenous and close one with its unique characteristic features that set it apart from other cultures of the world. Some of their beliefs and practices like Caste-system (osu-one dedicated to idol/god), and Slave (ohu) all in Igboland, killing of twins, and abinos, burying of chiefs/kings with slave, witch crafting, polygamy nude dressing and certain practices against women and widows etc appear to be evil in the contemporary society and therefore, need to be sermonized against so as to review them in the light of superior religion like Christianity. These evil beliefs and practices have become a source of great worry to some scholars in Africa especially as regards the impact of Christianity on African tradition with a focus on Ohaozara community, Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.


The broad objective of the work therefore is to understand the impact of christianity on african tradition: a study of uburu community in ohaozara local government area of ebonyi state.

The study will look at:



This study focused on ascertaining the impact of Christianity on African tradition: a study of Uburu Community in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study was restricted to Uburu Community in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Uburu occupies the South-Western part of the old Ohaozara Local Government Area. It is bounded to the North by Isu and Onicha, in the present Onicha Local Government, and Nkerefi in Enugu State; to the South by Okpanku in Ani Nri Local Governmechapter nt Area of Enugu State, and Akaeze in Ebonyi State; to the East by Okposi and Ugwulangwu in Ebonyi State; and to the West by Mpu and Oduma in Enugu State.



The methodology used consists of historical research into the impact of Christianity on African tradition: a study of Uburu Community in Ohaozara Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

In this research work, the source of information is based on secondary data. The sources of data collection are online journals, bulletins and textbooks from various resourced sites and authors. Internet materials shall equally be used.




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This research work was centered on Hannah Arendt on Violence  and the Quest for political power through violence in Nigeria; thereby redressing the notion of politics in terms of  taking politics as a game of do or die process. The researcher used juxtaposition and evaluation, juxtaposition, in the sense that Arendt’s ideas on violence are compared with the Nigerian situation to Sieve out what can serve as a better political worldview for Nigeria and materials were also consulted. It will also bring to a limelight on the evolution of political violence in Nigeria, this is where we can withnessed the Nigerian leader’s right from the pre-independence to the third republic, the way they have been caused violence in Nigeria due to their misconduct. It will also showcase Hannah Arendt and the Quest for political power through violence, where we understand Arendt aim of violence and see how violence have contacted to human condition. The paper ends by drawing a model conclusion by exposing both the proms and cons in expressing Arendt views and very critical in its findings.




While trying to echo Max Weber’s definition of state, C.W Mills categorically defined politics as a struggle for power and the ultimate form of power is violence.[1]  This equation of power and violence seems to corroborate the earlier postulations of the Chinese dictator Mao Tse-tung that power grows out of barrel of gun.[2] The attentive consideration given to the relationship between power and violence was heightened when the existentialist philosopher J. P. Sartre while writing the preface to Franz Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth glorified violence, saying that it is only violence that pays.[3] These and many other numerous views of thinkers and analysts on the notion of violence and its attendant relation to political power provoke some nagging questions: Is violence necessary for the existence and maintenance of political power? Put differently, can’t there be political power without violence?

The above questions are timely, given the contemporary inclination of the world to wars and revolutions in which violence is ultimately believed to be a common denominator.[4]  Technological advancement which hitherto was a blessing seems to be a curse by its productions of weapons of mass destruction, which according to J.B Akam, has rendered man powerless[5] by serving as instruments of violence directly or indirectly. This experience of violence cuts across all spheres of the human life. However, it has the greatest momentum in politics. Hence, the quest for political power in the dispensation is no longer through any other means but through violent acts. Humanity has waved good bye to morality and enthroned to the fullest the Machiavellian principle of the end justifies the means. This is a real problem to tackle.

In Nigeria, it is a fact known by experience and authenticated by history that quest for political power through violence is prevalent.  Violence has reared its head in Nigerian politics in the garb of thuggery, riots, ethnic crisis, assassination, kidnapping, denial of electoral rights etc which the consequences are usually wanton lost of lives especially those of the innocent. A trip down the memory lane of Nigerian political activities reveals that politics which is supposed to be

the natural activities of man borrowing from Aristotelian definition of man as a naturally political is no more a fair game, instead it is now a game of do or die what can also be known as the survival of the fittest. It is so because in the words of Rev. Fr. J. Odey:

Leadership in Nigeria has become a huge investment and a life insurance scheme where one has to engage in many abnormal things to be secure in perpetuity. And no Nigerian who has tasted the trappings of office has ever left them without fierce and often violent pressure while those who aspire to be there spare nobody and nothing on their way


The tragic experiences of Nigerians in recent elections are eloquent testimonies or attestation that the Nigerian political positions are reserved for the violent and where all actors in the political theatre are equally violent, it is safely reserved for the most violent. Those who are in office already do everything possible to perpetuate themselves in power, unleashing violence on the people. They are tyrannical such that anybody who tries to challenge them with regard to the way they are ruling is in soup. The death of such politicians like Dele Giwa, Ken Saro Wiwa, Bola Ige, Dikibo, Barnabas Igwe and wife of Anambra state etc. will buttress this fact. With this, one would ask, where are we heading to? What is the purpose of political power?

I should think that the aim of political power in every government as Arendt asserts is to enable men to live together, to promote happiness or to realize a classless society[7]. This meaning is no longer obtainable nowadays instead people have understood political power as the best avenue to make money hence resorting to all forms of violence in order to acquire it.

In this write-up, I am going to philosophically expose this quest for political power through violence especially in our country Nigeria toeing the foot step of Hannah Arendt to prove that power and violence are incompatible and that violence can destroy power but not create it8.



In the light of the above it is good to ask the basic questions which is the leading principle of this research work. Is violence necessary for the existence and maintenance of political power? Put differently, can’t there be politics power without violence? The above questions are timely given the counterparty indication of the world to wars and revolution in which violence is ultimately believed to be a common dominator.


As hitherto mentioned above, man is by nature a political animal. Hence politics is not restricted to special type of people neither is it a dirty game. Instead, it is those who indulge in it that are could be seen as dirty. Therefore, the purpose of studying this topic titled the quest for political power through violence is to redress the above mentioned status quo in which politics is seen as a game of do or die.  To achieve this, the youths who are veritable tools of violence have to be re-orientated for they are gradually imbibing this method as the best option for survival.

Again, I want to use this write-up to appeal to the consciences of those whose hands are not yet soiled in politics to keep it up. The fact that violence is seen as the order of the day in Nigerian politics should not make them to join them when they cannot beat them.


This essay will be significant or beneficial in the following ways:

It will serves as both educating and entertaining material to the members of the general public and those of the world.

It will serves source of reference for further studies and researcher especially for undergraduate students  in philosophy and other discipline; it will also help to know the implication of violence in the, in the society at large.


In this write-up I want to narrow the ideas of Hannah Arendt to Nigerian situation even though they were not propounded for that. Of all the political works of Hannah Arendt, I am going to concentrate mainly of her major work on violence. Even though I am going to highlight her other works especially the human condition, they are going to be in passing.


The method of study is that of juxtaposition and evaluation. Juxtaposition, in the sense that Arendt’s ideas on violence are compared with the Nigerian situation, to sieve out what can serve as a better political worldview for Nigeria.

The work is divided into five chapters. Chapter one is the general introduction: statement of problem, purpose of study, method and scope of studies. In chapter two we are going to examine the nature of violence in Nigeria as well as literature review. In chapter three, we are going to examine Hannah Arendt and the quest for political power through violence. Then in chapter four, we shall examine the evolution of political violence in Nigeria. The above work is brought to an end in chapter five with critical evaluation and conclusion.


Political violence: Is violence outsides of  state control that is politically motivated  some political violence as part of contentious politics or collective political struggle, which include such things as revolutions, civil war riots and strikes but also more  peaceful protect movements.

Political violence is a broad term used to describe violence perpetrated by either persons or government to achieve political goals.

Politics:  The activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate between parties having power activities aimed at improving someone’s status or increasing power within an organization.

Evolution:  The process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth.

To change through line as species become modified and diverge to produce multiple dasein.

Leadership: Is both a research area and a practical still, regarding the ability of an individual or organization to “leads or guide other individual; leadership is a holistic spectrum that can arise from (1) higher levels of physical power, need to display power and control others, force superiority, ability to generate fear, or group members need for a powerful group protector primal leadership) superior mental emerges, superior motivational forces.

Egosim:  In philosophy egoism is the theory that one’s self is, or should be the motivation and the goal of one’s own action. The term “egoism” and “egotism” the doctrine that holds that individuals ought to do what is their self-interest. Psychological egoism, the doctrine that holds that individuals are always motivated by self interest.






1.1 Background to the Study

The genesis of marriage and family can be traced to the Holy Bible. God ordained marriage for three purposes: for companionship, pleasure and procreation. Marriage and family is designed for the development of human race but unfortunately many families are enduring what they ought to enjoy (Ebiai & Bumba, 2004). Marriage is a socially sanctioned union, typically between one man and one woman usually called husband and wife.

The type and functions of marriage vary from culture to culture. Legally sanctioned marriages are generally conducted between heterosexual couples, although there are a few countries that recognize same-sex marriage (Broude, 1994). The prevailing view towards marriage is that it is based on emotional attachment between the partners and entered into voluntarily.

There are different types of marriages: monogamy and polygamy. Monogamy is generally in two ways; strict monogamy where a person is allowed only one spouse per lifetime and serial monogamy where people can be married to more than one person – in succession. There are also several specialized types of monogamous marriages that involve cousins; bilateral, matrilateral, patrilateral and parallel cousin marriages (Kalafut, 2007).

Bilateral cross-cousin marriage occurs when two men marry each other’s sisters. This entwines families very closely, and some societies continue it over several generations. Matrilateral cross cousin marriage occurs when a man is expected to marry his mother’s brother’s daughter. Continued over a number of generations, this eventually forms a circle where everyone is connected to each other.

Patrilateral cross-cousin marriage occurs when a man is expected to marry his father’s sister’s daughter. Continued over a number of generations, this eventually forms a circle where everyone is connected to each other. Parallel Cousin marriage is an interesting form of marriage encouraged in some societies between the children of two brothers. This helps keep inheritance and property within the family line.

The term polygamy is a Greek word meaning “the practice of multiple marriage”. Polygamy can be defined as any “form of marriage in which a person [has] more than one spouse. Historically, polygamy has been practiced as polygyny (one man having more than one wife), or as polyandry (one woman having more than one husband), or, less commonly as “group marriage” (some combination of polygyny and polyandry).

All three practices have been found, but polygyny is by far the most common in the world (Kalafut, 2007). A specialized version is called sororal polygyny where the man’s wives are sisters. Polyandry is where a woman can have more than one husband at the same time and is generally divided into fraternal polyandry (where the husbands are brothers) and non-fraternal polyandry (where the husbands are not related).

Christianity gives room to total monogamy whereby one man is entitled to one wife while in the Islamic world, marriage is sanctioned between a man and up to four women. In most societies in Africa marriage was polygenic, where a man could have multiple wives. In such societies, multiple wives are generally considered a sign of wealth and power. DeGenova and Rice (2005) reported that families are universal and yet each is unique. In an ever changing world, families cannot remain static.

Thus, families today, are different from those of previous generations. They differ in structure, composition, 3 size and function. DeGenova and Rice (2005) define family as any group of persons united by the ties of marriage, blood, or adoption, or any sexually expressive relationship. Families can be described according to their structure and the relationships among the people in them:

A Voluntary Childless Family is a couple who decide not to have children (Some refer to this as a childfree family). This is mostly found in the western world. In Africa, a childless family is frowned at by the society, making it clear, that children are valued. A Single-Parent Family consists of a parent (who may or may not have been married) and one or more children. A Nuclear Family consists of a father, mother, and their children.

A family origin is the family into which one is born and raised. The family consists of a child, his parents, and his siblings. A family of procreation is the family you establish when you give birth to your own children. An extended family consists of a man, possibly a partner, any children you might have, and other relatives who live in your household or nearby (this also includes grandparents who are helping to care for grandchildren).

A Blended or Reconstituted Family is formed when a widowed or divorced person, with or without children, remarries another person who may or may not have children. If either husband or wife has children from a former marriage or previous relationship, a step family is formed. A Bi-nuclear Family is an original family divided into two families by divorce. It consists of two nuclear families which are: the maternal nuclear family headed by the mother and the paternal family headed by the father.

The families include whatever children were in the original family and may be headed by a single parent or two parents if former spouses remarry (Ahrons and Rodgers, 1987). A polygamous family is a single family unit based on the marriage of one person to two or more mates. Thus, if the man has more than one wife, a polygynous family is formed. If the woman has more than one husband, a polyandrous family is formed.

Polyandry is rare, but polygyny is practiced in African and Asian countries (DeGenova and Rice, 2005). A Patriarchal Family is one in which the father is head of the household, with authority over other members of the family. A Matriarchal Family is one in which the mother is the head of the household, with authority over other members of the family. A gay (male) or lesbian (female) family (homosexual) consists of a couple of the same sex who are living together and sharing sexual expression and commitment.

Some gay or lesbian families include children, usually the offspring of one of the partners. A Cohabiting Family consists of two people of the opposite sex who are living together and sharing sexual expression, and who are committed to their relationship without a formal legal marriage (DeGenova and Rice, 2005). Marital stability is not only a value term, but also a relative term. It implies firmness and strength to endure under hard as well as easy circumstances. This element of constancy, according to Hollingshead (2007), must not be confused with a static condition.

Marriage and family problems represent a unique but common, category of adjustment difficulty that causes people to seek psychological treatment. Problems can develop in a couple’s relationships because of a medical or psychological problem in either person, or in one of their children. Parent-child problems can also create distress within a family. Sometimes, the couple itself is the problem because of poor communication, continuous conflict, alienation, sexual problems, or in-law problems (Donald, 2007). Jegede (1998) confirms that age at marriage is a factor that contributes to the problem of marital stability through the issue of early marriage.

Communication is the process of transmitting and receiving ideas, information, and messages. Healthy and poor communication in homes/marriages contributes to the stability or instability of such marriage. In-laws are relatives by marriage, especially the parents of the husband or wife. In-laws are generally perceived as “enemies” by couples. They are usually regarded as unnecessary interference in the scheme of things.

Except in a few cases, many couples would rather keep their in-laws at arms length because too much familiarity brings contempt. But, as much as many couples would want to do this, the extended family practice by African culture may not permit it. Women especially, suffer the major consequence of in-laws’ interference in their marriage because in-laws see them as intruders who deprive them of the love and attention needed from their son.

Marital suspicion is an act of suspecting; the imagination or apprehension of the existence of something (especially something wrong or hurtful) without proof, or upon very slight evidence, or upon no evidence. Marital suspicion has deprived a large number of people their joy and peace; it has even led to cases of battering, divorce, murder and so on. Suspicion could be used interchangeably with cheating, jealousy, distrust, mistrust and doubt.

The importance of marital stability cannot be over-emphasized; the stability of each marriage or family is eventually the stability of the nation at large. This study identified four psychosocial factors (communication, age at marriage, in-laws’ interference and marital suspicion) and it is against this backdrop that the research was been conducted in order to find out whether the identified factors could predict marital stability.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Marriage is the major avenue whereby the society is been populated by the number of offspring that are born from such marriages. When there is marital instability, there is a problem in the raising and nurturing of the children, which leads to an increase in the rate of juvenile delinquency in the society. Youths are the future of the nation and when the home front is faulty, parents will not be able to cater for and correct their children, and no wonder we have a large number of drop-out cases which eventually turn out to become area boys and girls roaming (about) the streets.

If this social menace is not addressed early enough, the future and hope of this nation may be dashed. Another upshot of marital instability are sicknesses, diseases (e.g. high blood pressure, cardiac arrest, HIV/AIDS, mental disorder) and cases of untimely death. When peaceful atmosphere is replaced with chaos in marriage, the consequences are usually grievous.

The death of either of the couple or both also has some effect on both the home and the nation. Children from such a home without any other social supports tend to join armed robbery gangs, prostitution and drug trafficking in search of a means of livelihood. All these will definitely affect Nigeria as a nation to be deprived of future leaders who will steer the wheel of the nation towards technological advancement and economic progress.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which psychosocial factors predict marital stability among women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government area of Ebnoyi state; and which of the psychosocial factors would predict marital stability most.

1.4 Objectives of Study

This study seeks to:

  1. Examine marital stability among married women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
  2. Explore the psychosocial factors that are capable of predicting marital stability.
  3. Investigate the role of communication as a contributory factor to marital stability.
  4. Examine the effect of age at marriage on marital stability.
  5. Highlight the side effects of the role of in-laws’ interference on marital stability.
  6. Provide solutions that will assist individuals to avoid marital instability.

1.5 Research Questions

In order to achieve the stated objectives, the following research questions were raised:

  1. Will communication, age at marriage, in-laws’ interference and marital suspicion in a combined form predict marital stability among married women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
  2. Will communication predict marital stability among married women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

iii. Will age at marriage predict marital stability among married women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

  1. Will in-laws’ interference predict marital stability among married women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
  2. Will suspicion predict marital stability among married women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

1.6 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined as used in this study.

Marriage: This is a legally recognized relationship, established by a civil or religious ceremony, between two people (of opposite sex) who intend to live together as sexual and domestic partners.

Family: people living together, or a group of people living together and functioning as a single household, usually consisting of parents and their children.

Marital Stability: This is a marital situation or condition that is steady and does not change.

Marital Instability: This is a state of marital disorderliness – a lack of steadiness or firmness.

Communication: It is a process of transmitting and receiving ideas, information and messages.

In-law’s interference: These are unnecessary distractions caused by relations by marriage.

Marital Suspicion: It is a feeling that something is wrong; an unsubstantiated belief about something, especially a belief that something wrong has happened or that somebody may have committed a crime; or marital fear of the unknown.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study would be of benefit to couples, marriage/family counsellors, social workers, business organisations and the nation at large in the following ways:

For couples, when the cause of marital instability is known, the couple will be able to improve or manage the causal factor(s) leading to instability in their home. For instance, if communication is the major problem among couples, this study will provide measures on how to communicate effectively thereby establishing a stabilized home which will enhance the upbringing of proper children and it will better the lot of the society. Marriage/family counsellors will benefit immensely from the result of this study because it will help in assisting their clients to solve various problems having known the likely factors that predict marital stability in marriages, implying that, the study will help counsellors to offer qualitative counsel to couples and family members that come for counselling. Social workers are part of helping professionals; this study will enable them (social workers) to offer qualitative help to individuals, couples and family members that come for assistance.

Stable marriages enhance the total well-being of every member of such a marriage/family, therefore, business organisations will benefit from this study because the employed individuals from stabilized homes will contribute intelligently to the growth of the organization. When such an individual is becoming less productive; the organization may help her seek for professional assistance of a counsellor. This, in turn, will again enhance effective delivery of the employee. Every marriage/family is a unit in the society/nation, and when there is peace and stability in marriages, the nation at large will experience peace and growth in all spheres of life.

1.8 Scope of the study

There are six Catholic church in Ikwo such as St. Stephen Parish, Noyo Parish, Assumption Parish Abina, Agunkwo Parish, Okpoitumo Parish and  Echara Parish. But this study was limited to married  women in both Assumption Parish Abina and St. Stephen to represent the total married women in Catholic Church in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.






Background to the Study

Nigeria like other developing countries is still in the initial stages of integrating ICT in teaching-learning process. Though it is limited by a number of barriers, there are many factors influencing the use of ICT to make teaching-learning effective in primary schools in Nigeria. ICT is an electronic means of capturing, processing, storing, communicating information. The use of ICT in the classroom teaching-learning is very important for it provides opportunities for teachers and students to operate, store, manipulate, and retrieve information, encourage independent and active learning, and self-responsibility for learning such as distance learning, motivate teachers and students to continue using learning outside school hours, plan and prepare lessons and design materials such as subject content delivery and facilitate sharing of resources, expertise and advice.

This versatile instrument has the capability not only of engaging students in instructional activities to increase their learning, but of helping them to solve complex problems to enhance their cognitive skills Jonassen and Reeves (2008).  Also, Pernia, E.E. (2008) defines ICT as technologies used to communicate in order to create, manage and distribute information. She adds that a broad definition of ICTs includes computers, the internet, telephone, television, radio and audio-visual equipment. She further explains that ICT is any device and application used to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create and communicate information and knowledge.

Digital technology is included in this definition as services and applications used for communication and information processing functions associated with these devices. According to Plomp, Tj., ten Brummelhis (2009), generally three objectives are distinguished for the use of ICT in education, (i) The use of ICT as object of study; refers to learning about ICT, which enables students to use ICT in their daily life. (ii) The use of ICT as aspect of discipline or profession; refers to the development of ICT skills for professional or vocational purposes. (iii) The use of ICT as medium for teaching and learning; focuses on the use of ICT for the enhancement of the teaching and learning process. It is a fact that teachers are at the centre of curriculum change and they control the teaching and learning

Religion has been rightly described as an essential factor in any society of the World hence it cannot be safely ignored or neglected. This is because it an inescapable, inevitable aspect of human life. Most nations and people has been nurtured, raised and developed on the platform of religions. The need for the Nigerian child to be adequately groomed morally cannot be overemphasized since this is crucially an important aspect of the development of human personality and moral development.

To moral maturity on the part of the citizen of a country is pre-requisite for the development of that country Omoregbe (1990). The traditional education aims in inculcating a high degree of morality. Thus, the Christian religious education emphasized the development of moral training in their adherents as fundamental education training to be received by them so as to be useful to themselves and society.

Additionally, the national policy on Nigeria education stressed the importance of developing good ethics in pupils when it states in section 3 (3) the need for the inculcation of moral and spiritual values in interpersonal and human relation. What culminate the present study is the fact that despite popular awareness of the importance of ICT and the role it now playing in many aspects of life, most teachers particularly at the primary school level in Nigeria are yet to introduce it to the teaching and learning particularly in primary schools in Afikpo North LGA of Ebonyi State.

Research has identified the importance of ICT in education. It has been found that ICT can promote students’ intellectual qualities through higher order thinking, problem solving, improved communication skills, and deep understanding of the learning tool and the concepts to be taught (Sutton 2006).  ICT can promote a supportive, interactive teaching and learning environment, create broader learning communities, and provide learning tools for students, including those with special needs (Trinidad 2001; Hawkins 2002). Computer-generated graphics have been used to illustrate relationships of all kinds, especially dynamic processes that cannot be illustrated by individual pictures (Franke 1985).

They are also said to improve school attendance levels and enable the creation of a new and more effective curriculum. It is no more contestable that ICT has contributed to the teaching and learning and achievement in many subjects. Some areas of the curriculum have been the focus of considerable ICT development. Apart from initiatives to support literacy and numeracy, evidences of positive impact have been reported in mathematics, modern foreign languages, science, history, geography, physical education and the creative arts.

But the evidence of its contribution to the pupil’s performance in Christian religious knowledge from the teacher’s point of view in Afikpo North LGA of Ebonyi State context is yet to be ascertained. In the light of this therefore, this study examine the importance of ICT in teaching C.R.K in primary schools in Afikpo North. But before fully looking at the importance of ICT; it is welcoming to understand the concept of ICT first. Information and communication technology refers to as a computer based facilities used by organization personnel to record, transmit, generate, retrieve, impact knowledge and process information and communication needs Asiyai (2010).

ICT is any technology that students and teachers use to organize, create, manipulate, solve, find, draw, design, synthesize, share, collaborate, modify, analyze, evaluate and disseminate information. ICTs include internet, computer, hyper net software and hardware, network, data projector and other devices that convert information into digital forms. Kent and Facer (2004) indicated that school is an important environment in which students participate in a wide range of computer activities, while the home serves as a complementary site for regular engagement in a narrower set of computer activities.

Increasingly, ICT is being applied successfully in instruction, learning, and assessment. ICT is considered a powerful tool for educational change and reform. A number of previous studies have shown that an appropriate use of ICT can raise educational quality and connect learning to real-life situations Lowther, (2008); Weert and Tatnall, ( 2005). As Weert and Tatnall (2005) have pointed out, that learning is an ongoing lifelong activity where learners change their expectations by seeking knowledge, which departs from traditional approaches.

As time goes by, they will have to expect and be willing to seek out new sources of knowledge. Skills in using ICT will be an indispensable prerequisite for these learners. ICT tends to expand access to education. Through ICT, learning can occur anytime and anywhere. For example, Teleconferencing classrooms allow both learner and teacher to interact simultaneously with ease and convenience.

Based on ICT, learning and teaching no longer depend exclusively on printed materials.  Multiple resources are abundant on the Internet, and knowledge can be acquired through video clips, audio sounds, and visual presentation and so on. Current research has indicated that ICT assists in transforming a teaching environment into a learner-centered one Castro, Sánchez and Alemán (2011).

Since learners are actively involved in the learning processes in ICT classrooms, they are authorized by the teacher to make decisions, plans, and so forth (Lu, Hou and Huang 2010). ICT therefore provides both learners and instructors with more educational affordances and possibilities. They maintained that ICTs can provide an efficient delivery mechanism of educational services by supplementing conventional delivery mechanism. Engaging pupils of primary school would be fascinating and quite enriching. Seeing that the mastery of such ICT facilities would be fundamentally embedded in them.

Therefore, the importance of using ICT in teaching C.R.K in primary schools could be more specifically seen below:

  1. It assists students in accessing digital information efficiently and effectively. As Brush, Glazewski and Hew (2008) have stated, ICT is used as a tool for students to discover learning topics, solve problems, and provide solutions to the problems in the learning process.

Thus, ICT makes for Christian Religious knowledge (C.R.K) acquisition more accessible, and concepts in the learning areas are understood while engaging students in the application of ICT.

  1. Support student-centered and self-directed learning. Students are now more frequently engaged in the meaningful use of computers Castro, Sánchez and Alemán, (2011). They build new knowledge through accessing, selecting, organizing, and interpreting information and data. Based on learning through ICT, students are more capable of using information and data from various sources, and critically assessing the quality of the learning materials of C.R.K.; especially having Bible, Bible Commentary and other materials relevant to studying C.R.K in primary school.
  2. Encourages a creative learning environment. The broadness of C.R.K as a subject definitely requires a learning environment with ICT facilities. ICT develops pupils’ new understanding in their areas of learning (Chai, Koh and Tsai, 2010). ICT provides more creative solutions to different types of learning inquiries. For example, in a reading class, e-books are commonly used in reading aloud activities. Learners can access all types of texts from beginning to advanced levels with ease through computers, laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or iPads. More specifically, these e-books may come with some reading applications, which offer a reading-aloud interface, relevant vocabulary-building activities, games related to reading skills and vocabulary acquisition, and more. Therefore, ICT involves purpose designed applications that provide innovative ways to meet a variety of learning needs found among pupils of primary schools.
  3. Promote collaborative learning. Koc (2005) mentioned that using ICT enables students to communicate, share, and work collaboratively anywhere, any time. Especially among pupils of primary schools who love learning together. Pupils not only acquire knowledge together, but also share diverse learning experiences from one another in order to express themselves and reflect on their learning.
  4. Facilitate teaching and learning quality. As Lowther (2008) have stated that there are three important characteristics that are needed to develop good quality teaching and learning with ICT: autonomy, capability, and creativity. Autonomy means that students take control of their learning through their use of ICT. In this way, they become more capable of working by themselves and with others. Teachers can also authorize students to complete certain tasks with peers or in groups. Through collaborative learning with ICT, the students have more opportunity to build the new knowledge onto their background knowledge, and become more confident to take risks and learn from their mistakes.

Further, Serhan (2009) concluded that ICT fosters autonomy by allowing educators to create their own material, thus providing more control over course content than is possible in a traditional classroom setting. With regard to capability, once students are more confident in learning processes, they can develop the capability to apply and transfer knowledge while using new technology with efficiency and effectiveness.

For example, in an ESL listening and speaking class, students may be asked to practice their pronunciation using an online audio dictionary. They are required not only to listen to the native pronunciation from the dictionary, but also to learn the definitions and examples of a new vocabulary item. They then have to make a recording of their own pronunciation and provide examples of how this new word is used in context.

Before completing this task, they have to know which browser to use in order to search a suitable online audio dictionary. They will have to browse several online dictionaries, and select the one that best meets their learning needs. In addition, finding good software to record their voice is another prerequisite for these learners. Therefore, the whole learning process enriches students’ learning skills and broadens their knowledge beyond what they already know.

By using ICT, students’ creativity can be optimized. They may discover new multimedia tools and create materials in the styles readily available to them through games (Gee, 2011), CDs, and television. With a combination of students’ autonomy, capability, and creativity, the use of ICT can improve both teaching and learning quality.


Statement of the Problem

Information and communication technology is an innovation that has been integrated into the education system of virtually all countries of the world including Nigeria. Highlighting the relevance of information and communication technology in this modern age, Ajayi (2002) rightly noted that any industry that sidelines ICT has simply signed a “death warrant” on its continued relevance. The availability and utilization of ICT in our primary schools is without exclusion from the truth of the matter. Perhaps the government feels that ICT usage is irrelevant at the primary school level; whereas, in developed countries, kids are being exposed to ICT usage at their Nursery level.

Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this research work is to assess the importance of ICT in teaching of C.R.K in primary schools in Afikpo North LGA in Ebonyi State. But in other to be guided properly, the specific objectives would be:

  1. To identify the innovations that ICT has brought in teaching -learning process in teaching of C.R.K in primary schools in Afikpo North LGA.
  2. To identify the importance of I.C.T in teaching C.R.K in Primary schools in Afikpo North LGA Ebonyi State.
  3. To determine how ICT contributes to pupil’s performance in C.R.K

Significance of the Study

The main significance of this study, base on the importance of ICT in relation to teaching-learning processes in primary school is that would offer access to a lot of data and information which the teachers can utilize for teaching and learning in class; hence, the result of this study would give teachers the access to ICT and as a tool to improving the pedagogy of teaching, building a more effective organizational structure in schools, stronger links between schools and the community, and empower students (Chan, 2002).

As the Ministry of Education believes that ICT has the potential to revolutionize education and improve learning as it has changed the medical, financial, manufacturing, and other sectors in society thus, the findings of the study would inform the Ministry of Education on how to facilitate ICT in primary schools in Afikpo North LGA of Ebonyi State.

As Moore (2005) had summarized the positive impact of ICT on pupils’ learning such as increased students’ motivation to stay on-task and drive them to behave better and produce high quality work. Besides, through ICT students learnt more independently and did more works at a fast pace. Since the importance of ICT and its contributions to all fields including education had been proved in previous studies, this study will demonstrate the impact of ICT use in teaching and learning on the achievement of primary school students in C.R.K.

Scope of the Study

The study covers the importance of ICT in teaching and learning CRK in primary schools in Afikpo North LGA of Ebonyi State and the benefits of ICT integration in teaching C.R.K.

Research Questions

  1. What innovations have ICT brought into the teaching-learning process of C.R.K in primary schools in Afikpo North LGA.
  2. What are the importances of I.C.T in teaching C.R.K in Primary schools in Afikpo North LGA Ebonyi State?

3. How does ICT contribute to the pupil’s performance in C.R.K.





The continued decline in the teaching and learning of instrumental music in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu State has been of great concern to music educators. In trying to investigate the factors that hinder effective teaching and learning of instrumental music in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu State, this study concentrated on the musical activities of teacher-learner relationships between 360 Junior Secondary II students and 11 music teachers in nine selected schools in the three educational zones of Enugu State, Nigeria. Employing the research instrument of the questionnaire in gathering data, the study found out that there were inadequate musical instruments; lack of qualified music teachers to teach the instruments; discouragement from parents, peer groups, and the general public; poor implementation of the curriculum; and poor motivational and appraisal tendencies right from the beginning.

The study, therefore, suggests that all manners of stakeholders in music should join hands to provide enough funds for the purchase of musical instruments, create a Music centre for each education zone, organize regular music concerts for schools and communities, upgrade and update the  structure of the existing music syllabus so as to cater for teaching and learning of instrumental music in secondary schools, and encourage the teachers to attend seminars, conferences and workshops as a way of refreshing and updating themselves on what they studied.



1.1 Background of the Study

Instrumental music may be defined as the art of combining sounds that can be produced on instruments in a manner that is agreeable to the ear. Hornby,  2006:774) defines instrumental music as ‘a piece of music (usually popular music) in which only musical instruments are used with no singing’. About instrumental music, Nwafor (2003: 14) says that ‘this type of music does not involve singing. It is purely instrumental, often played for listening and appreciation’. Duru (1986:2) sees the term instrumental music as ‘a piece of music to be sounded on an instrument, as distinct from a piece to be sung’. Willi Apel, (1969:413) also sees instrumental music as ‘music performed on instruments, as opposed to music performed by voices (vocal or choral music)’.
Instrumental music comprises African instrumental music and Western instrumental music. There are two main types of instrumental music, namely: ensemble (chamber and orchestral music) and solo (piano, organ, lute, etc.). Chamber music according to Apel, (1969) is an Instrumental ensemble music performed by one player for each part, as opposed to orchestral music in which there are several players for each part.

According to the number of players (or parts), chamber music is classified as follows: trio (three players), quartet (four), quintet (five), sextet (six), septet
(seven), and octet (eight). String trios (quartet, etc.) are for stringed instruments only; if one of the strings is replaced by another instrument, names such as piano trio (piano and two strings) or horn quintet (horn and four strings) are used (p. 143). According to Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1981:216) Chamber music is ‘music suitable for a room, rather than a theatre or a large hall, now almost confined to music for strings with or without piano or winds’. In other hand, orchestral music is ‘music for a large company of musicians (strings, woodwinds, brasses, and percussion) playing together under a  onductor’- Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1981:926). Solo (piano, organ, lute, etc) is a piece of musical instrument performed by one person  whether accompanied or unaccompanied. Solo according to Apel (1969): Solo

(1) A piece executed by one performer, either alone (piano solo; violin solo; e.g., Bach’s sonatas for violin solo), or with accompaniment by piano, organ, orchestra, etc.

(2) In orchestral scores, a passage intended to stand out.
(3) In concertos, designation for the soloist, in distinction from the orchestra (tutti).

(4) In the early concerto (Bach, Handel), the orchestral part for passages to be played senza ripieni (p. 787). Instrumental music is one aspect of music that helps students appreciate music through active to a career in music. Instrumental music is an aid to perform service in public like concerts, parades, and other functions. It helps students maintain the good spirit they have developed towards instruments, and develop the skill and technical ability leading to increased facilities, and develop them towards self reliance. It also provides a means of recreation, pleasure and good use of leisure time. Instrumental  music is for enhancement of music education. Whenever it is time to play any instrument whether Western or African instrument, it lifts up the students’
morale. Instrumental music creates an atmosphere of fun, interaction, and excitement.

This is more reason why people are naturally drawn to it. If this ability is nurtured, instrumental music will provide a lifetime of enjoyment, and creativity
for our students. Music entertainment tends to set the mind free from problems. It may be in terms of palliative, escapism and when people are entertained with musical instruments, it provides patients with mental stability. So, it serves as a curative measure. According to Stewart (2005), It was not one of Audrey Walker’s better days, she was feeling a little queasy and…. “I am sitting there with all these thoughts in my mind about the chemo when I hear this beautiful music. The melody was just so soothing”, she said. At first Walker thought it was the radio. Then she noticed a woman in the treatment room who was playing a hand – held harp. The melodic tones enveloped and calmed her. As chemotherapy drugs flowed into her body, she closed her eyes…. There is increasing interest in the role music can play in helping lessen stress and anxiety and even improve medical outcomes (p. 13).

Studying the link between reading music and playing the piano is very essential. It makes students have foundational study which may later on lead them participation. In the words of Mullen Jim (2010): Over two decades ago researchers in the US began studying the link between learning ‘to read music and play the piano’, and ability in Math and Science. This led to a ten year…. Study comparing results for young students taking music versus students taking computer classes. Students learning to read music and play the piano scored significantly higher on Math and Science assessments.
So, the fact that some students are science inclined does not mean that they cannot join instrumental music class because students from other fields of study benefit from instrumental music. The rate of learning to read music and play the piano has other cognitive benefits.

This is because it has been discovered that the rate of learning to read and play music does not only increase the rate of learning new vocabulary, but it  leads to a permanent increase in the learning experience. So, when the challenging music program is being introduced, it will make the rate of learning to increase further. Mullen Jim (2010), opines: Consider that reading music requires the student to look at music notation (an abstract symbol set) and decode it. Playing music requires that decodedinformation to be used to guide ten fingers on the piano keyboard. The brain is operating challenging receptive and productive processes simultaneously, which is good exercise for the cerebral cortex, and it soon causes permanent changes in this important area of the brain.

Music and brain work together. Instrumental music is important to a child’s development. The study has shown that the cerebral cortex of a concert pianist is enlarged more than the students that are considered to be intelligent but did not undergo instrumental music studies. So, there is an added advantage if instrumental music is introduced in all junior secondary schools in Enugu state. There will be changes on even the side of school dropout if they involve themselves on instrumental music but the problem lies on poor recognition of music in most juniorsecondary schools. Most junior secondary schools do not include music as a subject of study due to the fact that no music teacher was posted to them. In this regard, the study of instrumental music is hindered.
The teaching and learning of instrumental music in secondary schools in Enugu state need to be given urgent attention. The study of instrumental music in most schools is limited to the use of traditional musical instruments for the accompaniment of songs and dance, but it is not formerly taught.

The use of keyboard instrument as piano is on rare occasions in accompanying songs. Again, most of the teachers do not teach musical instruments because they do not know how to play them, and that Western musical instrument are the standard ones and since they are not obtainable in the
schools, instrumental music should be forgotten and they will turn to choral music.



1.2 Statement of the Problem

Music is one of the subjects listed in the National Policy of Education (2004:5). However, the governments have not provided adequately for the teaching of music in secondary schools in Enugu state in terms of recruitment of enough qualified music teachers and also provision of adequate musical instruments needed for the teaching of music education in secondary schools. This has created the problem of lack of interest in the study of music and instrumental music by students in secondary schools in Enugu state. Instrumental music is one aspect of music education that needs proper attention. In section 1 of the National Policy on Education 4th edition (2004:5-8), it was stated that (a) education is an instrument for national development; to this end, the  formulation of ideas, their integration for national development, and the interaction of persons and ideas are all aspects of education; (b) education fosters the worth and development of the individual, for each individual’s sake, and for the general development of the society. (d) there is need for functional education for the promotion of a progressive, united Nigeria; to this end, school programmes need to be relevant, practical and comprehensive; while interest and ability should determine the individual’s direction in education.

In No.5 of the N.P.E. – Nigeria’s philosophy of education therefore is based
on: (a) the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen; and (b) the full integration of the individual into the community. In No.9 (c) – education and training facilities shall continue to be expanded in response to societal needs and made progressively accessible to afford the individual a far more diversified and flexible choice; (d) educational activities shall be centered on the learner for maximum self – development and self – fulfillment;
In section 12, No.107 stated that ‘the objectives of the planning, administrative, inspectorate, supervisory and financial services in education are to:- (a) ensure adequate and effective planning of all educational services; and (d) provide adequate and balanced financial support for all educational services’. In section 13, No.120 to 122 – Financial education stated that Education is an expensive social service and requires adequate financial provision from all tiers of government for successful implementation of the education programmes. Government’s ultimate goal is to make education…. relevant sectoral bodies such as the Education Tax Fund have been established to respond to the funding needs of education. In addition, other funds from which the burden of  inancing education can be eased are:
(i) Industrial Training Fund
(ii) National Science and Technology Fund.
Upon all these stated above, the government find it difficult to make adequate provision for instrumental music in junior secondary schools in Enugu state.
Music is not a subject to be overlooked because human being cannot stay comfortably without music. So, lack of proper funding of instrumental music has
really affected the improvement on music education in junior secondary schools in Enugu state. There is no establishment that can function well without adequate fund. This is also applicable to education and the teaching and learning of instrumental music. Many students in junior secondary schools do not have textbooks for the teaching and learning of music let alone instrumental music. The lack of sitting down to read and the development of proper reading habit affect the study of instrumental music. In addition, in some junior secondary schools that have library, they do not make provision for music textbooks. Students who have textbooks do not give it adequate attention for their private studies. The time allotted to the teaching and learning of music is not large enough. Music is made up of different parts, which comprises singing: Western chorus, and African chorus, Instrumental music: Western Instrumental ensemble, and African instrumental ensemble, opera: African opera, and Western opera, Psycho motion, Dance, Dance drama and so on.

These entire heavy loads are expected to be covered by one teacher in junior section, and in most cases there are large classes in each stream. This implies that time is a big problem in the teaching and learning of music let alone instrumental music that consumes a lot of time.