SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-CULTURAL

PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS TO HIV/AIDS:

A MOCK PROJECT STUDY OF SOME LOCATIONS IN

EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and associated socio-cultural and socio-economic risk behaviours were studied among commercial sex workers, single parents, long-distance-truck drivers, street children and students along the Abakaliki- Enugu highway in Eastern Nigeria. Screening for HIV antibodies was by EIA and ELISA. Structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used for investigative data collection tested by t-test and chi-square. HIV prevalence occurred as follows:

(1) Commercial sex workers 23%

(2) Students 21%

(3) Single parents 20%

(4) Long-distance-Truck-Drivers 19%

(5) Street children 16%.

Major mode of HIV transmission was heterosexual transmission severe economic repression (poverty), illiteracy, economic- driven-migrationa;-activities and unemployment were chief socio-economic risk factors, while polygamy and concubinage, marriage for the dead, surrogate marriage of women were main socio-cultural lapses which create vulnerability of women to clandestine  sex working/prostitution and subsequent exposure to STDs including HIV/AIDS. The study further observed that major highways constitute flashpoints through which the HIV gets foothold in the communities. The study also observed the origin of HIV/AIDS.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The specific objective of this research is to know the main statistical percentage of few individual living with this HIV/AIDS in some area of Ebonyi State. at this juncture, one may ask, what is HIV, How did this HIV become AIDS? HIV means Human Immune virus. It is a sexually transmitted infection. This disease can be spread by contact with infected blood, or from mother to child during pregnancy, child birth or breast- feeding. It can take years before HIV weakens your immune system to the point that you have AIDS. AIDS means Acquired  immunodeficiency syndrome. It is a chronic,  potentially life threatening condition caused by HIV.

This HIV become AIDS when it has damaged your immune system, thereby going further to interferes with your body’s ability to fight the organisms that causes diseases in your body.

ORIGIN OF HIV/AIDS

       Aids is caused by human immuenedeficiency virus (HIV), which originated in non-human primates in sub- Saharan African and was transferred to human during  the late 19th or early 20th  century. According to Pepin’s (2011), he  discover that HIV have two type ie HIV I and HIV-2. He  said that HIV-1 is more virulent, is more easily transmitted and is the cause of vast majority of HIV infection globally. The pandemic strain for HIV-1 is closely related  to a virus Sumian  immunodeficiency  viruses (SIVs) found in the Chimpanzees of the subspecies pan troglodytes, which lives  in the forests of the central African  nations of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gaban, Repubhe of Congo  and central African  Republic while the HIV -2 is less transmittable and is largely confined to West Africa, along with its closest  relative a virus of the sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus  artysatys) an old world monkey inhabiting southern. Senegal, Guinea- Bissaw, Guinea, sierra Leone, Liberia and Western Ivory Coast. The resulting phytogenetic analyses show that the viruses most closely related to the two strains of HIV-2 which spread considerably in human.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-CULTURAL

PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS TO HIV/AIDS:

A MOCK PROJECT STUDY OF SOME LOCATIONS IN

EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose of the study is to establish the  socio-cultural  and socio-economics risk behaviours of those commercial sex workers, single parents, long- distance-truck drivers, street children and students along the Abakaliki-Enugu highway in Eastern Nigeria.

This study is therefore specifically designed to:

(1) Examine what people label them in their community.

(2) Determine their capital level in their working place and business.

(3) Examine their behaviours about themselves.

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The findings of this study will be great benefit to the government and the society as a whole who are very much concerned about the statistical rate of people living with this disease called HIV/AIDS. To know the number of anti- virus drugs to provide to them living with this disease.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is centered on examining the socio-cultural and socio-economics predisposing factors risk to HIV/AIDS in Ebonyi State Nigeria.

 

RESEARCH QUESTION

(1) How do their succeed in their business?

(2) How do their interact with the society?

(3) What are the risk their have encountered in the society?

(4) How do their feel about themselves?

 

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND SOCIO-CULTURAL

PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS TO HIV/AIDS:

A MOCK PROJECT STUDY OF SOME LOCATIONS IN

EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA

 

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Education as a Key to Unlocking Underdevelopment in Nations

ABSTRACT:CONTACT SITE FOR INFORMATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Education has long been recognized as a vital key to unlocking under-development in Nations. It is one of the major instruments for bringing about socio-political, economic, scientific and technological advancement of any country. Hence, the development of a society is closely tied to its level of educational attainment. This explains why most nations both developing and advanced, invest a significant proportion of their annual budget in the educational sector of the economy (Awe, 2003).          As important as education is, its immediate benefits are not easily discernible just as its actual direct cost and indirect cost is difficult to qualify exactly in monetary terms. But what nations are worried about is the quality and standard of education being offered in the school system especially in the universities.

University is a complex school system. The inputs such as  infrastructure, funds  and especially students, teachers, facilities etc., in the school system are transformed by ways of lectures, readings, seminars, counseling, interaction with colleagues  and other social activities and the outcome is expected to be enlightened, cultured, educated, nationalistic and self-disciplined  graduates. But a number of problems may exist within or outside the educational institutions that could make it difficult for effective teaching and learning.         University students everywhere experience some level of difficulties in the pursuit of their mission, vision and goals. Those associated with institutions in developing countries, as in Africa are numerous. Some of these problems ranges from cumbersome registration process and screening, lack of financial support, infrastructural challenges, lack of commitment and motivation to do or carryout a research work, incessant unrest of staff and students, balancing social life and academic life etc. (Sawyer, 2002).

Similarly, Enaohwo (2005) added that student enrollment continuously out stripped growth in basic input- a mere quantitative phenomenon without a corresponding qualitative support. The basic infrastructural support like classrooms, Laboratories, Hostel Accommodation, library facilities and office space that were available at the takeoff point have marginally expanded. Enaohwo’s  remarks are a confirmation of Sawyer’s  (2002), who pointed out that problems experienced  by the typical African university students include little or no attempts made to match intake with available spaces, the absence of commensurate growth in  human support and lack of Adequate provision of resources   generally in  African  universities has not yet been fully addressed.      Mouton, (2001); Shumba, (2004); Nyawaranda, (2005); and Pearce, (2005) Concur that students’ capacity to conduct research are constrained by institution-related challenges such as: lack of exposure of tutors or research skills, lack of internet services, lack of exposure to computer and lack of material. Fidzani (1998) conducted a study in university of Botswana, Gaborone to establish the information seeking behavior of students. Findings include that there was a heavy reliance on library books, textbooks and Journals as sources of information used for class work. The researcher reported further that students primarily relied on scanning the shelves or browsing through Journals rather than using the index and abstract data bases to locate information because they are much familiar with textbooks than reading online.

There tend to be some hindrances because of the state of our libraries, most textbooks and Journals in the shelves are only but ancient and Archival books that contain little or no information to guide students in doing their assignment and carrying out their project research work and these sometimes lead to lack of commitment and motivation to do either of this. Rather, they stress themselves to get material which only drain their zeal, time and resources (money). On this note, Anderson, Day, Maclaughlin, (2006) pointed out that time was a very limited resource for students carrying out research. Furthermore, lack of funds let students down in photocopying recent Journals textbooks and e-resources.  Consequently on this, the zeal and urge to carry out a quality research projected might be compromise. Anderson et al (2006) said the above because some of the students had to provide basic needs for themselves and families. These commitments competed with their assignment or research work.

What is today known as Ebonyi State University started with a resolution of the then Military Administration of Anambra State, which was later upheld under Chief Jim Nwobodo’s civilian administration. On July 30, 1980, the then Anambra State Government established the Anambra State-University of Science and Technology, ASUTECH by law no 7 of 1980, thereby establishing the first University of Science and Technology in Nigeria. The ASUTECH Edict no. 20 of 1985, put in place a four-campus structure with the faculties of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary medicine located in Abakaliki. Lectures started in the Abakaliki campus Faculty of Agriculture in November, 1987 with 55 students and 15 academic staff including students of the department of Horticulture and Plant Protection transferred from Awka campus of ASUTECH.

The Faculty graduated the first batch of students in 1991/92 academic session.In 1987, a pre-science school was established at the Abakaliki campus of ASUTECH. On August 27, 1991, Enugu State was created out of the old Anambra State so that ASUTECH campuses in Enugu and Abakaliki were inherited by Enugu State University of Science and Technology, ESUT via Enugu State Government Edict no. 33 of 1991 and amended in 1995 with the Abakaliki campus remaining as the new ESUT Faculty of Agricultural Sciences. The College of Medicine was added a year later in 1992.At the creation of Ebonyi State in 1996, the Abakaliki campus of the then ESUT, was upgraded to Ebonyi State University College by Edict no. 5 of Ebonyi State, 1998 still affiliated to ESUT with Prof. Fidelis Ogah, former ESUT Deputy Vice-Chancellor as the first Rector. In 1997, the Faculty of Applied and Natural Sciences with 8 departments was added to the fledging University and later in 1998 when the ESUT Pre-Science Programme was relocated to Nsukka, the EBSUC Pre-Degree School commenced lectures in both Science and Arts in replacement of the former.

The major landmark that launched the institution/college to her present status came in 1999 when His Excellency, Dr. Sam Ominyi Egwu, 1st Executive Governor of Ebonyi State announced the upgrading of the University College to a full-fledged multi-disciplinary University. The establishing law (Ebonyi State University law No 7,1999) received executive assents of His Excellency in January 14, 2000 with Prof. Fidelis Ogah as the first Vice-Chancellor. Resulting from the autonomous status, 4 additional faculties were created viz: the Faculties of Arts with six departments; Education comprising six departments and Management and Social Sciences having nine departments. In the year 2000, the Faculty of Law, School of Post­graduate Studies and Work and Study Programme (WASP), a week-end programme mapped out for workers who desire university education while retaining their jobs were established. In 2002, a new Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology was established. It took off in 2002/2003 academic year with Departments of Nursing Sciences and that of Medical Laboratory Sciences.

In December, 2008, the 3rd Governing Council was inaugurated by His Excellency Chief Martin N. Elechl, the 2nd Executive Governor of Ebonyi State and Visitor to EBSU, with His Excellency Dr Emmanuel Oko Isu (now late) as chairman. Prof-Francis Igboji Idike took over from Prof Fidelis Ogah as the new Vice Chancellor of the university in January, 2009.

Since then, the problem faced by Ebonyi State University students has been problem of multi-campus which sometime affects students studies as most of the Ishieke campus students (science related) will have to go to Presco campus to receive their lectures and sometimes quiz and some others (arts related) will have to get to the permanent site to get their studies, quiz and exams. This problem of multi-campus alone degenerate into other problems which the students will likely face. These problems include lack of information which sometimes may cause the student his/her lecture, quiz or exams, financial constraints, time of lectures amongst others. Other problems include high cost of leaving in the some parts of the campuses like Presco campus where most students prefer renting house in Ishieke campus and be attending lectures from there. Because of these problems and many more, there should be need for improvement and solution to most problems either by allowing the students to have their lectures in their respective campuses or merge all the campus to become one.

The problems faced by undergraduates in Ebonyi State Universities, many a time, causes service failure as the needs of these young ones need to be met for effective teaching and learning in our higher institutions. Hence, this study is geared towards ascertaining strategies for reducing the academic problems faced by undergraduates in Ebonyi State University.

 

 

 

Education as a Key to Unlocking Underdevelopment in Nations

Statement of the problem

There are unexpected difficulties and problems (Trimmer, 1992) and they may lead to academic failures. Hence, this study is conducted to identify and proffer solutions to the academic problems faced by undergraduates.      Schools, especially tertiary institutions, are complex social systems. And as result, a number of problems may exist within the institution that could make it difficult for the intended outcomes to be achieved. Those problems include: lack of adequate time management, students working at part-time jobs and/or students engaging in time consuming extra-curricular activities at the university, emotional issues such as loss, depression, and anxiety, lack of personal confidence, personal problems such as low ability; negative self-concept, anxiety, maladjustment, environmental influences such as poor classroom conditions and lack of home support.

Looking at the aforementioned problems influence student’s academic achievements, the demands of academic assignments almost require students to have the time management skills of a successful busy business executive. Unfortunately, not many students know adequate time management. Part-time jobs and time consuming extra-curricular activities at the university environment take or can possibly take students mind off their academic pursuits or what they want to achieve academically. Emotional issues such as loss, depression, and anxiety may cause students to feel inadequate or result in serious academic difficulties and failure. Lack of personal confidence leads students to indulge in examination malpractice which may implicate them and as a result they will face panel and thus, they may be suspended or there will be reduction in their grades. Personal problems such as low ability; negative self-concept, anxiety, maladjustment negatively influence students academic achievements. Environmental influences such as poor classroom conditions make students uncomfortable as they cannot study under such environment and they keep taking lectures in such classroom, most students may loose interest in coming to classes and they will end up not doing well in school. Lack of necessary home support such as financial support, food and otherwise make students vulnerable to failure in academic achievement.

All these problems seemingly interfere with their studies and willpower to complete their academic programme successfully. As a result of this, quality education is sacrificed and standards fail. Hence, this study is needful.

Therefore, the cause of this study is to identify the strategies for reducing the problems faced by undergraduate students in Ebonyi state university, Abakaliki.

 

Education as a Key to Unlocking Underdevelopment in Nations

 

 

PROJECT TOPIC: THE INTRODUCTION OF READING COMPREHENSION IN LEARNERS

 

ABSTARCT:CONTACT SITE FOR MORE INFORMATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

The development of reading comprehension in learners has long been investigated for two basic reasons: Literacy (reading to live) and academic achievement (reading to think). Reading comprehension is now the basic need of a citizen to live and to act successfully in his professional and academic contexts. It is even viewed to be the core language skill to build the development of all other language skills and sub skills such as Listening, speaking, writing, vocabulary and grammar (Anderson, 2012). In addition, the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have been the time of numerous migrations around the world and the use of world languages increased. Hence, in the modern linguistically diverse societies, the level of expectation for a person to function well is higher than those in the past local communities (Grabe, 2009).

Good comprehenders know how to control reading, to construct meaning, and to monitor their reading by using reading strategies appropriately. Lots of strategies have been devised and revised so far. However, choosing the appropriate strategy depends on different factors like, the level of students, the kind of the text, students’ culture and background knowledge, purpose of reading, etc.

McNamara (2007) mentioned three reasons to claim the necessity of reading comprehension strategies. First, many readers do not know exactly whether they are adequately comprehending the text. It is believed that acquisition of reading strategies help readers improve their comprehension calibration. Second, many readers have a misconception of comprehension. When they read a text, they settle for shallow levels of comprehension. These Shallow readers believe they have adequately comprehended a text if they can recognize the words and most of the sentences. However, “deep comprehension requires inferences, linking ideas coherently, scrutinizing the validity of claims with a critical stance, and sometimes understanding the motives of authors” (McNamara, 2007). Third, deep comprehension of technical text is a difficult challenge for nearly all adults even skill readers. As a result acquisition of better strategies of reading comprehension is needed as a lifelong reading. And finally, Lems, Miller, and Soro (2010) put it in their words: “Reading comprehension requires the use of strategies before, during, and after reading” (p. 172).

Reading comprehension strategies can be divided in two groups: single reading comprehension strategies and combining reading strategies.

Single Reading Comprehension Strategy: Different lists of reading comprehension strategies were identified by various scholars and organizations. Some reading strategies are repeated in each list showing the importance of them. Zimmermann and Hutchins (2003) identified following seven reading comprehension strategies (as cited in Moreillon, 2007): Activating or building background knowledge, Using sensory images, Questioning, Making predictions and inferences, Determining main ideas, Using fix-up options, and Synthesizing. Guthrie, Wigfield, and Perencevich (2004) identified the following as strong strategies which can assist elementary readers: Activating background knowledge, Questioning in reading, Searching for information, Summarizing during reading, organizing graphically, and Structuring story.

Combining Reading Strategies: Some researchers have examined how reading strategies work together in strategy packages (Guthrie et al, 2004). It seems reasonable since good readers coordinate a set of strategies to comprehend a text (Reutzel, Smith, & Fawson, 2005). Blachowicz and Ogle (2008) introduced two groups of reading strategies: reading strategies for informational texts which include: The KWL, Reciprocal teaching, External text features, Nonfiction book report , Text previewing, Tables of contents, Internal text structures, Text structure frames, I-Charts, Reciprocal teaching, Questioning the author, Levels of questions. Reading Strategies for Fiction Texts: Map literature circles, Bookmarks, Story problem solving, Story impressions, Sketch to stretch, Save the last word for me, Journal writing, Great books shared inquiry, Grand conversations, Book clubs, Literature circles, and Readers’ workshop.

It is therefore pertinent to begin with the notion that English language is a language without which there could not have been an entity called Nigeria (Ogunsiji and Olanrewaju, 2002). This Ezeokoli (2005) gave credent to when he also dispelled that English language is very crucial to the Nigeria education system .It is not only the medium of instruction especially at the upper primary, secondary and tertiary level of education but also the language of text-books. It is through the vehicle of English language that student accesses knowledge in other subject areas.

Yet, the academic performance of students both at secondary school and postsecondary school is worrisome .This Adesanoye (1994) pin-pointed while he referred to Adeniran that there is indeed a lot wrong with the performance in English even among University students and graduates for that matter. Djihed (2013) also confirmed that even among the Arab students, students perform poorly in General English which compound their reading comprehension difficulties.

To this effect, proficiency in the English language is essentially not only for academic success alone but to perform in life as various individuals. However, there is low proficiency in English language and this to a very large extent resulted in under-achievement among Nigeria senior secondary school students and those at the higher institutions (Olanipekun, 2012). This shameful failure Akinsolu (2010) axiomatically noted in the public’s unhappiness which becomes more prominent following the annual release of the West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination results, since the student outcomes do not match the government and parental investments both at the senior secondary schools and tertiary institutions. Nevertheless, it is obvious that students’ academic performance in English language is abysmally low.

In this sense, the overriding need for English, not only as the language of instruction in schools alone but also as the language of science and technology even in technically inclined institutions has thus resulted in its integration in the Nigerian educational system at all levels. At the tertiary level, English or General English is taught as a compulsory subject in both the science and vocational faculties. Without doubt, English is significant to the students’ academic success, especially for graduate and post-graduate students as most of the documentations related to their field of specialization are written in English (Djihed, 2013). More accurately, these learners require English to comprehend texts written in English, which are related to their discipline.

On the rostrum of some the causes of poor academic performance in English language is attitude to the language and according to Okoye (1982), he averred that if we develop a negative attitude, it may seriously interfere with one’s performance not only in the examination but even in life. Some educators and social scientists have argued that peer influence contributes to a lack of effort and interest in school work as unfolded by Olanipekun (2012) while citing Bishop. These factors may be accountable for poor performance in English language.

The directed reading thinking activity (DRTA) was developed by Stauffer in 1969. The DRTA is a strategy that guides students in asking questions about a text, making predictions, and then reading to confirm or refute their predictions. In fact, DRTA provides the teacher an opportunity to guide students to think like good readers do by anticipating, predicting, and then confirming and modifying their ideas with the story. DRTA is mostly used with fiction, but it can be used successfully with nonfiction too. Blachowicz and Ogle (2008) believed that DRTA is one of the strongest ways which can help teachers engage students actively in the pieces of literature they are reading. Al Odwan (2012) noted that the directed reading thinking activity is a much stronger model for building independent readers and learners.

DRTA is designed to assist students in setting a purpose for reading; making, justifying, and verifying predictions; and coming to conclusion. DRTA encourages students to make prediction while they are reading. After reading segments of a text, students stop, confirm or revise previous predictions, and make new predictions about what they will read next. DRTA technique can help the students to study especially in extensive reading. As the teacher knowing that extensive reading become an important subject in reading skill. By using DRTA the teacher can improve the ability and intelligence simultaneously in teaching extensive reading in the English Language classroom.

From the foregoing, this study is geared towards ascertaining the application of Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (Dr.TA) strategy in the language classroom among JSS 2 students in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

 

PROJECT TOPIC: THE INTRODUCTION OF READING COMPREHENSION IN LEARNERS

 

Statement of the problem

          The problem in comprehension could be a result of the lack of instruction in reading comprehension strategies. In searching for a solution to students’ poor comprehension skills all over the world, many researchers (e.g., Bongratz, et al., 2002; Cramer, Fate and Lueders, 2001; Song, 1998) found that reading strategies are beneficial in helping poor readers improve their comprehension skills.

DRTA is a motivating teaching strategy but yet to be utilized by the teachers in our secondary schools. Students enjoy making predictions and then finding out whether or not their predictions were correct and this shows that the application of Dr.TA strategy will improve the students performance in English language classroom. DRTA is also a very flexible strategy in that it can be used individually, with a small group, or with an entire class. It can also be used in any subject and can meet the needs of any levelled reader.

From the foregoing, the study tends to ascertain the application of Directed Reading and Thinking Activity (Dr.TA) strategy in the language classroom among JSS 2 students in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi St

 THE INTRODUCTION OF READING COMPREHENSION IN LEARNERS

PRODUCT INNOVATION AS A STRATEGY FOR THE SURVIVAL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA               

ABSTRACT

This research work is to examine the effect of product innovation as a strategy for the survival of manufacturing firms in Nigeria, a case study of Ama Breweries (Nig) Plc Enugu. To carry out the research work Ama Breweries were uses as a sample which was drawn from zone. In the case of research useful on finding, good application were made which among other include good combination materials as the case may be and as 10 was recovered that it makes to help new product to look more attractive to the people made the product for. In the other hand, product innovation helps the firms to be competing on the newly available products with its competitors. It was also observed that a lot of factors contribute to the failure of the impediment to the success of product innovation which includes product labeling, packaging branding and product. Positioning. Effect has been made to solve all these problem, however relevant information will be obtained from staff of Ama Breweries  industries and their distributors through questionnaire moreover, the analysis and data collection of the respondents. Finally, the summary of the findings will help the researcher to make recommendation on the best way to achieve company objectives through innovation.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Production innovation is important in any dynamic economy. It determines both the level of economic growth and standard of living of the citizens product innovation takes long to spread through the social system.Most of the product in the market today have undergone changes overtime. Some that were in the market year ago have phased out with new product are introduced into the market on a continuous basis. When some existing company’s product enter decline stage there is need to carryout product innovation.

Furthermore, customers want new products and competitors must do their best to supply them these products. Competition has played a major role in encouraging Ama Breweries Nigeria Plc Enugu to carry out product innovation. This is because of the desire of the company to better its distinctive advantage over the competitors.A company can add new product through acquisition and new products innovation. The acquisition route can take three forms. Ones the company can buy other companies, it can buy franchise or license from other company. In those case the company does not innovate new product but acquires the right to existing one.

However, Ama Breweries Nigeria Plc, had suffered much danger and uncertainties in product innovation. This danger are basically on the area of finance and human resource wastage without achieving success, in production of the product innovation which say that its either you innovate those basic factors not withstanding Ama Breweries Nigeria Plc recognized that they act to remain in business for considerable time.Product innovation which is regarded as introduction of new product or modification of the existing ones either by changing the physically structure of the product or its package or the quality to meet the consumers need of Ama Breweries Nigeria Plc, Enugu and basic concern of this research work.

 

BRIEF HISTORY OF AMA NIGERIA PLC ENUGU

Nigeria Breweries Plc, incorporated in the 1946, is the pioneer and largest brewing company in Nigeria. Its first bottle of beer star large rolled off the bottling lines of its logos brewing in june 1949. Other Breweries were subsequently commissioned by the company, including Aba Brewery in 1963, and Ibadan brewing 1982.In September 1993, the company acquired its fifth breweries, sited at Ameke in Enugu State. Ama Breweries is the largest breweries in Nigeria and of the most modern worldwide operation. Enugu brewing were discounted in 2004, while the company acquires a malting plant in Aba in 2008.

In October 2011 Nigeria Breweries acquired majority equally interest in Sona system  associates business management limited (Sona system) and life breweries limited from Heneken N.V this followed Leinken acquisition of controlling interest in five breweries in Nigeria.Sona system is two breweries in Ota and Kaduna, life breweries in Onitsha have now become part of Nigerian Breweries Plc. Together with the three brand, Goldberg, Larger, Malta Gold and life routine of the Lager.Nigeria breweries Plc, now has eight operational breweries from which its products are distributed into all parts of Nigeria, in addition to the malting plants in Aba and Kaduna.

The company has profound of high-quality brands including Star Larger (1970) place larger, legend extra stout (1990) Abu extra stout, however larger (October 2011), Star life Larger (February 2014), pale large. Ace passion apple spark (December 2014), Alcohol free drinks.Maltina (1997) in three variation, namely: Maltina classion, Maltina strawberry and Maltina pineapple: Maltina sip-it (200% in Tetrapala, Amsteb Malta (1994), farouz in pear and pineapple (2006) Elimax energy Malta Gold (October 2011).Most of the products are in returnable bottles and all products are available in c……. Fayrouz is also P.E.T bottles.

The company head office are located in Lagos.

PRODUCT INNOVATION AS A STRATEGY FOR THE SURVIVAL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA    

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In any competitive market enough, the marketing practitioners is often faced with ordering of how to determine the nature of demand for his product in a given market segment. In view of this, a lot of problems came up to plan for product innovation which include:

 

PRODUCT INNOVATION AS A STRATEGY FOR THE SURVIVAL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN NIGERIA    

 

       

AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF PACKAGING IN MODERN MARKETING

ABSTRACT

This research work analysis of the role of packaging in modern marketing was carried out at Ibadan at Oyo State, with particular reference to Iso glass plc. The work was done to examine the role of packaging in the company in the process of the work the research divided the work into the introduction of the problem and some term defined, in chapter two research revealed books which centered on packaging, chapter three is about the three methodology of the research which shows the areas of the study, population and the sample as well as the methods of data collection and its analysis. In chapter four the data collected were analyzed and interpreted  in order to arrive at the finding. Conclusion were  made and research gave his recommendation. The chapter also contained the limitation of the study and suggestion was made for further research.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Packaging plays an important role in modern marketing. Products going to the market have to be well packaged.Packaging can play a minor role (example hardware items) or a major role (example cosmetics) many materials have called packaging the fifth “P” along with product, price, place and promotion. Marketers treat packaging as an element of product strategy.According to Santon, packaging is the general group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.Packaging is also defined as that aspect of product planning in which a firm researches, designs and produces a container or wrapper which is capable of protecting the product, facilitating use of that product and promoting the product.

Depending on the nature of the products, packaging is highly emphasized by most product managers due to its marketing implications. One product managers described packaging as a “silent salesman of an organization in a retail store.Packaging can be defined as the science art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage roles as a medium in the marketing mix in promotion campaign, as a pricing criterion, in defining the character of a new product as a shelter trends and as instrument to create brand. Identity and shelf impact in all product groups. Packaging as a key industrial activity has contributed largely to the present need to be day increase in the standard of living. Packaging of product need to be dynamic and persuading.

The impression of a consumer about the product will inwardly decide in him, if he is to make purchase or not. Packaging of consumer goods needs intelligent leadership and management support in order to attain the company’s goals and objectives. Packaging on its own has been taken as a principal advertising medium.It is also used as a means of informing and persuading people to buy the merchandise, it is a silent salesman of a company and its potentials and problem needs to be fully understood. If its to be properly.Iso Glass Plc in one of such organizations that engages in packaging. Its was incorporated about 30 years ago as the first indigenes manufacturer of windscreen.

Iso glass is located in Block E, Plot 17 Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ring Road, P.O Box 833, Ibadan Oyo State. It is a manufacturing company that produces glass. The firm has total Staff, Strength of above 200 including the management team, their product and services include manufacturing of decorative, security, automotive and architectural glasses, shower enclosure and glass cleaning services. Iso Glass Company has customer from various part of the country and so are competitors.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF PACKAGING IN MODERN MARKETING

 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Iso Glass is one of the manufacturing companies in Nigeria. They started production as far back as 1990’s. The company produces glasses and bottles but of recent, the company has been experiencing a gradual decrease in its market share and consumer patronage of the country’s product. Some of the problems which other glass industries are exposed as well as Iso glass Plc include poor packaging. Some organization argues that packaging has nothing to do with the rate turnover of a company. But is it really true? This is what this study hope to unravel and by extension consider the following :

  1. Packaging and communication of product features to the consumer.
  2. Poor packaging and the quality of the product.
  3. Poor packaging and the rate of turnover.

AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF PACKAGING IN MODERN MARKETING