A well-written introduction is the most efficient way to hook your reader and set the context of your proposed research. Get your reader’s attention early on and do not waste space with obvious and general statements. The introduction is your opportunity to demonstrate that your research has not been done before and that the proposed project will really add something new to the existing body of literature. Your proposal does not have to be worthy of a Nobel prize but it has to be based on sound hypotheses and reasoning.

You should provide background information in the form of a literature review which sets the context for your research to help the reader understand the questions and objectives. You will also be expected to show that you have a good knowledge of the body of literature, the wider context in which your research belongs and that you have awareness of methodologies, theories and conflicting evidence in your chosen field. Research proposals have a limit on words or pages so you won’t be able to analyse the whole existing body of literature.

Choose key research papers or public documents and explain clearly how your research will either fill a gap, complete or follow on from previous research even if it is a relatively new field or if you are applying a known methodology to a different field. Journal articles, books, PhD theses, public policies, government and learned society reports are better than non-peer-reviewed information you may find on the internet. The University’s Library hosts online guidance on getting started with researching, managing your sources, and practical information on finding what you need in search engines.

Although you will develop your ideas further in the main body of the text, your introduction may also include a short summary of your aims and objectives, your methodology and the expected outcomes/benefits of your research as well as who it will benefit and who will be able to use it.

Before you start, please make sure once again that you understand the purpose of doctoral research: It is about completing a research project independently and making new findings available to the international research community. Research is always problem orientated. It is NOT about writing a book on a comprehensive topic compiling all available information, and it is NOT about advocating your (political) opinions. These two misunderstandings are common in social sciences.


Getting Started 

Begin by brainstorming topics, collecting information, taking a lot of notes, and asking a lot of questions. Keep your notes and sources organized as you go. This data gathering process makes the actual writing much easier. When developing your topic, look for patterns and relationships. See what conclusions you can draw. Try discussing your ideas with classmates or your teacher. A new perspective can help shake up your thinking, and keep your momentum going.

Organize Your Writing

Develop an outline to help you stay on track as you write, identifying your main points and what you want to conclude. Keep in mind basic essay and paper structure: The introduction should give your reader an idea of the essay’s intent, including a basic statement of what the essay will discuss. The body presents the evidence that supports your idea. Use concrete examples whenever and avoid generalities. The conclusion should summarize and make sense of the evidence you presented in the body.

The Rough Draft 

You may find as you write that you end up with a different idea than the one you began with. If your first topic or conclusion doesn’t hold water, be open to changing it. If necessary, re-write your outline to get yourself back on track.

TIPS: Leave enough time to show your draft to others — use the writing center, if possible. A fresh perspective can help you polish your paper, and catch inconsistencies and mistakes. Describe a problem that is about the same size as your solution. Don’t draw a dark picture of nuclear war, teen suicide and lethal air pollution if you are planning a modest neighborhood arts program for children. Don’t describe the absence of your project as the problem. “We don’t have enough beds in our battered women’s shelter” is not the problem. The problem is increased levels of domestic violence. More shelter beds is a solution. Become familiar with the vocabulary of your subject. For example, when writing about fiction, drama, and poetry, critical writers use words such as: syntax, tone, attitude, voice, speaker, and thesis.

 Refine and Proofread

When you’re done, take a break so you can come back to your writing with fresh eyes. Ask yourself: Is the writing clear? Do the ideas make sense? Are all of my requirements fulfilled?  Did I avoid repetition? Have I used proper grammar and spelling? How does it sound read out loud? Remember the title and first paragraph are going to form a strong impression in the mind of the reviewer.

Facts must lead logically and inevitably to the conclusion and/or the solution presented. Remember that proposal reviewers may come from a variety of disciplines and may not be familiar with your field of study. Reviewers may also have to compare proposals across disciplines and methodological lines. Keep this in mind when writing. Proposals should be directed toward a general audience (unless otherwise specified) and avoid excessive use of jargon!


Guide to Research Project Writing

Guide to Research Project Writing

In all tertiary institutions in Nigeria and beyond, research project writing is required of all undergraduate students. As an undergraduate, you are expected to carry out a research project.

Through research, you are able to identify a problem in your community and be able to proffer solution after considering some factors and effects. The first thing you need to do as a research student is to send a research proposal to your supervisor if demanded for.

In your proposal, you will state your research interest. Here, you let your supervisor know how you intend conducting the research, the research instruments you intend using.

The proposal for the topic should also include a brief description, justification for the work, aims and milestones, assumptions to be made, the methodologies involved and the references.

Developing the content of your report writing is very important, in doing this, there are certain guidelines that would be beneficial.
As a rule, the work is usually divided into five chapters excluding the preliminary pages.


  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content
  • List Of Tables
  • List Of Figures
  • List Of Symbols/ Nomenclature (Where Applicable)
  • The Body/Content (Chapter One To Five)
  • References
  • Appendices (Where Applicable)

Research Project Writing Title page Sample:

Here, the name of the institution is put, the title of the report, the name of the Author, then the reason for the report (this is why it is required that students add that it is ‘in partial fulfilment of the course requirement required for the award of the B.Sc degree.’ Then the date is added. It is advised that you use same fonts type and size as used in the body of the work. Times New Roman, 14 font size and single line spacing will be fine and normal for most departments and schools. The month and year to be used should be the tentative/fixed date/month of your defence, not the month you finished the work as there’ll be different months and year of completion for different students in same department and school.
Below is a good example.

Research Project Writing Title Page SAMPLE
Research Project Writing Title Page SAMPLE


Research Project Writing Approval page Sample:

The name of the institution and department, then a statement signifying approval for the work by the supervisor, head of department and external supervisor. Space should be reserved for signatures of all listed parties as well. See example below.

Research Project Writing Approval Page Sample
Research Project Writing Approval Page Sample


Dedication page: This is where you dedicate your work to anyone you like, it could be dedicated to God, your parents, your brother or sister, it could also be to your friends, dead or alive. Note: This is different from the acknowledgement.

Acknowledgement: The researcher here writes to appreciate all that contributed, (technical, financial, moral and otherwise) to the success of the research.

Abstract: This is the synopsis of the research work. It is often written last with the tense in past. Usually less than 100 words summarizing the problem statement, the methodology employed, the findings, conclusion and recommendations. This should be in a single paragraph and the word limit not exceeded.

Table of content: The main heading s and sub-headings and page numbers are listed. This allows for easy page identification and reference. The table of content should be edited at the final stage as well, to correctly capture the reflections in the work.

List of tables/figures/symbols: The list is to aid the reader in locating tables/figures/symbols. It should contain the tag numbers, tag which reflects the content and the page numbers. It should be well-numbered and unambiguous. In the main content, the figure/table should be well-labelled.
(The body of the work)

Chapter One: This is usually the introduction.
This describes the background, scope and purpose of the research. The rest of the report should be tied to the information supplied. The researcher should strive to present sufficient details regarding why the study was carried out.

Chapter two: This is usually the literature review.
This presents basically, the work done by others. It is on the ground work done by others that the current research is to be based, hence the review.

Chapter three: This is usually the research methodology.
Here the language used should be in past tense. It is a sum-up of the research design, procedures, the area and population of study. The data sampling and data sources are detailed as well.

Chapter four: This is usually for data presentation and analysis (results and discussion).
The results obtained in the research are presented her, usually, tables are used or any other visual aid like graph or charts.


Chapter five: This is the conclusions and recommendations.
From the results of the research, conclusions are made, then suggestions for improvement for other researchers with similar interest. Based on the whole happenings, recommendations are proffered.

References: This is a list of all the relevant journals, books and all sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print. The researcher can select any format to use, it could be MLA referencing format, APA, HARVAD etc

Appendices: This is for all extra materials that were not added to the body of the work.

Don’t forget the page number. The final submission should be very clear, error-free(to a large degree) and as required by standard.

The Implication of Cost of Capital on Project Financing



The concept of Cost of Capital is of v i t a l importance in the financial decision making of any business because it is useful as a standard for evaluation of investment decisions. In fact the primary purpose of measuring the cost of capital is its use as a financial standard for evaluating the investment projects. Funds committed i n t o c a p i t a l expenditure of a firm have a long-term implication on the financial resources of the firm and may be irreversible. For t h i s reason, it is important that a firm properly analyses these capital funds in the light of their cost implications to the firms in raising the funds. I f it f a i l s , that
would give misleading information about the company’s yearly profit performance, It can also lead to wrong choice of projects, etc, Several concepts of cost of capital exist6 and there is virtually no uniformity as to the proper one to adopt, There may be other factors apart from cost of capital which could be  considered before financing a project. It is against t h i s background that the researcher want to find out :

1. the relationship between cost of capital and a project to be financed by a firm;
2, whether there are factors other than cost of capital that govern the financing of a project by a firm;
3. whether firms consider cost of capital of a project before financing the project ;
4. what firms consider to be the return on investment for a project.

Survey method was adopted for the study consisting of interviews and the use of questionnaire. The researcher also made use of secondary
source of information. Two hypotheses were formulated based on the problems identified. Cross tabulation, percentages and Chi-square t e s t of significance  were used to analyse the data. Specifically, Chi-square was used to t e s t hypotheses 1 and 2. The findings were as follows:
There is a strong relationship between the cost of capital of a firm and a project to be financed. Also a negative relationship exists between the cost of capital and the returns that t h i s project yields. As the cost of capital increases, the return on the project decreases end vice-versa. Apart from cost of capital, such factors as material availability, manpower requirement, Government policies, state of technology of the firm and competition also affect a firm’s decision to finance a project. Firms do consider cost of capital before financing a project but apply mainly interest on the borrowed fund as the project cost of capital. Baaed on the findings, the researcher is recommending that firms should use the weighted cost of capital instead of interest rate.




The efficient allocation of capital is the most important finance function in the modern times. According to Pandy (P. 334). it involves decisions to commit the firm’s funds to the long-tern assets. Such decisions are of considerable importance to the f i r m since they tend to determine its value and size by influencing its growth, profitability and risk. This arises because a society’s productive resources such as land, machines, buildings, natural resources and manpower, are in short supply and have alternative uses. These resources once committed to capital expenditure decisions of the firm have long-term implications and the decisions may be irreversible except where project abandonment is profitable (van Horne, 1980). The concept of cost of capital is of vital importance in the financial decision making of any business because it is useful as a standard for evaluating investment decisions. In fact, the primary
purpose of measuring the cost of capital according to Pandey (P. 411) is its use as a financial standard for evaluating the investment ‘projects. Because of the long-term implication and the irreversibly of the funds committed into capital expenditure of a firm, there is the need therefore, for the firm to properly
analyse these capital or project funds in the light of their cost implication to the firm in raising them.

The cost of the funds available for investment to a firm is closely linked to the firm’s capital structure. Most companies have a variety of financing source, including short-term debts, long term debts, preferred stock, common stock and earning retained in the firm. Measuring the cost of t h i s capital becomes a part of the theory of capital structure, since each type of financing a firm will affect the other types ( ~ am~ t o nP,. 298). For example, a f i rm can borrow debt funds at relatively low interest rates of up to a certain point. Until t h i s point is reached, the use of debt financing w i l l lower the overall cost of capital. When the debt-equity r a t i o becomes too high, the firm may have to pay high rates of interest t o borrow. This w i l l raise the cost of capital. A t a high debt-equity r a t i o , the firm my not be able t o borrow at all. In t h i s situation, the firm may float stock t o bring the debt-equity r a t i o back into line
with expectations.

Even though the stock may be offered at relatively low market prices, the additional equity w i l l reduce the amount of risk faced by the firm’s creditors.
Without a knowledge of the firm’s approximate cost of capital, the firm w i l l have d i f f i c u l t i e s in deciding what security should be used t o raise additional funds and what cut-off point should be selected for capital-budget ing proposals. The cost of capital separates those proposals which maintain or increase the firm’s net present value from those which may decrease it. Again, knowledge of the existing cost of capital and the cost of raising additional funds can help the financial manager in selecting financing options. The use of the discounted cash flow techniques for evaluating an investment project requires the estimation of the project’s cash-flows and the discount rate and in t h i s case, the cost of capital is regarded as the discount rate. Cash-flow can simply be defined as the difference between naira received and naira paid out while the discount rate may be regarded as the project ‘s opportunity cost of capital (or simply the cost of capital) for discounting its cash-flows. The project’s cost of capital is the minimum acceptable rate, or the rate of return is a
compensation for time and risk in the use of capital by the project, A t t h i s juncture, we may t r y a description of what really is an investment project.

Investment in project is an example of what we c a l l “a real asset investment , Real asset investment is either on s i w l e fixed asset or. on a group of inter-related assets. Where the group of inter-related assets provides f a c i l i t i e s capable of completing a production or a service process, the investment activity is described as a project. A real asset investment also involves the commitment of funds i n productive tangible assets over which an investor exercises control. Investment projects according to Okafor (l983), axe such that the f a c i l i t i e s provided by the component assets can only be effective if operated as a unit. Hence the component assets must necessarily be “accepted or rejected’ as a set. A project to be financed by a firm may include one or more of the following categories by Hampton (P. 246). Replacements: A s fixed assets are used, they wear out or become outdated by new technology.

Money may be budgeted to replace worn out or obsolete equipment. Expansion: Successful firms tend to experience growth in the sale of primary products. I f a firm is experiencing shortages or delays in high-demand products due to inadequate production, f a c i l i t i e s , it w i l l consider proposals to add capacity t o existing product lines. Diversification: Firms seeking the f a c i l i t i e s to enter new markets w i l l consider proposals for the purchase of mw machinery and f a c i l i t i e s t o handle the new products. Research and Development: Firms in industries where technology is rapidly changing w i l l expend large sums of money for researching and developing new products. Miscellaneous: These are projects that do not directly help achieve profit-oriented goals, example, installation of pollution control equipment on a factory’s smokestacks. A decision by a firm to finance any of the above categories of investment projects requires that an appropriate discount rate (otherwise hewn as cost of capital) be selected or determined for discounting the stream of the cash flow arising from the project so as to know the implication of financing such project on the overall worth of the firm.


The Implication of Cost of Capital on Project Financing




The primary purpose of measuring the cost of capital is it’s use as a financial standard for evaluating the investment projects of a firm. The capital structure of a firm can be decomposed into debt capital and Equity capital respectively. Each capital component has its associated coat. The cost of debt capital is the interest payment on the debt and it is contractual, while the cost of equity is estimated. The cost of capital for the firm therefore is the  weighted average of the individual cost components, where the weights are the proportions of each capital component in the capital structure. In capital budgeting analysis, the cost of capital is used to determine the “net present values of the future income streams associated with the projects in order to either accept or reject the project. I f the net present value of a project is greater or equal to zero, the project is accepted or i f the “internal rate of return” is greater or equal to the cost of capital, the project similarly is also accepted.

Following the above description, it may be stated that high cost of capital may reduce the level of investment projects to be financed by a firm and this also implies that only projects that w i l l give maximum expected u t i l i t y to the society and share holder8 in the firm are financed. This in turn may mean that resources are efficiently allocated by the firm. The reverse may be the case i f cost of capital is low. A number of investment projects may be financed by a firm without minding whether the firm or the shareholders and the society at large w i l l derive maximum u t i l i t y from the project or not. This is because Nigeria is said to be a ~ s e l l e r”s market, it is assumed that anything one produce8 at whatever price should be sold because of scarcity. It is therefore unlikely that high cost of capital w i l l prevent a firm from undertaking an investment project. It is against this background that the researcher wants to find out; the impact of cost of capital on project financing, other factor8 apart from cost of capital that govern project financing.


The Implication of Cost of Capital on Project Financing

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boko haram insurgency measurement






In an investigation into soft news public opinion on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, the study content analyzed 520 issues of four newspapers (The Punch, This Day, Daily Sun and Daily Trust) over a six-month period from October, 2011 to March, 2012. With five units of analysis (including editorials, features, letters to the editor, opinion articles and press interviews) and four content categories (including editorial framing, agenda focus, frequency and editorial reaction) the study employed a coding sheet to collect relevant data for analysis and presentation. Findings revealed that political undertone that drove the Boko Haram violence was far more than the religious motive popularly associated with it. Findings also showed that the government and the elite class got less criticism in newspaper editorial reactions than the Boko Haram insurgents. The study concluded that the newspapers did not fully utilize the potency of editorials to hold the ruling class accountable for their contribution to the worsening case of violence brought about by Boko Haram insurgency. The study recommended that more critical editorials be done by newspapers on the shortcomings of the government and the elite class in order to foster national interest and curtail violence.




1.1 Background of Study


The study was informed by the need to explore what kind of public opinion was disseminated in Nigerian press through their opinionated contents, such as editorials, features, letters to the editor, columnist‟s opinion articles and media interviews on the protracted Boko Haram insurgency from October, 2011 to March, 2012. In its core essence, this research study was inspired by the escalating modes of operation of Boko Haram militants, who initially were fighting government forces with swords, bows and arrows, home-made hunting riffles and petrol bombs. But now, they have developed their warfare into devastating acts of terrorism which include suicide bombings, shellings, assassinations and hostage takings. Similarly, Boko Harram targets have moved beyond government security operatives and the ruling class.

They now include Christians, opposing Muslims and media establishments. The situation is so grossly alarming that hardly does any day pass by without a reported case of violence orchestrated by Boko Haram in Nigeria, especially in the northern region. From July 2009 when the insurgency began up till this present time, the violence has claimed hundreds of innocent lives and properties worth several billions of naira. Beyond this, it has unleashed an alarming internal insecurity on the country across board, subsequent to which the nation suffers huge international disrepute. The current period in the nation‟s history offers a similitude of bitter experience of spites and antics that characterized the build-up to the Nigerian civil war in the late sixties and the socio-political disenchantment which set the tone for outburst of public disorder that portrayed the June 12 national crisis of the early 1990s. What, other than Boko Haram insurgency, has been setting the tone of national debate in Nigeria? The federal government has found it a very hard nut to crack, and the citizenry have acknowledged it as a devastating terror.
In the media environment, newspaper reporters have had a field day on happenings pertaining to Boko Haram, going by the volumes of news reports they turn in to their media houses on daily basis.

Apart from these conventional straight news stories which are ethically written without bias or personal sentiments, newspapers also explore an array of organized avenues to put opinionated messages across to people. Such include feature articles and personalized columns of in-depth news analyses and interpretations, with which volumes of viewpoints have been written on Boko Haram mayhem in different newspapers all over the country. However, there exists a very unique thing in a newspaper called editorial page. This page contains the corporate view of every newspaper industry on a topical issue that affects the public and on which necessary action should be taken for better situation to exist. Editorials have been noted as an effective tool for bringing about change in the governance and society. They are the only mouthpiece with which newspaper establishments can plainly express their views and opinions on a given issue, take a position on such issue and make an appeal for action (Chilton 2004). To investigate how well the Nigerian press set public agenda on the Boko Haram insurgency, the proposed study finds the newspaper editorial opinions and other opinionated write-ups as a relevant ground. Thus the pivot around which the focus of this research shall revolve is the editorial and soft news pages which, as a matter of fact, form the only avenue to discover the official and corporate stand taken by newspapers on the Boko Haram issue. A good background for an enquiry into media agenda on Boko Haram insurgency in the press cannot be complete without shedding light on certain issues. In a bid to fully comprehend what this study intends to unravel, therefore, a review of how, when, where and why the entire Boko Haram trouble was hatched is provided in the following chronicle.

Boko Haram in Hausa language literally means “Western education is forbidden”. The word boko originally means “fake”, but it has become the name with which Western education is generally called by Hausa people. Haram is an Arabic word for “forbidden”. Boko Haram is a label with which Jama‟atul Ahlis Sunna Lidda‟wati Wal-Jihad (People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet‟s Teachings and Jihad) was dubbed by residents of Maiduguri, the Borno State capital, where the Islamic group was founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf. Residents gave it the name because of its strong opposition to Western education and Western culture, which it sees as corrupting Muslims. For almost three years now (since July, 2009 specifically) the radical organization has notoriously remained on the centre stage of bloody conflict with the government, security operatives and civilian targets in Nigeria. Widely known as a group of armed and dangerous Muslim dissidents, Boko Haram now seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish sharia law in the country through terror and aggression

. The group is also infamous for attacking Christian churches, opposing Muslim clerics and media establishments. As regards the circumstances under which the group was established ten years ago, it is obvious that it came into being to fulfill both religious and political agenda. For instance, the group worked in partnership with the government under former Governor Ali Modu Sheriff of Borno State. In a statement attributed to the People‟s Democratic Party (PDP) chairman of Borno State, Alhaji Baba Basharu, Daily Trust (2011) reported that Boko Haram came to prominence in Borno State when it helped to bring Governor Ali Modu Sheriff to power in 2003. However, troubles began when Ali Modu Sheriff of All Nigeria People‟s Party (ANPP) was working to win the state from his predecessor Mala Kachallah (who became governor under ANPP but defected to Alliance for Democracy [AD] in order to seek second tenure) in the wake of 2003 gubernatorial election. Sheriff entered into a pact with Boko Haram (then popularly known as Yusufiyyah Movement) with a promise to implement shariah rule in Borno State. After becoming governor, Sheriff created a Ministry of Religious Affairs and appointed Alhaji Buji Foi, who was then Boko Haram‟s national secretary, as its first commissioner. The amity between the two camps lasted for a while until they fell out when Sheriff did not fulfill his promise to implement shariah law. At that point Muhammed Yusuf ordered Foi to resign from Sheriff‟s cabinet. Foi resigned, and most staff of the Religious Affairs Ministry whom he had brought there also left along with him.

Subsequently, Boko Haram began working to achieve shariah rule through preaching. Soon, there was growing tension between Boko Haram members and the ruling class in Borno State. At a point there was a major clash between them and the police at Maidokiri, near the GRA in Maiduguri, and some of their members were killed. When Boko Haram members staged a procession to the cementry to bury their dead members, another clash took place with the police. The police accused some of them of riding their motorbikes without crash helmets and in the ensuing clash, 19 people died. Muhammed Yusuf then went to a number of security agency offices demanding for justice for the two incidents. Soon after, Boko Haram members were attacking police stations and prisons. This ultimately led to gruesome events of July 2009 in which confrontations between federal forces and Boko Haram led to the death of over 700 members of the group, including its leader Mohammed Yusuf, who was killed in police custody. A number of reasons have been attributed to the enormous followers mustered by Boko Haram group in northern Nigeria. Prominent among them is that Yusuf successfully attracted loyalists from unemployed youths by speaking out against police and political corruption (Eric Guttschuss, 2010).

It has also been established that Boko Haram violent uprising in Nigeria is ultimately due to the fallout of frustration with corruption and the attendant social malaise of poverty, unemployment and low rate of formal education in the mostly affected states of northern Nigeria (Abdulkarim, 2011). Beyond this, the manner in which Boko Haram was founded is another factor that endeared it to its followers. Set up in Maiduguri with an Islamic centre which included a mosque and a school, the group attracted many poor families in northern Nigeria and neighbouring countries of Chad and Niger to enroll their children. The centre also comprised a sprawling compound with an area of land covering about 2.5 miles. Thus the centre was used both as school and recruiting ground for jihadis to fight the state government in the confrontations that would follow Boko Haram‟s severed relation with Governor Ali Modu Sheriff (Johnson, 2010). From its inception, Boko Haram conducted its operations more or less peacefully, especially during its first seven years of existence. However, that changed in 2009 when the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the group‟s activities following reports that its members were arming themselves.

Prior to that, the government had reportedly ignored – in repeated manners – warnings about the increasingly militant character of the organization, including that of a military officer colonel Ben Ahanotu, who was then in charge of a local anti-crime operation in Borno State (Associated Press, 2009). Eventually, with the July 26 (2009) Boko Haram attack on a police station in Bauchi at the end of which 39 militants and a soldier were killed, and clashes between militants and the Nigerian Police Force spread to kano, Yobe and Borno states, the Nigerian government swung into action. Federal forces launched a deadly attack on Boko Haram stronghold in Maiduguri where members of the group had barricaded themselves. From July 28 to 30 when the federal offensive was carried out, more than 700 people were killed in the city of Maiduguri alone, according to the Red Cross (Press TV, 2009).

Documentary sources gleaned from press reportage between July 2009 and June 2012 reveals a vicious string of bloody violence ranging from Boko Haram bomb blasts to assassinations of prominent political and religious leaders, prison breaks, kidnappings and killings of expatriates, bank robberies, arsons, etc. It has also led to declaration of a state of emergency in the violence-ridden local government areas of Borno, Plateau, Niger and Yobe states as well as temporary closure of Nigeria‟s border with Chad and Cameroon. In addition to this, several offensives and raids have been unleashed by government‟s Joint Task Force (JTF) on Boko Haram hideouts, many of which resulted in gun battles and occasional shellings that brought about scores of casualities. After three days of intense gun battles and mortal shellings, the federal forces succeeded in capturing Mohammed Yusuf, founder of Boko Haram. However, less than 24 hours of Yusuf‟s stay in custody, he was killed by the police for allegedly trying to escape. His mutilated and bullet-poked body was publicly displayed with his hands still handcuffed to his back. This raised the question as to whether he was actually trying to escape when killed by the police or he was summarily executed in the interest of the ruling class to hide certain things about Boko Haram sponsors and operations which might be indicting. Subsequently, there was an outburst of suspicion and foul play as some segments of the media, the general public and international human rights organizations believed some conspiracy lay beneath Yusuf‟s death (Council on Foreign Relations, 2010).

First, Yusuf‟s hands were still handcuffed to the back of his mutilated body. Second, some of the officers who witnessed Yusuf‟s killing told reporters that he had pleaded for mercy before he was executed. The fact that voices of officers shouting “no mercy” could be clearly heard in background of the video of public display of Yusuf‟s dead body further corroborates this allegation. Third, he was not allowed to be properly investigated and tried at law court. His killing was thus regarded as extra judicial.Sequel to the killing of Yusuf, Boko Haram members regrouped and succeeded in carrying out their first terrorist attack in Borno in January 2010, killing four people. Since then, their extremism and violence have kept escalating in terms of both frequency and intensity. In July 2010, an interesting twist was added to Boko Haram setting when Abubakar Shekau, Yusuf‟s former deputy who was hitherto believed to have been killed during July 2009 federal onslaught on the militant group, appreared in a video posted on line claiming leadership of the movement. According to Reuters, Shekau took control of the group after Yusuf‟s death in 2009. One after the other, Boko Haram has posted more than four on-line videos among which was a raw clip of how This Day Newspaper offices in Abuja and Kaduna were bombed on 26 of last April in suicide attacks carried out by the group. The story of Boko Haram fundamentalists and their acts of violence complicate the conventional account of religious insurgency in Nigeria; it is one religious uprising twice intertwined with political subterfuge. The group‟s flexibility in change of tactics and targets has defied all estimation of government security and intelligence services. Up north, the situation is such that for some time now it has become a challenge to get people to talk freely about the group‟s activities and modes of operation.

Families and individuals are scared to open up because they don‟t know who is Boko Haram and who is not. For the first time since he assumed office, President Jonathan recently admitted that there were Boko Haram sympathizers in his government and the security agencies, thereby pointing to how much the extremist movement might have penetrated into government and security circles (France 24, 2012). This is no gainsaying, given the fact of how Boko Haram succeeded in bombing the “heavily secured” National Police Headquarters and United Nations House last year August in Abuja, the federal capital of Nigeria. Boko Haram has continued to interest the reading public as a topical national issue up till date, and it may remain so for some time more.





1.2 Statement of Problem

One of the major roles of mass media is to bring society into a system of harmonious integration. Through this correlation function, the mass media are expected (among other things) to explain, interpret and comment on the meaning of events and conditions. They are also responsible for providing guides for established authorities in their policies and procedures as well as setting agenda and conferring status. All these constitute one of the four items of roles played by the fourth estate of the realm (Ndolo, 2011 & McQuail, 2005). As the Boko Haram insurgency rages on with rising tension in Nigeria, there appears to be need for assessing how the press have played their roles in setting agenda on it through opinionated contents. There is also need to find out the press evaluation of measures taken by the government towards quelling the persisting insurgency. Going by the plethora of public outcries which trail the incessant violence occasioned by the Boko Haram insurgency, there is no gainsaying that the Nigerian masses are very much concerned about the problem and government measures towards putting it to rest. Although there has been general assessment of Boko Haram violence in terms of material losses, such as Clothia (2012), Abdulkarim (2012) and Bartolotta (2011), what has not been determined is the way and level of mass opinion about Boko Haram in the context of the press. Consequently, a huge question arises from in the researcher‟s mind; what if the media contents run contrary to public agitations and yearnings about Boro Haram? This is a poser that begs for an empirical answer.

There is thus a need to investigate whether media contents are in consonance with general feelings or not, and also to make recommendations. This is the haunch that sparked off the focus of this research effort. Similarly, there seems to be some relationship existing between the escalating violence and the media role of correlation of society. Hypothetically, if the press perform their correlation function well, it is expected that their editorial contents will impact on the government and society at large. However, as the Boko Haram violence keeps mounting, can we say that the media have not discharged their editorial responsibility or that Boko Haram issue has been ignored in the editorial focus of the press? There is clear need for this study in order to carry out an objective investigation of the problem and arrive at a reliable conclusion. The most effective way of going about this is by content-analyzing newspaper‟s editorial comments on the Boko Haram issue, and this is exactly what the study intends to carry out on The Punch, This Day, Daily Sun and Daily Trust newspapers. Furthermore, given that Boko Haram has carried out suicide bombings on two offices of This Day newspaper as a “warning to deter the press from misreporting its activities to the public”, it was vital that a study of this kind be done to ascertain the level of press neutrality and grasp of the whole issue editorialwise. Hence This Day was included as one of the four newspapers whose editorial opinions were content-analyzed in the enquiry carried out.









The study of Nwadike‟s characterization and style in his two plays Onye Kpaa Nkụ Ahụhụ and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu, is an attempt to assess him as an Igbo playwright. The study tries to investigate his employment of characters and language in the two drama texts. The study shows that Nwadike proves his art of imaginative and artistic composition of events in Onye Kpaa Nkụ Ahụhụ and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu. The sequence of events in the two drama texts are casually linked whereby both the characters, themes, actions, languages are united. Nwadike is highly moralistic in tone. He treats the theme of man‟s inhumanity to man especially with regards to girls‟ inordinate ambition in the area of choosing life partners. They suffer severely before they are rescued and restored.
He projects characters through their actions, as well as statements made by other participating characters about them. Most of the characters are fully developed whereas some are partly developed. He makes use of real names in presenting human characters and most times, some of these names are meant to depict or reflect the action of the characters. In the plays, events of the stories are presented sequentially and in their order of occurrence from the beginning to the end. The plots of the stories follow a pattern in which the link or the relationships between events are governed by causality. Nwadike has the mastery of the art of language use. His language generally is standard Igbo though he sometimes enriches his work with as many stylistic devices as possible like the use of foreign or loan words, Igbonization of some English words, and use of dialectal words among others.





Since the end of the Nigerian civil war in 1970, there has been renewed interest in Igbo studies, particularly in the area of literature. Works written so far in Igbo literature support scholarship and those works to a great extent, have helped to manifest the rich potentials of the Igbo language. Moody (1969:63) postulates that “a people‟s culture is embodied in her literature”. The Igbo literature in effect has helped to project the cultural life of the Igbo people. Quite a good number of works have been written on drama, prose and poetry which form the major genres of Igbo literature. The most important aspect of these works is the fact that a good number of them contain the necessary aesthetic elements on which literary appreciation is based. At present, there are many prose, drama and poetry texts in Igbo available and many more are in the making. Among the numerous Igbo creative artists, Inno Nwadike has grained popularity because of the uniqueness of his style.

1.1 Background to the Study

Language is the most essential of all elements of literature. Without it nothing can be said or written in the first place. Nwadike‟s Onye Kpaa Nkụ Ahụhụ is a tragic play which deals with a lot of social criticism as well as didactic qualities. Therein, deviations from normal standards in the society and their consequences are exposed in order to make people think intelligently about them and, in the process, proffer solutions to these societal deviations. The play revolves around Ikechukwu, a university student, who seduces and puts Amaka, a teenage girl, in the family way. Amaka sues for marriage and Ikechukwu refuses. Amaka desperately curses Ikechukwu which results in Ikechukwu‟s later wife being barren. Finally, Ikechukwu goes to beg Amaka for the revocation of her curse and there comes the tragedy. Amaka faints and dies climaxing the drama.
Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu, another drama text written by Inno Nwadike, draws its thematic significance from the parable of the prodigal son in the Bible. In Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu, the author comments on the new trend of richness prevalent in our society these days where ill-gotten wealth is spread and spent with careless abandon. He deplores the modern trend whereby our youths have become irresponsible and are out of touch with the realities of life. By writing Onye Kpaa Nkụ Ahụhụ and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu, both of which deal with social criticism of the Nigerian situation, Nwadike X-rays and reflects the Igbo environment and seems to tell his follow Nigerians. “This is your picture, learn to live better lives, for whoever is asked to uphold his actions, is doing well, but whoever is asked to desist from his actions, is not doing well at all”.

Various playwrights have contributed in no small measure in enriching our knowledge of Igbo literature. Numerous literature on various Igbo literary genres have attracted many criticisms. However, not all aspects of the Igbo drama texts written by various authors have been studied. The present study considers the issues of characterization and style in Nwadike‟s Onye Kpaa Nku Ahụhụ and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu, so as to bring out their appropriateness and effectiveness or otherwise as literary texts. In doing this, we want to corroborate the observation of Emananjo (1981:16) who posits, Every good literary work should not be seen only from the point of entertainment, its appreciation should go beyond this to its use and organization of the various elements of literacy, aesthetics as well as the manipulation of language.






1.2 Statement of the Problem

The language of Onye Kpaa Nku Ahuhu and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu, is unique in the sense that it has sparked off debates among literary scholars. Unique in another sense that it toes a new literary line in the world of Igbo drama. It is against this backgrounds that this work is being embarked upon to reconcile the language arguments, and the new innovation introduced by these drama texts. In this study, we are going to look into Nwadike‟s style and characterization in the two drama texts so as to be able to identify the salient features of these texts and judge whether they are successful texts or not. To appreciate Igbo drama fully, these facts must be known and understood.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is to examine the issues of characterization and style of Nwadike‟s Onye Kpaa Nku Ahụhụ and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu, drama texts.
Specifically, the researcher seeks to: i) highlight the place of characterization and style in Nwadike‟s drama texts.
ii) identify his areas of strength and weakness in his employment of characterization and style in the two works.
iii) determine the suitability or otherwise of the characters and style he uses in these two drama texts.

1.4 Scope of the Study

The researcher confines his research work to characterization and style in Nwadike‟s Onye Kpaa Nkụ Ahụhụ and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu. However, the researcher in studying characterization and style in these two work may make references to other works.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The study of characterization and style in Igbo drama is of great importance for so many reasons. It will help to raise the status of Igbo drama by highlighting the author‟s strengths and weakness and suggesting possible solutions for improvement. This is why it is necessary to examine characterization and style which Nwadike uses in his two drama texts and how he has been able to use his wealth of professional experience to promote Igbo literature. This study will enable students of Igbo literature to know the strengths and weaknesses of characterization and style in Nwadike‟s Onye Kpaa Nku Ahuhu and Nwata Bulie Nna Ya Elu.
The study is also important because it will explore the literary ingenuity of this author. Furthermore, the works will contribute to the existing knowledge of Igbo drama and serve as reference material for future researcher.
Finally, the findings of this research will act as a stimulus to other Igbo playwrights especially those whose works are yet to attain scholarly standards.