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Background to the Study

 A country is said to be advanced when it is technologically advanced and this goal cannot be achieved if majority of the entire populace are not educated. Hence education should be made possible and encouraged by the government of any country, like Nigeria, as it greatly contributes to the development of the national economy. Apparently education is derived from a Greek word “educere” which literally means to deduce ,extract and to acquire knowledge.

Castle in Ukeje (1974) defined education as what we w learn from the day we were born to the day we die. Thus he sees education as a process and experience of life time. Vole, (1993) was of the view that education among it’s primary task is protection and transmitting the cultural heritage of the young ones by developing the individual into a right human being.

Education is the machine or force that emphasizes change or the orientation of individuals’ preception/ beliefs/ customs, pattern of thinking and values from immemorial to date. However there two distinct forms of education. viz: the traditional and western education. Ever before the coming of the Europeans or white men to the Nigeria a form of indigenous traditional education has been in existence.

Agbawsi (1989) asserted that when the western form of education was introduced in Nigeria it was then conceived erroneously as aimed at destroying the existing culture of the people. With time the first nations had experienced western form of education began to metamorphose when they found  out that  people  who went to school began to enjoy relatively high socio-economic status in the society.

Graduates  of these schools easily get employment and occupied enviable positions which made them members of the new elite group. Consequently, educational pursuit then become an economic venture and so parents ventured into selling land in order to train their children at school with the understanding that education is an instrument for socio-economic change. Some regional government began to initiate programmes that would encourage schooling (education).

Such programmes includes scholarship and bursary awards to deserving  citizens of such regions. All over the world, government make huge monetary investment annually on education as a result of the recognition that rich dividends are acquired from investing in education. The developing countries such as Nigeria took education for rapid and economic development.

The educational performance of children in secondary schools is blamed on students as a result of “I don’t care attitude or lack of seriousness” toward education. Some times the educational performance is blamed on natural, psychological and sociological needs of the students, there has been an old age assumption that the performance and academic achievement of  the children in secondary school depends on the school and it is functionaries.

While some or all of these factors are operational, the students may dropout of school thereby leading/ resulting to some severe effects which may make the students to be maladjusted fore long period of time. The issue of secondary school dropout and it’s effect is an old phenomenon that disturbs the mind of many educated people and researchers in the country.

As it is the secondary school now fails to nurture it’s intakes through their adolescent  age, and those who  went to school as an avenue to reach higher heights only end up a drop-out (ovorce, 1997). Before the advent of the early missionary and the introduction of formal education in Nigeria, education was in existence in a different form. Parents had to impact the knowledge of their culture through informal type of education.

Informal education occurs in a non-literate environment such as mechanic workshop etc mostly outside the classroom. It is job oriented, it is impossible to know how many people that are suffering from psychological problem, emanating from  dropout in informal education. However the main objective of the parent of this present day in Warri south Local Government Area is to enable their children to be gainfully employed coupled with the objectives of occupying governmental positions in various offices.

The government on its part encourages formal education to increase man power  and personnel who act as intermidiary between the federal, state and local government. In deed, the problem of drop out and its effects on students, become more pronounced during the time when schools in the country are under “fire” from teachers strikes, book crisis, political programmes, student unrest and national stroys being shattered.

Children emotional problem can interfere with learning. Most homes in Warri South Local Government Area are so poor that they can not afford two square meals  per day let alone afford materials like  books, schools uniforms ,sandals etc which  these children will use.

Stone, (1990) states that lack of learning materials  hinder and bring about student dropout. As a result of  lack of  finance  in  Warri  South Local Government Area, many parents are forced to do one type of minor  job or the other in order to get money to day materials for their children’s education. At the end, most of the students fail out of school because they are given little or as significant time to their academic works.


Causes of Drop-Out         

 Studies have shown that drop-out of school is associated with parental background, low academic ability, social value, poor financial background and poor academic  performance.

Some of these cause or discussed below.


Researchers have demitted that the environment which include the blood realties/ parents and other house holds have on effective impact in one or the other on the daily and over all performance of the students yoleye (19927) in his studies on socio- economic back ground and school population discovered that students from polyrammes homed /because of loss of total focus and restlessness attorney/ such student to cannot do well in school.

Akinloya (1983) in his contribution states that the home is accountable to mis-condust perpetrcted by students in schools. The behaviour with the parents impacted into the children/students effects in the student home and schools performance. In other research finding/ wise men (1994) said that the family is the score of encouragement for advancing child.

Ayaji (1987) embraced the finding of Misbet (1991)   when he opined that student from small family are mere attentive in school with better performance addition to a high intelligent (1Q) than those from large family size. In a nutshell, the effect of parent background (home) on students drop. Out and it’s effect could be attributed to the word of john  Watson (2000) who said that the grevious problems I the global is that children who through their elementary days have been deprived of those necessities, it will make the students  to develop the mind of schools, because the student feel depressed and bad. This research is of the view that lack of motivation from parents makes the students to drop-out of school.


The federal republic of Nigeria (1997) categorized secondary education into prevoeational and academic areas. According students who complete junior secondary school should streamed into.

i. The senior secondary school.

ii. The technical college

iii. An –out –school vocational training centre

An apprenticeship scheme.

The streaming shell be based on the result of test to determine academic ability aptitude and vocational interest. Infortuctely many of our school do not use the streaming policy as indicate above.

Consequently, those that fail to be academically indined drop-out of school to increase the poverty group.

Social Values

In the pest, education was help in high esteem. The products were respected and job opportunities who guaranteed. It is  quite unfortunate that the reverse is the cose with today’s youth in the sense that the social help deeply can in increasing the number of secondary school drop-out which effect them psychologically  in the society.

According to okitikpe (2000) the educated in the pest did not think of instant riches but had a belief that education show the light for people to be enligthed. It is obvious from the statement above that early commercial activities could not yield the reguired result without first completing secondary school educational career. It makes the students to be made adjusted in the society being disorganized.

Olujidi (1999) in his view stated that these come societies where high premium is placed on money. This is because these societies re commercially enclowed and so the students see business the first thing they dropping out of school of school. It is not as if the Nigeria child cannot excel in business/but is education that can give the right business occur for excellent.


Poor family is one of the cases of students to drop-out of school in warri south local government area of delta state. A child from poor family back ground is drops in supply is motivation distributed. Most lower in warri south local government area see so poor that they cannot effort learning method, that will did their children academic pursuits. In this aspect that of basic learning material, handle and bring dropout among students from poor homes.

Right from the time of adoption of formal education, Nigeria has recorded a high rate of drop-out from secondary schools with it’s prevailing effects on the students, parents, society and all the researches carried out about the issue of recognition of these situations that the researcher decided  to examine the extent to which formal education has been achieve in warri south as against the dropping –out  and it’s effect on students from schools, of the under going the process of test measurement and education as well as guidance and counseling strikes.

Statement of the Problem

The issue of drop- out of schools students services place to place. It has become noticeable that the number of students facing some severe psychological difficulties are on the increase/ this is a result of their dropping out from school in warri south local government area of delta state as one of the were hit areas. The issue of drop-out s and it’s effect centres mostly on the student emotional being, mental being/ social and moral being etc.

both those who dropped out from juror red senior secondary school suffer these effects from the whole problem of this research work. In other words the problem of this study is on the drop-out and it’s effects among secondary school students in waarri south government area of delta state.

Purpose of this study                                                 

The purpose of this study is the drop-out and it’s effects in warri south local government area of delta state.

Therefore the purpose of the study is specifically to: Identify the possible causes of student drop-out of secondary schools in warri south local government area of delta state.

Find out it students drop-out of school state.

Find out if student’s drop-out of school local to emotional describes in life.

Find out if students drop-out results to low achievement and successes in life.

Identify if students drop-out of school results in irresponsibility.


This study is limited to investigate student drop-out of school and it’s effects among secondary school students in warri south local government area of delta state.


The finding of this study will be very useful to students, parents, Government and the society of large when teacher, are treated well by their employer, they will help to retain students in school. When facilities are provided in schools it will help to keep students in school. Then the students who would hale dropped out and join bed gongs, will success fully complete their secondary education, then enter into tertiary institution and finally become important persons in the society.

The parents on their own will benefit from this study as they will know the evils associated with student dropping out school the knowledge from this study  will encourage parents



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