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CAUSES OF SCHOOL DROP-OUTS AS PERCEIVED BY THE TEACHERS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA STUDY OF IHITTE-UBOMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

CAUSES OF SCHOOL DROP-OUTS AS PERCEIVED BY THE TEACHERS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA STUDY OF IHITTE-UBOMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

There is this general behalf that cases of drop-out exit in our school. The fact that much work has not been done to ascertain actually whether this much talked drop-out exit or not. The Researchers made background study of finding out actually the existence of drop-outs in our primary schools. This background study was done through the Headmasters records which the headmasters themselves opened up to the researchers. Also, the Researchers derived the background of the study from the longitudinal study of pupil’s drop-outs of school from primary one to six (2005-2010) as made available to us by the Educational Authority of Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area. The Researcher, therefore, went on to find out the possible causes of pupils dropping out of school. In doing this, eight primary schools in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State were chosen to represent the primary schools in Imo State because the schools are largely populated and have their population drawn from many Local Government Areas of Imo State. The schools have also large numbers of teachers who helped to feed us with relevant information for the study. Four Research Questions were formulated to direct this study. Based on the Research Questions, structural questionnaires was made and administered to the teacher and Headmaster /Headmistress in eight selected schools in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area, the responses and analysis of data from the questionnaires were made on tables using percentages as well as in a pie chart for better understanding. It was discovered through the data analysis that of all the possible causes of drop-out of pupils stated the researchers, one was largely marked out as the greatest of all the causes of pupils drop-out and the options reads “ The absence of guidance  counselors in primary schools” which scored the highest percentage as seen in the table. The researchers, therefore, recommend that both parents, teachers, government, society and guidance counselors should join hand together and put stop to drop-out of children and wards.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researcher present, the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the scope of the study, the purpose of the study, significant of the study and research questions.

 

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The background of this study is based on the primary education in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State. Actually it is a survey of school drop-out among the schools in the locality.

Ihite Uboma is one of the twenty-seven Local Government Area that make up the State (Imo State).Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area has two districts of Ihite and Uboma. The study takes a look at Education in primary schools within the Local Government Area. In Ihitte District, there are fifteen primary schools while Uboma District has sixteen primary schools, Eight primary schools where selected for study in each of the Districts.

In a limiting sense, we made a six years longitudinal study of primary schools pupils, in each of the sixteen sampled schools. The study focused on primary one pupils who gained admission in 2005. Taking these pupils as a cohort, the study monitored their movement from one class to the other until their graduation in class six in 2010 as will be seen in the table below.

 CAUSES OF SCHOOL DROP-OUTS AS PERCEIVED BY THE TEACHERS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA STUDY OF IHITTE-UBOMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

Table 1:   Longitudinal Survey of Primary School Enrolment in Uboma District.

S/No NAME OF SSCHOOL 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
1 Community school I Ikperejere 120 110 110 90 72 72
2 Community school I.I –do- 84 83 70 70 68 44
3 Community school I Lowa 144 140 130 130 125 121
4 Community school II Lowa 160 150 149 147 146 145
5 Primary school Lowa 70 65 65 50 45 40
6 Community school I Abueke 100 90 87 85 83 82
7 State School Abuke 87 80 77 75 65 60
8 Community school Umuawuchi 60 70 67 66 62 60

 

Table II: Longitudinal Survey of Primary School Enrolment in Ihitte District

 

S/No NAME OF SSCHOOL 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
1 Community primary sch. Ekwereocha 48 45 40 39 36 35
2 Community primary sch. Umunoho 160 140 140 115 101 100
3 Community primary sch. Umuzegwu 123 120 110 99 90 88
4 Community school Umuihi 106 100 90 89 82 80
5 Central school Ihitte 200 180 179 175 175 174
6 Central school Amanyi 120 118 115 114 113 112
7 Community school Umuderim 107 100 98 95 94 90
8 Community school Amanyi 93 92 88 86 85 85

 

SOURCE: LOCAL GOVERNMENT EDUCATION AUTHORITY IHITTE UBOMA L.G.A

The   two tables I and II represent a longitudinal survey of enrolment into primary one in 2005 how the pupils moved from one class to another until they finally graduated in primary six in 2010. Of interest to us is the decrease in the number on roll over the year. For instance, in community school I, Ikperejere, the number of pupils that enrolled into elementary one in 2005 was 120 pupils with the number decreasing to 72 in 2010. This showed that about forty eight (48) pupils have dropped out for one reason or the other. The trend of drop-out is the same in all school within two districts of the Local Government Area.  In Nigeria emphasis is placed on formal education which is seen as an instrument for behavior modification, personality upliftment, societal reconstruction, National Development.

Formal education in this content is seen as a force of instrument desired to develop emotional, intellectual, spiritual and physical power of the child (student) so as to become more fully utilized in the society. It is only when the child had achieved these objectives stated above that one can be proud to say that the child is functional and useful to the society he belongs to, but in view  of the fact that the National Policy on Educational 1981 specified a section of it on equality of educational opportunities. Some pupils do not border on equality of educational opportunities to them education is not the only avenue through which one can achieve a status in the society. They believe that the moment one does not develop his abilities, there is no alternative than to drop –out of school. Although the rate of drop-out from school, could be associated with other societal problems other than poor mental development and performance of a child.

Such factor include delinquent  behaviour  which can give room for status deprivations socio-economics status of parents III health of parents and other personal social problems as well as the inadequate care and guidance in the school probably due to the absence of qualified guidance counselors. In our primary schools. All these factors pave way for student drop-out of schools. On the basis of the above contributing factors that promote pupils drop-out of school with particular emphasis on the teacher perception, the researcher intended to adopt invaluable solutions to these problems.

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1.2   STATEMNET OF PROBLEM

This work is designed to investigate the cause of pupils drop-out of schools with emphasis on teachers perception. Pupils of primary school fall within the age bracket of six to twelve years. Looking at this age therefore, they need to be guided in their various and Immature decisions. Apart from the above, feeling of insecurity and frustration that may be observed in them could constitute a problem to the children. In an attempt to solve this problem, they could be exposed to dropping out of school.

Litchet and Associates (1980) in their own opinion concluded that the capable drop-out leaves school because of his desire to  escape frustration encountered in the school Melieu as well as a result of accumulation of school problem and the belief that it is too late to correct the difficulties.

 

1.3   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is specially designed to cover all the twenty seven Local Government Area in Imo State. But for the purpose of effective study, convenience, time factor, financial constraints, the scope of this study will be limited to Ihitte /Uboma Local Government Area. Actually, this Local Government Area has thirty-one primary schools but in view of the above mentioned constraints, samples for study will be draw from sixteen (16) primary schools. Further more this research is carried out in Ihitte Uboma which is one of the twenty seven (27) Local Government Areas of Imo State. It is bound in the North by Lowa community, in the South by Abueke community, in the west by Ikperejere community and in the East by Umuawuchi community representatively. It has two district of Ihitte and Uboma. In Ihitte districts there are fifteen primary schools while Uboma district has sixteen primary schools.

 

1.4   PURPOSE OF STUDY

The primary objectives of this study is to find out the teacher’s perception of pupils drop-out of school and its associated causes. For this reasons therefore, the researchers have among other things as its objectives:-

  • To find out to what extent pupils from home where each parent is not living have higher drop-out rates.
  • To find out how far poor socio-economic status of parents can cause drop-out of pupil from school.
  • To find out to what extent the absence of trained guidance councilors in primary schools can affect pupil drop-out.
  • To find out to what extent peer influence can affect pupils drop out of schools.

 

  • SIGNIFACANCE OF THE STUDY

In problem solving processes, the ability of the researcher to identify the factors that causes a particular societal cankerworm is a prerequisite towards finding a lasting solutions to the problem. Based on this, the study tries to find out the teachers perception of the causes of pupils drop-out of schools. This study is also of great significance since it tries to find out whether the poor socio-economics status of parents can cause pupils drop-out of school as people say. The findings from such investigation will help the Government, educational Planners, Guidance councilors to adjust their various programme.

As the academic success as well as the future of the pupils depend on his ability to perform very well in school and examinations, this study will help pupils to identify the grassroot of their learning problems and know effective techniques and study habits that will help them attain high level of academic performance. Thereby encouraging pupils to develop a more favourable attitude concerning the value of higher education by drawing to these factors which are prevalent in the attainment of high level of academic performance.

This study also could provide evidence for more effectively guidance and counseling armed at raising the academic performance of pupils thereby reducing the rate of drop-outs due to poor academic performance. Finally, this work will provide some bases to subsequent Researcher who may investigate into the factors associated with pupils drop-out.

CAUSES OF SCHOOL DROP-OUTS AS PERCEIVED BY THE TEACHERS IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA STUDY OF IHITTE-UBOMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

  • RESEARCH QUESTION

The Research questions which serve as bases for this work are:-

  1. To what extent does poor socio-economic status of parents affect the rate of school drop-out of pupils in the primary schools?
  2. What are the effects of broken homes on drop-out pupils?
  3. To what extent does the influence of peer groups causes pupils drop-out?
  4. To what extent does absence of Guidance Councellors in primary schools cause drop-out of pupils?

 

  • DEFINIFTION OF TERMS

Education: There is no single definition of the term education. This problem arises in part from the fact that people look Education from different perspectives at different times. Some people look at it in term of the functions it performs. Other’s view it in terms of the ends it seeks to achieve. Still others look at it in term of process employed. We shall adopts the definition offered in the Dictionary of Education thus: Education is

  • The aggregate of all process by means of which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of positive value in the society in which he lives.
  • The society process by which people are subject to the influence of the selected and controlled environment (especially that of the school) so that they may attain social competences and optimum individual development.

 

  1. SCHOOL

The school is a place where formal education takes place. In a school set up, there are both teacher and learner. The school has a curriculum which defines the aims and objectives of education, subject, the nature of learning activities, the people in it and teaching method to be employed. According to Shipman: Vital skills of literacy and number needed in various adults roles may not be primary responsibility of any organization, hence it is more efficient for some education to be concentrated in school especially designed and staffed for that purpose.

  1. SCHOOL DROP-OUT

Drop-out is a discontinuation from schooling. There are different levels of education such as the 6-3-3-4 system which implies six year of primary education, three years of Junior secondary, three years of Senior secondary and four years of University Education. A discontinuation in any of these levels of education system makes one a drop-out. A school drop-out is a learner who discontinues from schooling at any level of the education process. It is a learner who failed to complete his school career in each of the four levels of education. He lacks the compatibilities of continue with schooling.

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