Our Blog

List of recently published project topics and materials

CHALLENGES OF SELF-HELP PROJECTS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES: A CASE OF IGBEAGU COMMUNITY IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

CHALLENGES OF SELF-HELP PROJECTS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES: A CASE OF IGBEAGU COMMUNITY IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

Rural communities consist of rural areas with their peculiar characteristic which include underdevelopment and economic backwardness. Okoh and Onah (2002: 157) point out that such areas have people that appear oppressed, degraded and deprived, and that their opportunities for education, employment and good living are minimal.   Occupationally, the people are subsistence farmers with low food crop productivity.

Because of the underdevelopment, successive governments have been striving for balanced development of both rural and urban areas, not only to stem rural-urban migration but also to attain meaningful national development. The question for balanced development has led to the evolution of various policies and programmes in agriculture, communication network, education etc.

despite such programmes and policies notwithstanding, rural backwardness, poverty, food crises, hunger, illiteracy, among others, beset the rural communities and Igbeagu community of Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State in particular.Efforts are still being made to stem the tide of these problems. For instance, the universal Basic Education (UBE) scheme is on ground to tackle illiteracy, various information technology devices, road construction etc.

The national food security programme has been launched to fight food scarcity, hunger and diseases. National food security programme is manly based in rural areas. It is believed that the success of the programme will go a long way to improving the lives of members of the rural communities in general.Characteristically, one common hallmark of all developing countries is widespread poverty.

The most evident display of Nigeria’s “developing” coding is the rural communities. Although some features of this reality are also evident in the urban environments, the deplorable condition of the Nigerian rural sector is emphatic. This can be discerned primarily from the quality of life of its population. According to J.I. Obuikwu, the rural population constitutes the Nigerian peasantry, the Nigerian poor and the country’s largest illiterate groups.

It is this typology that Frantz Fawon referred to as “the wretched of the earth” whose endless striving for survival has not been helped by low incomes, inadequate infrastructure, lack of industries and lack of innovations in farm practices. All they are good for, according to Sam Aluko, is to line up, receive and dance for local government chairman, state governors and commissioners if and when they visit their areas.

In fact, having the opportunity of seeing the governors is itself a luxury in most cases, and the issue of government presence in the form of developmental projects is virtually unknown to a large number of them.The rural poor a heterogeneous group including small-scale farmers, the landless, nomads, pastoralists and fishermen. But they share common disabilities; limited assets; poverty; malnutrition; environmental vulnerability and lack of access to public services; poor medical facilities; persistence of local endemic diseases sometimes without cure-which reduces the quality of the labour force, premature death, a dependent, deprived womenfolk unproductive, subsistence agriculture.

In spite of the enormous efforts made by governments, development aid agencies, non-governmental organizations and private sector initiatives toward rural and community development in the country in general and Igbagu community of Izzi Local Government Area in particular, the results have always fallen below expectation. What has been lacking and which has bedeviled previous efforts can be summed up as integration problem.

The spontaneous and sporadic establishment of rural development projects by various government and other rural and community development agencies, the discontinuities often associated with political and economic instability in developing countries like Nigeria account for this deficiencies associated with the single approach to community development that creates the need for an integrates approach to community development.

Any meaningful community development programme must involve multiple objectives, must be multi-sectoral and must involve the efforts and investment in the programme. In wide terms, community and rural development objectives include increasing employment i.e. maximization or reduction of unemployment, maximization of personal incomes of the rural folk as part of the upliftment of the quality of rural life, upliftment of the general health of the rural folk, providing the rural population with social service similar to those enjoyed by urban folk, equipping rural folk with good formal education and technical skill, providing rural folk with technical tools and knowledge for operation of simple technical tools, maximization of the productivity of the average rural person and his family, inculcation of civic awareness, commitment, involvement and loyalty in the citizen and cultivation of rural folk as valuable materials for national political integration and stability.

Integration will ensure that the working of one should not create problems for others. In other words, each objective of rural development must be balanced in relation to others in ways that ensure that the attainment of one does not jeopardize the attainment of others.With sectoral integration, integration of objectives and all stakeholders of community development, there will be enhanced transformation of the rural communities.

Organizational integration is also necessary for rural development. Certain institutional units whose activities have implications for community development include governmental units, non-governmental organizations, community-based groups such as community development associations, town improvement unions and age grade, quasi-governmental organizations such as Directorate for Food, Road and Rural infrastructure, agricultural banks, the rural communities themselves, interest groups such as women organizations and even religious groups.

The need for organizational integration easily arises when one considers that the human and material resources which they generate are mutually reinforcing and that if integration is lacking, there would be duplication of efforts which will amount to waste of effort.An organizational systems approach is thus applied to explain the collective roles of all actors in community development in a holistic perspective as interacting parts or subsystems of the total rural cum community development system.

Such a system is a mixed jurisdictional one in which some measure of co-ordination and organizational interdependence is vital between and among the units which may include federal, state and local governments, town unions, women organizations, social clubs age grades, religious organizations, and multinational corporations, indigenous companies, charitable organizations, non-governmental organizations, etc.

CHALLENGES OF SELF-HELP PROJECTS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES: A CASE OF IGBEAGU COMMUNITY IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

  • Statement of the Problem

Recent studies on rural communities in general revealed that the rural society is marked by relative predominance of agricultural occupation, by the closeness of the people to natural environment as contrasted with a human environment; smallness of its communal aggregate; by less territorial, occupational and vertical social mobility of the population. The individuals in rural communities have fewer contacts with others that are outside their setting due to communication problems. They associate with people from smaller geographical and social areas. A greater proportion of their contact is face to face.

The rural communities are hallmarked by their depressively measure annual per-capital income, poor livable houses and various forms of social and political isolation. The labour force are depleted, the modes of production are inefficient and at the rudimentary stage, there is a general dearth of basic infrastructure and social amenities, the paucity of processing factories, markets, banks, storage shops and their low level of health care delivery, nutrition, hygiene, social awareness. For these reasons, Abah (2000) explains that the rural areas are normally unable to harness their abundant natural resources.

In the light of the above situation in our rural communities, one is compelled to ask:

  • What is the relationship between stakeholders of community development and the government, in self-help project execution?
  • What are the roles of various groups in the rural communities in tackling common community problems?
  • Are there efforts channeled toward mobilizing members of the rural communities in active participation of community projects?
    • Hypotheses

The following hypotheses have been formulated for the study.

  • The cooperatives are the vehicle for economic transformation.
  • Organizational integration has a link with community development.
  • The womenfolk are indispensable in the execution of community projects.
    • Scope of the Study

This is an intellectual excursion on the phenomenon of self-help projects in rural communities. It confines its academic interest on the geographical of a community called “Igbeagu community”, a community in Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study beams its searchlight on the encumbrances and impediments that bedevils the conception and the ultimate execution of self-help projects by members of the community of Igbeagu.

Additionally, the study confines its interest on various community groups that have bearings in self-help project implementation in rural communities.

  • Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this work is to assess the problems of self-help projects in rural communities. However the specific objectives are:

  • to identify and appraise the various kinds of community development.
  • to determine the various sources from which members of Igbeagu community find their development projects and programmes.
  • to find out the level of involvement of various community groups in the socio-economic and political activities of their communities.
    • Significance of the Study

One of the major problems facing any developing country like Nigeria is that of improving the living condition of the rural masses who constitute over 75% of her population. This study on rural community is concerned with looking at the best way of improving the political, social and economic needs of these rural communities. In such a process, the people identity their wellbeing and look for ways of assisting themselves through self-help.

As a result of the foregoing, this research provide an intellectual framework that will serve as a reference point in proffering panacea to the avalanche of challenges facing self-help projects execution in Igbeage community of Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State and elsewhere, by the community actors, the scholars.

The capabilities of various community groups should be identified and put into effective use for the overall development of our rural communities and ultimately, the development of the country. This research as a result, focuses itself on the critical roles played by NGOs, the womenfolk, age-grades etc, in community development.

This research reveals the problems itself associated with self-help projects in our rural communities. This study is also significant in the sense that it take it places the women in the forefront of the development of their communities as against the past what they were relegated to the background.

This study does not lay claims to the air finality in its conclusion but rather prepares the ground for further research on this area of study thereby, expanding the frontiers of knowledge.

1.7    Limitations of the Study

This study was fraught with many difficulties, part of the difficulty was the paucity of find to carryout extensive research. The difficulty of sourcing library materials and inhibited strongly against the gathering of enough materials for the study.

In the course of the study the researcher also experienced difficulty in gaining access to various relevant authorities and personnel for interviews. The school library provided with little or no succor as there were very few relevant document to the study.

 

1.8    Theoretical Framework

This study uses and adopts the “systems theory” the question that comes to mind at the first sight of systems theory is, what is a system? A system according to C.A leads (1981) is a grouping of separate but interdependent parts which form a complex whole to achieve some objectives. Ludwing Bertalanffy who is regarded as the father of the complex of elements standing in interaction.

From these definitions, it can deduced that system analysis emphasizes relationship to the whole rather than isolated parts.

According to the system approach rural area is a system in itself and a sub-system within the environment of the wider national economic system. Within itself as an open system, a rural area has its own subsystems of components and linkages. Rural social organizations and the forms of production and distribution processes make up the rural system of components and linkages (Okafor and Ohoherhoraye, 1986). The principal of the rural systems are therefore social, water, farmers and their families, products tools, traders, animals, natural vegetation, pathways, storage facilities, transport facilities, money, co-operatives (Hewes, 1974). Consequently, any meaningful and sustainable rural and community development strategy must take into cognizance the systemic nature of the areas and the complexity of their components in their relationships and attributes.

The implications of the systems-approach to sustainable rural/community development are numerous. The rural economy is also a system and each component of the rural economy is a sub-system of its own with its own components attributes and linkages. The major components of the rural system (using Nigeria for instance) are agriculture, local crafts and cottage industries, transportation network, markets, education and health institutions, social institutions and organization. This means that any meaningful community development programme must be via the multi-sectoral system approach (Okeye, 2001).

CHALLENGES OF SELF-HELP PROJECTS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES: A CASE OF IGBEAGU COMMUNITY IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

TO GET THE FULL PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL DELIVERED TO YOUR INBOX OR DOWNLOAD INSTANTLY, PAY N5000 Via: BANK
BANKACCOUNT NAME
ACCOUNT NUMBER
DIAMOND BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
007 031 2905
FIDELITY BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
560 028 4107
GTBFREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION013 772 5121
ZENITH BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
101 326 3297
OR Pay Online with ATMAfter Payment, you can use the chat app at the right-hand side of your browser to download the material immediately or Text Name, Title of the project paid for, your email address to 08060755653.Do you prefer paying with Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash or LiteCoin?

Hits: 75

Was the material helpful? Comment below. Need the material? Call 08060755653.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.