CHILD LABOUR AND FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IT. A CASE STUDY OF UDI TOWN IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          In recent times observation shows that child labour occurs when a child is made to engage on a regular basis in some productive income-gaining activities for which the primary beneficiaries are person’s other than themselves. Child labour is a challenge issue one which raises difficult questions and does not have a clear cut solution.

          Child labour as used in this study denotes any physical or mental exertion body undertaken wholly or in part by any person bellow the age of 15 years with a view to some reward which could be in cash or in kind, for the person or for any other persons. Child Labour here implies exploitation of children, premature assumption of adult roles on the part of children working long hours for low wages, damages of their physical and psycho-social health and denial of the opportunities for their education and recreation. Thus children join the work force in their early years, a compulsion for their own and their families survival poverty and inequality are observed to be the causes of child labour. Employers who are outside the child’s family accepted the direct payment for child labour. In other words, child labour as exploitative systematic process which in addition to the underpaid process rates of exchange, children were used for jobs that are strenuous harmful and unduly prolonged.

          The notion that child labour is a social problem a phenomenon hindering the harmonious physical and mental development of the child is a relatively recent development.

          In its content, child labour also include the systematic exploitation of the child in join jobs that are either self employed or wage earning, be it the child’s immediate family or extended family or completely outside the child’s own familiar relationship. In such circumstances, we would include the jobs of house helps (Maids/boys) children hawkers constructive site Labourers, apprentice child labour and many more. Many of who in many instances are made to grow prematurely and sadly, instead of living well with friends and peers. Children in every type of human society have always taken part and still do take part in those activities which are necessary if the group to which the belong is to survive. For instance, in the sub-culture of the Igbo in Nigeria. Children were trained early to rehearse adult roles by taking parts in their parents social and economic activities. Some of these activities are opportunities of act out behaviour required in future status, mainly adult status.  As Uchendu (1996) notes, the Igbo child grows up and participate in two world, the world of the children and the world of the adult. During this process of socialization the child grows up to physical and intellectual maturity. Without ill-treatment and with being exploited. Work of this kind was practically free from harmful effects.

Also in Igbo culture, children were taken to market or the family or village assembly, to funerals to a feast, to the farm, and to religious ceremonies. They help to entertain their parents’ guests and so forth. It can be linked to those parent-day task which by natural are light, interesting, educationally and socially useful and which serve to integrate the child into the social life of the group to which he belongs. The advantages of such role rehearsals are that it produces the opportunity to acquire normative orientations of future status as well as cognitive aspects. Child labour also has an impact on adult labour market. Children can be easily exploited than adult and ma be prepared to work for less money. Not only does this deny work opportunities to adults, but can lead to a lowering of general rates of pay in the sectors in which children work. This can keep poor families in poverty if it means adult’s family members have no access to secure forms of employment or livelihood.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          The aims of this study are as follow:

  1. To determine whether lack of good education for children is a factor in the practice of child labour.
  2. To determine whether exploitation of children is a factor in the practice of child labour.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

          Most often, children experience rigid parenting style as a form of receiving care from parents and also as a way of being trained by parents and other significant adult who take the primary responsibility by taking care of the child. Children who are socialized in this type of family background normally develop a kind of emotional discomfort as a reaction towards being laboured under the supervision of adults. Thus, it becomes necessary to observe that children undergo child labour on the pretence that they are receiving proper training from the adult persons. In view of this background, the researcher may like to question whether child labour has some physical and emotional consequences on children and child development. The researcher would also want to know whether children who went through burden of child labour are likely to react differently from other children towards setting situation, the society and the environment. Based on the above, this study intends to find answer to the following problem:-

Could there be a significant effect of exploitation of children on the practice on the practice of child Labour.

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