Concept of curriculum reform
Means to amend or to improve by change or removal of faults or abuses. In the field of curriculum, reform means changing or improving the already existing curriculum to suit the societal needs and educational objective and changes in the society.
Levels of curriculum reform
Curriculum reform take place at different levels, the decision are based on the societal needs:
- National level
- State level
- Local level and
- Teacher level
National level- it is at this level of this curriculum reform that major decision in curriculum are taken and applied to, throughout the country. The decision taken at the National level, are based on the contributions from different bodies, agencies, associations and institutions.
State level- it is at this level that the decision on curriculum in terms of local peculiarities arises from the national guidelines are taken.
Local level- decision taken on curriculum at this level is little but they can make recommendations on what should be removed or added to the already existing curriculum.
Curriculum development, agencies and subject associations in curriculum development in Nigeria
In educational sectors, therefore government agencies and institutional bodies, and professional bodies and subject associations have contributed much in establishing, improving and achieving qualities of education and curriculum.
Curriculum development involve the selective of objective, contact and learning experiences as well as organization of these experiences and their evaluation to determine the extent to which they are affective in achieving the stated educational objective. The production materials like instructional text, teachers, guide, mock ups, models, information board, slides, instructional games, etc for the use of implementing curriculum so planned with the aims of improving and facilitating teaching and learning is under the scope of curriculum development.
In attempt to improve the standard of education in Nigeria, the following agencies, bodies and associations were established
- STAN – Science Teacher’s Association of Nigeria.
- NERDC – Nigeria Educational Research Development Council.
- MAN – Mathematics Association of Nigeria.
- CON – Curriculum Organization of Nigeria.
- NUC – National University Commission.
- CESAC – Comparative Education Studies and Adaptation Centre.
- NTI – National Teacher’s Institute.
- WAEC – West Africa Examination Council.
- NCCE – National Commission for Colleges of Education.
- ACO – African Curriculum Organization.
- NAFT – National Association French Teachers.
- HETAN – Home Economics Teachers Association Nigeria.
- NABE – Nigeria Association of Business education.
- NBTE – National Board for Technical Education.
- SAN – Social studies Association of Nigeria.
- SPILC – Society for Production and Culture of Igbo Language.
- NECO – National Examination Council.
- Ministry of Education.
All these agencies, bodies and associations in addition to others were established to aid in the planning, development implementation and assessment of the school curriculum at all levels of education in Nigeria.
Meaning of innovation means to make change, to introduce new ideas, methods, skills, techniques, knowledge, materials, etc into the already existing one in order to improve it.
Innovation can be regarded as a deliberate change aimed to achieve positive result.
NEED FOR INNOVATION IN EDUCATION
- Social change.
- Research finding.
- Search for education that is on line with present situation in the nation.
- Change in knowledge and values.
- Population explosion.
- Desire for improved and qualitative education.
BARRIERS TO CURRICULUM INNOVATION
There are so many things that hinder curriculum innovation owing to certain reasons like culture, belief, economy, perception, politics, time, resources, studies attributes, complexity of innovation, professional skills, incompatibility with the existing value and needs of recipient environment and understanding.