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Background of the Study

Statistically women constitute almost 50 percent of the Nigerian population and out of this, only about 35% of them are involved in entrepreneurship which can be under the form of micro, small medium and large enterprises (Odeme, 2003). In Nigeria, regardless of women’s physical population, they are not well represented in the policy making process, especially in issues of business and entrepreneurial development.

However, given the dynamic nature of the Nigerian environment, a number of changes have emerged, including the recognition of the potential of women and their contribution to the economy. (As mordi et al, 2010) observes that the traditional roles of women in the family is revolving as a result of changes in the family settings which has allowed women to undertake more practical and functional roles within the society.

Changes in the structure of family functions as a result of rapid urbanization has brought women into the mainstream of the economy and business world. Considering women’s multiple roles they play in our society and the circumstances surrounding their peculiar nature which pose as a constraint to their full involvement in entrepreneurship. Therefore there is need to create a conducive and enabling environment to encourage their participation in economic development.

Promoting women entrepreneurship development (WED.) demands attention to be focused on issues that restricts women empowerment in businesses. Information on gender issues will help with implementation of supportive practices and programmes for monitoring and evaluating the challenges facing women entrepreneurship in Nigeria and ways to meet their needs.

More emphasis from several researchers such as (Odoemene,2003) and (Mansor,2005) has placed psychological and economic factors as also affecting WED. It is against this backdrop that this study emphasizes the fact that women empowerment is essential for the nation’s development by looking into the concept of women entrepreneurship, the challenges and the large segment of vital importance and contributions that women could play in the development of the economy. The objective of this study is to analyze the constraints and benefits of effective women entrepreneurship development. It is hopeful that this analysis will help in bringing out necessary recommendations for future policy making.


1.2     Statement of the Problem

Women in Nigeria have great entrepreneurship potentials given the right incentives and support which will surely aid national growth and development with the necessary “enablement” and government commitment, the women can contribute inestimably to the development of our economy. The women have bean relegated to the background for too long. The needs and contributions of female entrepreneurs in the Nigeria economy seem to be looted;

our traditional society believes that they are better off not self employed, given that there are already certain difficulties in performing entrepreneurial activities. In Nigeria women entrepreneurs face even greater challenges due to cultural and traditional beliefs. Nigerian women entrepreneurs face problems attributable are to sociocultural factors. cultural and social tradition play a large role in determining who becomes an entrepreneur, for example social conditions in some parts inhibit

women from starting their own businesses, for a female business owner, the process of starting, operating and developing a new venture can be difficult because they often lack the skills, training, incentives and support system that can expedite their business pursuits. In our contemporary African society, women are regarded as subordinates to men regardless of their age or educational status.

Even when they gain access to managerial activities unlike their male counter parts they face additional problems while participating in entrepreneurial activities. While women entrepreneurs face common economical and business environmental issues that their male counterparts experience, they also have to deal with issues such as in equality and sexism. Under such circumstances, these can prevent women entrepreneurs from maximizing their productivity. The women are sentenced to social drudgery and economic indigence, not because they are less enterprising, but frequently due to lack of opportunities and empowerment. This problem is indeed profound and complex, so the need to investigate this issue informed this study.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

This study is set to accomplish the following objectives.

General Objective

*        To examine the problems and prospects of women entrepreneurship development (WED.)

Specific Objectives

1.       To ascertain the extent to which women are excluded from entrepreneurship programs.

2.       To identity avenues through which the Nigerian women can be empowered via entrepreneurship programs.

3.       To examine factors and challenges facing effective women entrepreneurship programs.

4.       To critically access the causes behind the failure entrepreneurship programs as regards to the Nigeria women.

1.4     Research Questions           

1.       Can small scale businesses such as hairdressing, tailoring, trading, etc as a profession sustain their living?

2.       Have the training programs been meeting the needs of trainees?

3.       Have the government been able to put in place necessary incentives and facilities to enhance effective training?

4.       Have women entrepreneurship skills been able to develop since their exposure to training?

1.5     Statement of Hypothesis

Hypothesis I

H0: Women are not actively involved in entrepreneurship development program.

H1: Women are actively involved in entrepreneurship development programs.

Hypothesis II

H0: Entrepreneurship development programs in Nigeria have no impact on women empowerment.

H1: Entrepreneurship development programs in Nigeria have an impact on women empowerment.

Hypothesis III

H0: Women entrepreneurship development programs are not encumbered by poor policy implementation.

H1: Women entrepreneurship development programs are encumbered by poor policy implementation.

Hypothesis IV

H0: Women have no contribution to the failure of this entrepreneurship development programs.

H1: Women have contributed to the failure of this entrepreneurship development programs.

1.6     Significance of the Study

As a result of the proximity in the ratio of women to men in the country as shown in the national population census 2006, there is need to investigate the contribution which Nigeria women make in the development of the economy

Generally, the role of entrepreneurship i.e been self employed, in economic development is significant to go unnoticed. It does not only increase per capital income, create employment opportunities but also involves initiating and constituting good changes in the structure of business society. These changes are followed by growth, increased output and development in employment, company formation etc.

The findings of this study will expose the problem which hinder women entrepreneurship development (wed), analyze them and proffer solutions in solving them and this will in no small measure accelerate rapid growth in the economy.

It will also give the government an insight into what is required to create an enabling environment for women entrepreneurship. The findings will equip them with the requisite knowledge on how to get their initiatives on the growth path given by the available limited resources.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The broad nature of this topic includes background of the problems facing women in Nigeria as well as the imperative of women entrepreneurship development program in Nigeria. This research is limited to women entrepreneurs in Enugu South Local Government consisting of four communities which are Amechi, Achara layout, Uwani, and Obiagu.

1.8     Limitations of the Study

  The research effort did not go without certain limitations. They are here understated below:

1.       Finance: This was one of the constraints to this work, As a result of this poor financial status, the work suffered some hitches. This accounts for the inability of the researcher to go beyond the aforementioned local government for information and data gathering.

2.       Time: There wasn’t enough time to collect as much information as desired because the available time had to be shared between the research work and other demands of my academic pursuits as a final year (B.Sc) study.

3.       Distance: The location of the area of study is a bit distant from my base. So this in part distorted the indepthness of the research work.

1.9     Definitions of Terms

          The following definition of terms represent the specific meanings that will be given to them in this study, those terms include:

Women: This means an adult human female.

Entrepreneurship: It is the creation of something new with value by devoting the necessary time and efforts assuming the accompanying financial and social risks and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence. It is a process that should undergo development stages.

Prospect: Means the possibility or like likely hood of some future event occurring, that is a mental picture of a future or anticipation of events, chances or opportunities for success.

Program: A set of related measures or activities with long term aim.





  1. Ahmad Rufai Enesi Abdullah April 29, 2016
    • Project Topics April 30, 2016

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