Constraints affecting the administrative function of principals in secondary schools, in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State


This research study focused on the constraints affecting the administrative function of principals in secondary schools, in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Four research questions were formulated to guide the work. Being a descriptive survey study, the instrument for he study was a structured questionnaire titled “Constraints to administrative functions of principals”, reliability determined using test-retest method. The population of the study constituted ten (10) principals and one hundred and seventy 9170) teachers from different selected secondary schools which was randomly picked and studied. Simple random sampling technique was used. Many constraints were identified using likert scale rating technique where by any time below 2.50 were regarded as an insignificant constraints. The findings indicated that inadequate administrative blocks, lack of seminars/workshops for the up date of principals knowledge among others were the most significant constraints affecting the administrative functions of principals where as short supply of sports facilities and creation of administrative problems by principals were considered insignificant. The study further recommended that training programmes such as workshop, seminar, in service training etc should be amended to provide real experience of school and community relationship. Also adequate up to data instructional materials as well as social amenities should be provided and made use of secondary school in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.



Background of the Study

Education administration focuses on the co-ordination of human and material resources towards the attainment of some predetermined educational objectives. It means bringing all the attributes in an effort to realize the educational objectives.

Educational administration includes organization and structure, proprietorship and control, inspection and supervision, provision of good human relations and professionalism to schools and teaching learning situation.

According to Eresimadu and Nduka (1987), Educational administration as specially is implying the careful arrangement of the resources and programmes available for education. So that when mobilized they should operate as a unity for the achievement of education objectives. Its focus is the enhancement of teaching and learning process. In formal school setting as such as it is in Ishielu Local Government Area, Education according to Ruskin (1965) is the leading of human souls to what is best and making what is best of them and the training which makes men happiest themselves also makes them most serviceable to others.

All persons charged with the responsibility of co—ordination human efforts and the use of material in these establishment (schools) towards achievement of educational goals can then be regarded as educational administrators. Persons in such positions includes heads of educational institutional, their assistant, directors of specific educational programmes, inspectors of schools, members of school boards, subject heads and even the teachers who are classroom administrators, but for the  purpose of the study, our focus is on the principals as the administrators of secondary schools.

The school administrator is said to be an international personality in the learning business that takes place in the school environment. The school administrators (principals) shape and transmit educational policies and procedures reality. Administrator deals with student of different ages, sex, and level of understanding. In order for an administrator of school to succeed in his administration, it depends to a large extent on his leadership qualities.

Leadership according to Weihrich and Knoontz (1994) is defined as influence, who is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goal.

This issue raised about leadership is that it requires moving along with the group which one is said to be leading. That is very true of educational leadership. The school principal cannot be said to be leading if the staff, students and parents etc are not ready to follow or corporate with him. What is implied here is that for any leadership to be effective, there must be effective followership, leadership lose it favour.

In some schools mostly in the village of Ishielu Local Governemnt Area, there could be acute shortage of staff. Many people do not like to work in areas without electricity, pipe bone water, good roads and medical centres. The principals in such schools are bond to experience difficulties in subject allocation and the allocation of other responsibilities. Probably, the population of such schools could deplete as parent and students opt for well-staffed and equipped schools, usually found in urban centres. The shortage of manpower would imply the few available would be over utilized resulting in decrease in efficiency. It was on this ground that the Ebonyi State government in recognition of the above mentioned constraints had to set up the secondary Education Management Board, workshops and seminars on administration on secondary school, management for principals and other top management officials, improved funding to secondary schools, promotion of teachers, setting up P.T.A, encourage non-governmental changes, improved motivation for students, adheres to the Federal Government change in 6-3-3-4 system of education. In the bid, to reduce constraints hindering effective administration by the principal in secondary school system in Ebonyi State. In spit of all these things or efforts, the general public complain bitterly that administration roles performance by the principal in the secondary school have not been improved as expected.

All these challenging constraint confronts the principals of secondary schools by virtues of their position as administrators and therefore call for research on the ideal qualities and call administrators should possess in order to cope with these challenge constraints.

Research Problems

In this research, the following problems are imperatives and they constitute the constraints to administrative functions in secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

There is the problem of effective administration in terms of human resource management.

There is a problem of human relationship among the parents, teachers and students of the school.

There is also the problem of training of administrators for the administrative functions in the schools.

Objective of the Study

This research has the following objectives:

  1. To establish a way to caution effective administration in the schools.
  2. To suggest the best way to bring good human relationship among the parents, teachers and students.
  3. To open door for training of administrators for good administration in the schools.

Research Questions

The following research questions are very important to deal with the constraints of administrativw functions in the schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

  1. How can there be effective administration in schools?
  2. How do the parents, teachers and the students start having good human relationship?
  3. What are the things necessary to do in order to bring back good administrative training in the schools?

Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses Alternate and null are important in the study:

HA1: There is effective administrative in the schools

HOI: There is no effective administration in the schools.

HA2: There is no human relationship among the parents, the teachers and the students.

HA3: There is administrative training in the schools.

HO3: There is no administrative training in the schools.

Significant of the Study

It is envisaged that the results of this research will expose the positive and negative influence of administration manifest with a view to take necessary precautionary measures to help the administration of secondary schools.

The study will help the administrators to identify their strength and weakness in administrative task area. It will lead to some modification in the present administration.

Scope/Delimitation of the Study

This study is limited to the secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The time lag is from independent till date.


Limitations of the Study

The limitations got in this research are:

There was a limitation of time.

There was also the limitation of literature.

There was also the limitation of correspondence/data.


Review of Related Literature

The chapter deals with review of related literature and it is organized along the sub-heading which include the concept of Secondary School administration: the erosion of the authority of principal, management of finance and its problems; principal heavy work load and administrative qualification, inadequate infrastructures, delay in the payment of teacher’s salaries, lack of seriousness on the part of the students and summary of literature review.

Secondary concept of secondary school circle in the Nigeria education system. According to the National Policy on Education, F.R.N (1981:6), secondary education is the form of education, which children receives after primary education and before tertiary institution.  According to Cliff Ikechukwu Ani (2009) secondary education is the second formal education level, it is the education provided for children ages 11 years to 17 years. It is the education received by children after their primary education and before the tertiary education stage. Adesin and Ogunsaju (1984:1) state that secondary education is the gateway to a sound high education both academic and profession. They also noted that secondary education has both the consumer and producer status that consumers that the products of the primary school and producing candidates for high education and with the two board of:

  1. Preparation for useful life within the society and
  2. Preparation for higher education.

From the above, it implies that students have to prepare academically so that they should not only acquire the requisite knowledge basic enough to enable them benefit from higher education programme, but also make effort to West Africa School Certificate Examination (WASCE) needed for work or for living in the society.

The principles of secondary schools have so much work to perform that many of their duties are scarcely attended to even when they have helping hands. The ability of those helping them as well as their willingness to do have also a lot to do with the effectiveness f the outcome.

Many authorities on educational management and administration attest to the above fact. Nnabuo (1996) write “since the entire school work revolves around the principal, he faces many administrative problems”. He also added that “some of these problems are created by the environment”.

Alu et al (2001) explicate that “The principal cannot be said to be leading if the staff, student, parents etc, are not ready to follow or co-operate with him”. They continue that for any leadership to be effective, there must be effective followership, leadership as well. In the absence of followership as well leadership loses it fervour. They added that That principal should seek and maintain the students’ corporation in planning and organizing the school/community relations programme. That student is linking object between the school and community where the school is located.

In achieving educational objective, teachers are involved and they are the most potent weapons in the hands of administrator in education for students. Adesina (1981) said, “The school head other staff members have a responsibility to appreciate, understand and accept today students. This demands that the traditional social distance between students and principals and teachers should be decreased. The position of the students is evidently core, which has understandable propelled some scholars to assert; without students, there would be no school even if there were ample teachers and school manager.


Theoretical Framework

In this research, the suitable for it is system theory. The system theory to administration or management in anywhere attempt to see an institution as a unified, purposeful system composed of interrelated parts. It does not deal with individuals separately. It rather takes a view that all the parts of the institution/organization must work as a one with the training offered to them.

In this study, the theory is related because all the segments needed in carrying out the administrative functions in the schools are expected to be together in doing the works.


Research Methods

This chapter will be organized along the sub-heading which includes the research design, area of study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument, validation of instrument, reliability of the instrument, method of data collected and method of data analysis.

Research Design

This research is a descriptive survey carried out because the events had already taken place and the research has no control over the independent variable.

Area of Study

The area of study is Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. It is situated between Ohaukwu Local Government of Ebonyi State and Idodo in Enugu State. Its headquarters is at Ezillo. It has 16 communities and 7 development centres namely Ishielu development centre, Ishielu East, Ishielu West, Ishielu North, Inyiabmba development centres.


Population of the Study

The research population in the study composed the principals and teachers in secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government of Ebonyi State.

A population study of ten (10) principals and one hundred and seventy (170) teachers making a total of 180 respondents were used in the research study.

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Simple random sampling techniques were used to select ten (10) secondary schools in the study area. Therefore, the alongside with 17 teachers each in the selected ten (10) schools making a total of one hundred and seventy (170) teachers altogether, a sample size of one hundred and eighty (180) respondents were achieved.


The instrument used by the researcher for the study was structured questionnaire. The questionnaire contained 20 items which was divided into two parts, one part required the respondents to give their personal data, and the respondents had to make choice to ticking () in he boxes containing the most appropriate options. In the part two of the questionnaire, the respondents were expected to tick among the options provided in the table, the one that most appropriately represent their opinions. The response to the instrument were made in the likert type of attitude scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (SD). The instrument gave the respondents the opportunity to indicate at what level of reasoning made to them to choose or reject the items in the questionnaire.

Validation of the Instrument

The instrument was validity by two senior lecturers in guidance and counseling and one from measurement and evaluation.

Method of Data Collection

Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire that were administrated to the respondents. These formed the primary data that were subjected to analyses.

Method of Data Analysis

The data collected were analyzed using the likert scale method of descriptive statistics.


Presentation of Result

In this chapter, data collection were analyzed using the likert scale method of the descriptive statistics. This implies that a mean score or the decision rule of 2.50 was employed in the analysis. Therefore, any item below 2.50 was accepted to be very significant.

The data include: constraints to management of Human Resources, problems associated with material Resource Management constraints emanating from communities-school relationship and the training on administration functions of principals. These were presented in the following tables below:

Table 1: What are the constraints in effective administration in terms of Human Resources Management Item?

Item SA A D SD X Decision
1. high rate of truancy among students71864911.62Rejected
2. Inadequate teachers.826319163.1Accepted
3. Lack of attention to students problem by teachers.71584563.0Accepted
4. Students involvement in the secret curt.04179601.89Rejected
5. Students involvement in examination malpractice.102542403.43Accepted

The likert table computed above has a mean score or decision rule of 2.50. this means that any item with a mean score of less than 2.50 is not a significant problem affecting human resources management. But any item with a mean score of above the decision rule is a significant problem. Thus, from the table, high rate of truancy among students and students’ involvement in the secret curt at mean score of 1.62 and 1.89 respectively are significant problems. A most significant problem is students’ involvement in examination malpractice at mean score of 3.43.

Table 2: What are the constraints emanating from school community relationship?

Item SA A D SD X Decision
6. Non attendance of P.T.A meeting by parents.61

5639242.86Accepted7. Interference of community politician in school affairs.486344252.74Accepted8. Influence of positing of principal/teachers by members of the community.836917113.24Accepted9. Communal clashes between the community and school.154276472.13Accepted10. Refusal of provision of adequate land for building of schools by the community.205965362.23Accepted

From the above table, based on the computation of mean score of 2.50 two items that is, communal clashes between the community and the school refusal of provision of adequate lands for building of provision of mean score of 2.13 and 2.23 respectively were rejected as they do not have positive effects on the constraints emanating from communalities school relation.





Table 3: What are the constraints emanating from training on administrative functions of the principals?

Item SA A D SD X Decision
11. Lack of administrative.323980472.41Rejected
12. lack of administrative skills in management by principal.184372262.17Rejected
13. Creation of administrative problems by principals.314875122.46Rejected
14. Lack of provision of services training for educational administrators.6265412.29Accepted
15. Lack of seminars/workshops for the update of principal knowledge.9468183.42Accepted

Based on the computation, in table 4 above, three items that is, lack of administrative problems by principals, are rejected because they influence on the training on the administrative capacities of principals.


Discussion of Findings

This chapter entails bringing the implications and conclusion in this for this study.


Implication of the Study

It has been discovered that if there is no recruitment of good administrators to handle the past of the principals there will continue to be the problem of effective administration in the schools.

In great height, if the teachers, the parents and the students do not develop good relationship in the schools, the threeparties must be greatly affected in the areas of social and academic lives.

Absence of good training in the schools will end up making the teachers incapable in delivering and the students will continue to be undeveloped.


This conclusion here is that in as much as we want good administrative functions in our schools especially those of the Ishielu local government area in Ebonyi state, there should employment of specialized teachers and there should be good parent-teachers’meting in the schools.


Summary and Recommendations

In this chapter, the findings in this study will be summarized and recommendation rendered to bring in good administrative function in the secondary school in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.


In summarizing the findings in this work, the researcher would like to opine that as it has been found out that there are constraints in the administrative functions in the secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government, therefore, the principals and all the Administrative workers must be developed in all rounds.


The following recommendations will be very important in this research as they will work against the constraints facing the administrative functions in Ishielu Local Government of Ebonyi State:

  1. There should be recruitment of experienced principals and administrative officers in the schools.
  2. The people employed should do their best in making sure that the administrative functions are carried out effectively and efficiently and give account of stewardship in the parent-teachers’ Association meetings.
  3. The principal and the entire staff should create a good rapport among them, the parents and the students.
  4. The principals and the staff should fee free to give rapport of the administrative problems the have in the P.T.A meetings and there should be suggestions on how to solve them and if proved abortive, the government should be consulted.
  5. There should be good training offered to the entire school staff especially the administrative unit.
  6. The schools not doing well administratively should borrow some leaves from those doing well. In other words, there should be inter-school meetings where problems would be discussed and solutions shared and taken seriously administratively.

With all these, there will be good administrative function(s) in all, the schools in Ishielu Local Government of Ebonyi State.

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