THE CONCEPT OF REFORM
Reform means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt unsatisfactory or to improve by alteration correction of error or removal of defects put into a better form or condition.
Curriculum is the sum totals of the courses which school organize for a learner to cover within a specific time or programme.
In the field of curriculum, reform means changing or improving the already existing curriculum to suit societal needs and educational objectives and changes in the society. Curriculum reform changes the shape and nature of post secondary degrees must reflect generally acknowledged academic standards of excellence skills knowledge and understanding to help students prepare for the future, and goals and mission of the institution. No effort at reform can succeed without adequate support for the faculty who have primary responsibility for the curriculum nor can it succeed population.
The goals of higher education curricula should include mastery of basic skills, active participation in the learning process, in depth study critical thinking, understanding of a disciplines characteristic methods, and a coherent and relevant course of study the goals should also be consistent with NEA principles such as faculty control equal access to quality education for all students, and multicultural understanding. Any effort at curriculum revision should be designed to prepare all student for effective citizenship and participation in an increasingly society. A common body of intellectual reference must be inclusive of multicultural and multinational perspectives.
LEVELS OF CURRICULUM REFORM
Curriculum reform take place at different levels at each level, decisions of what should be modified. These levels according to Offorma (1994) these levels include national, state, local school and teacher levels.
National level: This is the level of curriculum reform that major decisions in curriculum are taken and applied to throughout the country.
State level: It is at this level that decision on curriculum in terms of local peculiarities arising from the national guidelines are taken standards of education.
Local level: Decision taken on curriculum at this level is little but they can make recommendations on what should be removed or added to the already existing curriculum. While at the school level, where the actual implementation of most curriculum take place the school authority decides on which subjects are taught and learnt based on the human and material resources available.
Innovation is all about finding a new way of doing something. Innovation can be viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements in articulated needs or existing market needs. This is accomplished through more effective products, processes services technologies, or ideas that are readily available to markets, government and society. The term innovation is something original and as a consequence, new that breaks into the market or society. With these aspects would be the following “An innovation is something original new and important in whatever field that breaks into a market or society.
NEEDS OF INNOVATION IN EDUCATION
It is important to innovate in all area of life and in educational system in particular based on the following reasons:
- Research finding
- Social change
- Population explosion
- Change in knowledge and values
- Desire for improved and qualitative education.
Mkpa M.A. (1987) Curriculum Development and implementation Owerri. TOTAN Publishers LTD.
Aguokogbum. C.N. (2000) Curriculum Development and implementation for Africa. Nsukka. Mike social press.
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