The drop-out and its effect among secondary school students in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study.

       A country is said to be advanced when it is technologically advanced and this goal cannot be achieved if majority of the entire populace are not educated. Hence education  should be made possible and encouraged by the government of any country, like Nigeria, as it greatly contributes to the development of the national economy. Apparently, education is derived from the Greek word “Educere” which literally means to deduce, extract and to acquire knowledge.

       Castle in Ukeje (1974) defined education as what we learn from the day we are born to the day we die. Thus, he sees education as a process and experience of life time.

       Vole (1973) was of the view that education among its primary task is protection and transmitting the cultural heritage of the young ones by developing the individual into a right human being. Education is the machine or force that emphasizes change or the orientation of individual perception, beliefs, customs, pattern  of the thinking and values from time immemorial to date. However, there are two distinct forms of education Viz: the traditional and western education. Ever before the coming of the European or white men to Nigeria, a form, of indigenous traditional education had been in existence.

Agbawsi (1989) asserted that when the western from of education was introduced in Nigeria, it was then conceived erroneously as aimed at destroying the existing culture of the people. With time, the first nations that had experienced western form of education began to metamorphose when they found that people who went to school began to enjoy relatively high socio-economic status in the society.

       Graduates of these schools easily got employment and occupied enviable positions which made them members of the new elite group.        Consequently, educational pursuit then became an economic venture and so parents and economic venture now sell their land in order to train their children at school with the understanding that education is an instrument for social and economic change. Some regional governments began to initiate programmes that would encourage schooling (education). Such programmes included scholarship and bursary awards to deserving citizens of such regions.        All over the world, government makes huge monetary investment annually on education as a result of the recognition that rich dividends accrue from investing in education        The developing countries such as Nigeria took education for rapid social and economic development. The educational performance of children in secondary schools is blamed on students wither as a result of “I don’t care attitude or lack of seriousness” towards education. Sometimes the educational performance is blamed on natural psychological and sociological needs of the students there has been an old age assumption that the performances and academic achievement of children in secondary schools depend on the school and its functionaries. Where some or all of these factors are operational, the students, may drop-out of school; thereby leading/ resulting to some severe effects which may make the students to be maladjusted for a long period of time. The issue of secondary school dropout and its effects is an old phenomenon that disturbs the minds of many educated and researchers in the country. As it is, the secondary school now fall to nurture its intakes through their adolescent age, and those who went to school seeing it as an avenue to reach greater height only end up as drop-out (ovuorce, 1997). Before the advent of the early missionary and the introduction of formal education in Nigeria, education was in existence in a different form. Parents had to impact the knowledge of their culture to their children through informal type of education. Informal education occurs in a non-literate environment such as mechanics and workshop etc. mostly outside the classroom.

It is job oriented, it is impossible to know how many people that are suffering from psychological problem, emanating from drop-out in informal education        However, the main objective of the parents of present day in Awka south Local Government Area is to enable their children to be gainfully employed coupled with the objectives of occupying government positions in various offices.        The government on its part encourages formal education to increase manpower and personnel who act as an intermediary between the federal, state and local government. In deed, the problem of drop-out and its effects on students, became more pronounced during the time when schools in the country are under “fire” from teachers strikes, book crisis, political programmes, students unrest and national storys being shattered.        Right from the time of the adoption of formal education, Nigeria has recorded a high rate of drop-out from secondary schools, with its prevailing effect on the students, parents, society and all the researchers carried out about this issue of recognition of these situations that the researcher decided to examine the extent to which formal education has been achieved in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State as against the dropping out and its effect on students from schools, after undergoing the process of test measurement and evaluation as well as guidance and counseling services. Statement of the Problem        The issue of drop-out of school students varies from place to place. It has become noticeable that the numbers of students facing some severe psychological difficulties are on the increase, this is as a result of their dropping-out from schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State as one of the worst hit areas. The issue of drop-out and its effect centres mostly on the student emotional being, mental being, social and moral being as well as economic being etc. Both those who dropped-out at the junior and senior secondary schools suffer these effects. The drop-out and its effects form the whole problem of this research work.        In other words, the study is on the drop-out and its effect among secondary school students in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State Purpose of Study        If drop-out of school is not properly checked or controlled, it will help to perpetrate ignorance in the entire society.        The problem of drop-out and its effect in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state is a serious cause for serious minded Nigerians in general and in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra sate in particular. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to specifically :

1.    Identify the possible causes of students drop-out of secondary schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra. 2.    Find out if students drop-out of schools leads to emotional disturbances in life. 3.    Find out if students drop-out of school results to low need for achievement and success. 4.    Identify if students drop-out of school results to weak desire for responsibility and independence. Scope of the Study        This study is limited to investigate students drop-out of school and its effects among secondary school students in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Significance of the Study The findings of this study will be very useful to students, parents, Government and the society at large. When teachers are treated well by their employer, they will help to retain students in school. When facilities are provided in schools, it will help to keep students in school. Then students who would have dropped out and join bad gang, will successfully complete their secondary education, then enter into tertiary in situation and finally become important person in the society        The parents on their own will benefit from this study as they will know the evils associated with student dropping out of school. The knowledge from this study will encourage parents to strive very hard and see that their children do not dropout school.        The government will also benefit from this study when dropout rate is reduced to almost zero. The money spend on dropout will reduce, there will be reduction on educational wastage.        The society at large will benefit from this study if there is a drastic reduction in the number of dropouts in our secondary school. This will go a long way to reduce the density of crime in our society. Thus, more lines and property will be saved.        Research Questions        In this study, the following research questions were formulated to guide the study. 1.    What are the possible causes of dropout in secondary schools in Awka South local Government Area of Anambre State? 2.    To what extent does students dropout of school lead to emotional disturbance in life? 3.    To what extent does students dropout of school result to low need for achievements and success? 4.    To what extent does students dropout of school result to weak desire for responsibility and independence?                                                                           CHAPTER TWO Review of Related Literature.        This chapter is discussed under the following sub-headings: 1.    The concept of drop-out 2.    The problem of drop-out and its effects 3.    Causes of dropout in school 4.    Classification of school dropout by gender 5.    The summary of literature review Concept of Dropout        The concept of “dropout” according to Hornby (2000) deduced that it is a process whereby a person leaves school or college before they have finished their studies. He went further to define dropout as situation by which a person who rejects the ideas and ways of behaving that are accepted by the rest of the society.        Olujide (1999) categorized people in relation to schooling into three categories. These are the: stay out, the dropout and the stay in, of these three categories, the stay outs are completely illiterate citizens. They are not easy to manage by the society, their functionality is highly limited.        According to United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2008) said that  an illiterate person is he whose written words and symbol is in any language. Which convey no meaning. He is an ignorant person. The stay out are more in number in Nigeria than the other two categories. The drop-out are the dangerous minority members of the society. They are those who could not complete a particular level of schooling. They are half backed, they can function partially in the society. This category of people are more prone to crime such as armed robbery and girls in this group commit crime as prostitution. The third category are stay-in, they are the integral members of the society. They are refined, respectful, functional and very easy to manage by the society. It has been noted that the home back ground of the students pose a problem which results in students dropping out of school with its fierce effects. Problems of Dropout and its Effects        The problem of dropout and its attendant effect has disturbed the minds of many meaningful educationists in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State and Nigeria as a whole. The secondary school students dropout represents an important problem that affect thousand of students each year. Roughly one-third of students dropout of secondary school without having received their WAEC certificate or results in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State, due to the disturbances in life. Reported from Awka South Local government of Anambra State.        Mann, (1986) states that “dropping out of school is not only an educational problem but  significant social problem as well. In deed, it has obvious psychological, economical and social ramification. For instance, dropouts may under go a loss of self esteem, turn to drugs, and become a financial burden to society. This has posed challenges not only to school administrators but also to all who are concerned about the progress and technological advancement of the Local Government Area of Anambra state. One of the major national objective in Nigeria, which the National Policy on Education (2004) predicted is to provide a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens. This objective implies that all citizens irrespective of size, tribe or religion should be given equal opportunity to develop his or her maximum potentials.        Ngwobia and Uka (1996) state that parents who have no formal education do not provide their children with rich and nourished home environment that can help and stimulate in their good study habits. Micheal (1990) believes that learning begins at home, he maintains that the ability of any child to perform well in school depend on the condition surrounding the home. The home is a very important agent of education.        If the home is rich to provide good feeding and learning facilities, no doubt the children will not dropout of school, when they dropout, they always face with problem that effect their psychological emotion.        Farrant (1994) said that motivation is important in learning because it provides power. Just as the car with a powerful engine can travel fast so the child driven motivation will learn rapidly. He is of the view that some teachers frustrate the children or students by making them to hate learning as a result of lack of motivation.        John (1992) states that, dropout students also report that they have less positive teacher and students relationship. This author is of the view that some teachers do not encourage or motivate students in teaching  and learning. Poor family background  is another problem of dropout in school in Awka South Local Government of Anambra State. A child from a poor family background is not always happy and he is emotionally disturbed because of one problem or the other. Sharp (1978) says that just as the emotional problem can interfere with the teacher’s teaching, so also children’s emotional problem can interfere with learning. Most homes in Awka South Local Government Area are so poor that they cannot afford two square meals per day let alone afford materials like books, school uniforms, sandals etc. which these children will use.        Stone, (1990) states that lack of learning materials hinder and bring about student dropout.” As a result of lack of finance in Awka South Local Government Area, many parents are forced to do the type of minor job or the other in order to get money to buy materials for their children’s education. At the end, most of the students fail out of school because they are given little or no significant time to their academic works. Causes of Dropout of School        Studies have shown that dropout of school is associated with parental background, low academic ability, social values, poor financial background and poor academic performance. Some of these causes are discussed below;     Home / Parental Background        Researchers have admitted that the environment which include the blood relatives, parents and other house holds have an effective impact in one way or the other on the deity and overall performance of the students.        Yoloye (1992) in his studies on socio-economic background and school population discovered that students from monogamous homes, because of loss of total focus and restlessness at home. Such students could not do well in school. Akinlaya (1983) in his contribution states that the home is accountable to the misconduct perpetrated by students in schools. The behaviour which the parents impacted into the children/students reflected in the students home and school performance.

In another research finding, Wisemen (1994) said that the family is the source of encouragement for the advancing child. Ajayi (1987) embraced the finding of Misbet (1991) when he opined that students from small family are more attentive in school with better performance in addition to a high intelligent quotient (1Q) than those from larger family size.        In a nutshell, the effect of parental background (home) on students dropout and its effect could be attributed to the word of John Watson (2000) who said that the grievous problems in the globe is that children who through their elementary days have been deprived of those necessities in respect to their well-being. As a result of lack of these necessities, it will make the students to develop the mind to dropout of school, because the students feel very depressed and bad. This research is of the view that lack of motivation from parents makes the students to drop-out of school. Low Academic Ability        The Federal Republic of Nigeria (1998) categorized secondary education into pre-vocational and academic areas. Accordingly, students who complete junior secondary school shall be streamed into : i.     The senior secondary school ii.    The technical college iii.    An out- of school vocational training centre. iv.    An apprenticeship scheme        The streaming shall be based on the result of tests to determine academic ability, aptitude and vocational interest. Unfortunately, many of our schools do not use the streaming policy as indicated above.        Consequently, those that fail to be academically inclined dropout of school to increase the poverty group. Social Values        In the past, education was held in high esteem. The products were respected and job opportunities were guaranteed. It is quite unfortunate that the reverse is the case with today’s youth in the sense that the social values have deeply contributed in increase in the number of secondary school dropouts which affect them psychologically in society.        According to Okitikpe (2000), the educated in the past did not think of instant rich but had a belief that education shows the light for people to be enlightened.It is obvious from the statement above that early commercial activities could not yield the required result without first completing secondary school/ educational career. It makes the students to be maladjusted in the society by being disorganized.        Olujidi (1999) in his view stated that there are some societies where high premium is placed on money. This is because these societies are commercially endowed and so the students see business as the first thing thereby dropping out of school. It is not as if the Nigerian child cannot excel in business, but it is education that can give the right business acumen for excellence.        Poor Financial Background        Poor family is one of the causes of student to dropout of school in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. A child from a poor family background is always unhappy and is emotionally disturbed. Most homes in Awka south Local Government Area are so poor that they cannot afford learning materials that will aid their children in their academic pursuit. In this aspect, lack of basic learning materials hinder and bring about dropout among students from poor homes.

Oluruntimehim and Staurt (1994) noted that children whose material needs are not provided are prone to dropout of school. Lack of finance may force the dropped out students to go into some hard jobs in order to get money to buy learning materials for academic success in the case of drop in again.        Tansely and Guiliford (1990) stated that inadequate provision of the children’s need has different effect on different children. This shows that, the ways students react to circumstance and their ability to with stand strain and stress differ. Poor Academic Performance        Obadina (1989), in his studies highlighted that academic consideration are seen as reliable predications of dropout. He observed that it is uncommon in Nigeria to hear of students with amiable and encouraging results dropping out of school, if such happened, he argued it would be for other reasons. Indeed, students with learning difficulties and mental problem and join other career like business since they cannot have good result and no hope for improved performance. Classification of School Dropout by Gender        They appear to be a consensus researchers which of the two groups (male and female) that have the higher rates of dropout of school. French (1998) projected a study that 60% of the girls withdraw from the school for one reason or the other, pregnancy and marriage incisive.        Secondly, Royer (1993) reveals that girls in secondary schools are less than boys because of disturbances facing them in the society. Statistics from the state’s Post Primary School Board (PPSB) in pointer newspaper shows that not only the boys dropout of school but that the number who registered for  admission is relatively much lower that those of girls. The paper further stated that in (1999), a total of 74, 654 boys registered in secondary schools as against 100, 361 girls. In 1998,98,093 girls enrolled in secondary schools compared to 74, 653 boys who registered the same year. Other studies reported that male’s dropout most significantly at a higher rate than of females.        In the province of Awka south Local Government Area as well as Anambra state as a whole, 47% of dropout students are girls (Anambra State Ministry of Education, 2004). The present result replicated and extended these findings in showing that girls represented only 53% of our dropout sample and that they display a more self-determined psychological profile than boys. Summary of Literature Review        This chapter is concerned with the review of some of the problems and causes of dropout and its effect among secondary school students which was viewed by many authors and writers in their own perspective. Home/ parental background, low academic ability, social values, poor financial background, and poor academic performance cause for dropout among secondary school students some of the effects of dropout among secondary schools are high  rate of prostitution, armed robbery drug abuse etc.        From the various views and references cited in this chapter, it has become clear that these causes reviewed are responsible for dropout with its attendant effects among secondary schools students. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOD        This chapter specifically dealt with the procedures adopted in carrying out this study. This  was done under the following sub-heading: Research design, Area of study, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, Reliability of the instrument, method of data collection and method of data analysis.   Research Design A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. This is manifested in the nature of the study. The opinions of the various people concerned were sought to provide answers to the research questions. Area of Study        This study was carried out in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. It was conducted in 10 secondary schools, in the Local Government Area. The people of the area are commonly farmers and traders. Population of the Study        There are 15 secondary schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. The entire population comprised 300 teachers in the school and this served as target population of the study. Sample and Sampling Techniques.        In this study, simple random sampling technique was used, out of the 15 schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambre state, 10 secondary schools were randomly selected, from the 10 secondary schools selected, 10 teachers were randomly selected from each school. Thus, the sample for this study was 100 teachers. Instrument for Data Collection        The instrument used in collecting data was structured questionnaire on dropout and its effects among secondary school students in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state. The questionnaire Contained  20 items. Questionnaire item revolved around the four formulated research questions. The responses were on 4 point scale of very great extent (VGE), great extent, (GE), low extent (LE) and very low extent (VLE). Validation of the Instrument        The face validity of instrument was ensured at construction stage by giving it to the project supervisor, three experts from the Department of Educational Foundations for corrections before the final draft was made. Reliability of the Instrument        Test- retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument. Thus, the researcher administered the instrument on ten teachers in two different occasions within 3 weeks. The two results obtained were paired and correlated using pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient and it yielded 0.78. This high correlation co-efficient  shows that the instrument is reliable.

      Method of Data Collection        The researcher paid visits to all the selected secondary schools for the distribution and collection of the copies of questionnaire. This took the researcher about 2 weeks. Methods of Data Analysis        Frequency counts, and mean scores (x) were used to analyze the data collected.

N

Formula for calculating mean x  = ∑FX ∑     =     summation sign F     =     Frequency N     =     Total number of response X     =     Mean value.               Decision Rule        All items with X value of 2.5 and above was taken to be positive (agree) while those items with X below 2.5 was considered as negative (disagree).

Scale of ResponsesWeight
VGE    = Very great extent4
GE      =  Great extent3
LE      =  Low extent2
VLE    =  Very low extent1

                                                        CHAPTER FOUR REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA        This chapter dealt with the analysis of the data collected from the various respondents from the selected secondary schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Each research question is brought into focus and analyzed using mean scores.  Research Question 1: What are the possible causes of dropout in secondary school in  Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State? Summary to this question is presented in table 1 below: Table 1: Responses on the view of possible Causes of Dropout in secondary school in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State.

S/NOItemsVGEGELENXDecision Rule
1To what extent does students dropout of school due to lack of employment opportunities after school.4723131003.0Agree
2To what extent does students dropout of school due to the fact that the time spent in school is too long.3930101002.87Agree
3To what extent does students dropout of school as a result of their parents not willing to finance further education.2340171002.66Agree
4To what extent does some students dropout of school because their parents are illiterate.10282410020Disagree
5To what extent does students dropout of school because the society does not encourage schooling any more.419411001.91Disagree

In table one (1) respondents for items 1,2,3, show that students dropout of school because of some possible causes, despite the fact that respondents on items 4 and 5 disagree that the above view is not the cause of students dropout of school in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state. Thus, the table indicated that majority of respondents agree to the view that students dropout of school as a result of some possible causes such as lack of employment opportunities, lack of finance and too much time spend in the school etc. in Anambra State. Research Question 2:        To what extent does student dropout of school lead to emotional disturbance in life? Summary to the above research question is presented in Table 2 below: Table 2 : Responses on the view that students dropout of school leads to emotional disturbances in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state.

S/NoItemsVGEGELEVLENXDecision rule
6To what extent does dropout of school makes the students to feel very depressed and bad373020131002.71Agree
7To what extent does dropout of school makes the students to be maladjusted in the society by being disorganized45351281003.17Agree
8To what extent does dropout of school bring about loss of total and restlessness in life.101841311002.07Disagree
9To what extent does dropout of school makes the students to feel happy of having escaped further stress of school41941361001.91Disagree

In Table two responses for items 6 and 7 indicate that students dropout of school result to emotional stress or disturbances despite the fact that responses on the item 8 and 9 disagree that the above view is not psychological effect of dropout of school among students in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Research Question 3:        To what extent does students dropout of school result to low achievement and success? Summary of responses to this question is presented in table 3 below; Table 3: Responses on the View that Dropout of School Result to Low Achievement and Success in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State.

S/NoItemsVGEGELEVLENXDecision Rule
10To what extent does dropout of school result to low preparation for economic career511715171003.02Agree
11To what extent does dropout of school result to low preparation of marriage family life492017141003.04Agree
12To what extent does dropout of school leads to low achievement of emotional independence?302820221002.66Agree
13To what extent does dropout of school result to low achievement of masculine or femiline social role?313518161002.81Agree
14To what extent does dropout of school result to low acquisition of a set of value and ethical system as a guide to behaviour developing and ideology?55305101003.3Agree
15To what extent does dropout out of school result to low need for satisfying the philosophy of life?38441081003.12Agree

Items 10,11, 12, 13 and 14 in table 3 indicate that  those question items to great extent that dropout of school work against high achievement in life, as they scored above 2.5 mean statistic. Research Question 4        To what extent does students dropout of school result to weak desire for responsibility and independence? Summary of responses to this question is presented in Table 4 below: Table 4: Responses on the View that Students Dropout of School Result to Weak Desire for Responsibility and Independence in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state.

S/NoItemsVGEGELEVLENXDecision Rule
16To what extent does dropout of school lead to low social responsible behavour?403010201002.9Agree
17To what extent does dropout of school lead to low desirability for independent living?203921201002.59Agree
18To what extent does dropout of school result to low economic responsibility, and independence?223815251002.57Agree
19To what extent does dropout of school bring about early struggle of the students in life?293823101002.86Agree
20To what extent does dropout of school result to late responsibility and full social independence of the students?101540351002.4Agree

In the table above, the mean score of items 16,17,18 and 19 were positive showing that students dropout of school results to weak desire for responsibility and independence. While item 20 revealed that the above view is not an effect resulting from dropout of school. Summary of Findings        The major findings in this research work are enumerated below: 1.    A greater number of respondents agreed that students dropout of school as a result of some of the possible causes in society like lack of finance and lack of employment opportunities after schooling. 2.    Respondents agree that students dropout of school due to the fact that the time spent in school is too long. 3.    A greeter number of respondents agree that dropout of school result to low preparation for economic career. 4.    Respondents disagreed that dropout of school makes the students to feel happy to having escaped further stress of schooling.

CHAPTER FIVE

This chapter is discussed under the following subheadings: 1.    Discussion of Finding 2.    Implication of the study 3.    Limitation of the study 4.    Recommendations of the study 5.    Suggestions for further studies 6.    Summary 7.    Conclusion

Discussion of Findings

The researcher found that some students dropout of school because of lack of finance to finance their education. This finding is in agreement with that of Oluruntimehim and staurt (1994) when they noted that children whose material needs are not provided will turn to become dropouts.        The researcher found that some students dropout of school due to the fact that the time spent in school is too long. This is in agreement with olujidi (1999) view about some societies who place high premium on money. He believes that the long time we spend in school could be used to make a lot of money in life.        The researcher further found that students drop out of school because of low preparation for economic career. This is as a result of family background. This finding corroborates the finding of Akinlaya (1983) when he said that the home is accountable to the misconduct of the students. Implication of the study        The implication of the student’s dropout of school are enormous and are better imagined than experienced. The first implication is socially oriented. The situation will produce a society with predominantly illiterate citizens. The second implication is that the economy is bound to suffer because these youths who dropout will not be able to contribute properly to the nation, as a result of their limitation in academic and technical know- how. Another implication of this study is that it encourages high level of crime wave in the society, it also makes government to be wasting scarce resources on education. Limitation of the study        The researcher carried out the study in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state, only because of financial constraints and time factor. If things were otherwise the research could have been extended to other areas. Recommendations

       To improve on this study and to give lasting solution to the problems of dropout of schools and it effects among secondary school students in Awka South local Government Area of Anambra Sate, the following recommendations have been put forward:

1.    There should be a good prize for any student who performs very well in academic session, to motivate the students feeling in Awka South Local Government Area.

2.    Teachers should cultivate the spirit of motivation and stop bulling or abusing students which questions is not correctly answered or when cases of dropout is manifested.

3.    Adequate facilities should put in all schools in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra state to enhance student interest in classroom management and school activities.

4.    The relationship between school curriculum and students interest in school in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State.

5.    The relationship between school facilities and students interest interest in school in Awka South Local Government Area of Anambra State.

  Suggestions for Further Studies

Due to limits of finance and time factors, the researcher could not claim that this study exhausted all the problems concerning student’s dropout and its effects on secondary schools. Therefore, further research in the following areas will help to reduce dropout among secondary school students.

1.    Investigation, its the effect of polygamous homes on students dropout from school.

2.    Effect of broken home on students dropout from school.

Summary of the study

       This research is an attempt to provide empirical evidence to dropout and its effects among secondary school students. In order to achieve this objective, the researcher questions. A statement of the problem and the research questions.

       A historical review of the problem was done to examine some attempts already made on the past to address the problem. A disciplined research design was adapted, structured questionnaires were used to collect the required data.

       Discussion of results, implication of the finding to the society, recommendations for possible remedy to the problems were made and suggestions for further study also were included.

Conclusion

       The problem of dropout of school and its is a serious one that requires sympathy and attention of all who love the progress of this nation. This research was an attempt to identify hydra- headed and canker worm that have in one way of the other been eating deep into the fabrics of the nations educational system.

       It is important to note that those who dropout of school are not necessarily those whose parents are not education.

       Hence the problem is a reaction against some forces that came into operation with the immediate society. These forces or causes of dropout of school and its effects include, family socio-economic background career and early struggle in life.

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Unpublished MA Thesis, Teachers College, Columbia University.

Tyrrel, O.S. (1982). Educational Psychology. New fork:

Macimillan Publishing Co.

Ukeje D. (1974). Education Administration. Enugu: Forth

Dimension Publishing Co.ltd.

UNESCO, (2008). Handbook of Adult Education for West

Africa: Hatchinson University Libray for Africa.

Vole, O.W. (1973). Major Concepts and Issues in Educational

Administration, Onitsha; Capa Publishers International Limited.

Waston, B. (2000). Maladaptive Achievement Pattern in

Studies: the role of Teacher’s Controlling Strategies. Journal of Social Issues.

Yoloye, S. (1992). Personnel Management in Nigeria, Benin

City: Ethiope Publishing Corporation.

APPENDIX I

LETTER OF INTRODUCTION

Department of Educational

Foundations.

(Guidance and Counselling),

Ebonyi State University.

Abakaliki

September 22nd, 2008.

Dear Respondent,

       This is being carried out under the supervision of the department of Educational Foundations (Guidance and Counselling) of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Ebonyi State.

       I am therefore requesting you to kindly fill questionnaire to the best of your knowledge.

       All information supplied will be treated confidentially.

Yours faithfully,

…………………………

OGUAJU  PEACE  U.

(Researcher)

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS

Section  A

Name of school:———————————————–

Class:———————————————————–

Age: ————————————————————

Sex:       Male (      ) Female     (           )

Section   B

Please tick (√ ) where applicable

VHE=    Very High Extent

HE=      High Extent

LE=    Low Extent

VLE=   Very Low Extent

1.    To what extent does students dropout of school due to lack of employment opportunities after school?

a.    Very High Extent    (      )   ( b)  High Extent   (    )

( c)   Low Extent    (    )   (d)   Very Low Extent      (    )

2.    To what extent does student’s dropout of school due to the fact that the time spent in school is too long?

(a)  Very High Extent (    )    (b)   High Extents    (     )

( c)  Low Extent  (    )   (d)  Very Low Extent   (    )

3.    To what extent does student’s dropout of school as a result of their parents not willing to finance further education?

(a) Very High Extent (       )  (b)  High Extent     (     )

( c)  Low Extent     (      )  (d) Very Low Extent    (    )

4.    To what extent does some students dropout of school because their parents are illiterate?

(a)  Very High Extent    (    ) (b) High Extents   (   )

(c)  Low Extent    (    )   (d) Very Low Extent    (    )

5.    To what extent does students dropout of school because society does not encourage schooling any more?

(a)  Very High Extent (   )    (b) High Extent    (    )

( c)  Low Extent     (     )   (d)  Very low Extent   (     )

6.    To what extent does dropout of school makes the students to feel depressed and bad?

(a) Very High Extent   (    )   (b) High Extent (    )

(c) Low Extent   (     ) (d)  Very Low Extent    (     )

7.    To what extent does dropout of school makes the students to be maladjusted in the society by being disorganized?.

(a)  Very High Extent   (   )    (b) High Extent    (      )

(c) Low Extent   (     )     (d)   Very Low Extent    (     )

8.    To what extent does dropout of school brings about loss of total focus and restlessness in life?

(a)  Very High Extent (     )   (b)  High Extent    (     )

(c)    Low Extent    (       ) (b) Very Low Extent    (    )

9.    To what extent does dropout of school makes the students to feel happy of having escaped further stress of schooling ?

(a). Very High Extent   (    )  (b) High Extant    (      )

( c) Low Extent    (      )  (d) Very Low Extent    (    )

10.  To what extent does dropout of school result to low preparation for economic Career?

(a)  Very High Extent   (       ) (b)  High Extent     (      )

( c)  Low Extent (     )    (d)  Very Low Extent    (      )

11.  To what extent does dropout of school result to low preparation for marriage family life?

(a)   Very High Extent   (   )    (b) High Extent    (   )

(c)  Low Extent   (d) Very Low Extent   (     )

12.  To what extent does dropout of school leads to low achievement of emotional independence?

(a)  Very High Extent   (    ) (b) High Extent   (   )

( c)  Low Extent (    )   (d) Very Low Extent    (       )

13.  To what extent does dropout of school result to low achievement of masculine or famine social roles?

(a) Very High Extent (    ) (b)  High Extent    (      )

(c ) Low Extent    (      ) (d)  Very Low Extent   (      )

14.  To what extent does dropout of school result to low acquisition of a set of value and an ethical system as a guide to behavior developing an ideology?

(a) Very High Extent   (      ) (b) High Extent    (      )

( c) Low Extent   (     ) (d) Very Low Extent    (     )

15.  To what extent does dropout of school result to low need for satisfying the philosophy of life?

(a)  Very High Extent (    )   (d) High Extent (    )

(c ) Low Extent   (      ) (d) Very Low Extent    (       )

16.  To what extent does dropout of school leads to low social responsible behavior?

(a) Very High Extent   (     )   (b)   High Extent   (     )

(c ) Low Extent   (      )  (d)   Very Low Extent   (      )

17.  To what extent does dropout of school leads to low desirability for independent living?

(a)  Very High Extent (      )   (b)  High Extent   (      )

(c ) Low Extent  (     )  (d)  Very Low Extent   (    )

18.  To what extent does dropout of school result to low economic responsibility and independence?

(a) Very High Extent (      )  (b)  High Extent   (     )

(c ) Low Extent   (      )  (d) Very Low Extent   (     )

19.  To what extent does dropout of school brings about early struggle of the students in life?

(a)  Very High Extent   (       ) (b)  High Extent  (     )

(c )  Low Extent  (     )   (d)  Very Low Extent   (      )

20.  To what Extent does dropout of school result to late responsibility and full social independence of the students?

(a) Very High Extent (     ) (b) High Extent    (      )

(c) Low Extent   (       ) (d) Very Low Extent    (       )                           

                

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