EFFECT OF E-LEARNING STRATEGY ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS
The study aimed at determining the effect of E- learning strategy on senior secondary school student achievement in economics. Two hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study employed basic-experimental design . the area of the study was Abakaliki Education Zone. The instrument used for data collection was a multiple Economic Achievement test (MCEAT). Two hundred and forty nine secondary school II students formed the sample used for the duty. Kunder Richardson formula (K-R 20) which yielded reliability coefficient of 0.97. the analysis of co-varonce (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypothesis. The funding of the study revealed that the mean achievement scores of student taught economics using the e-leaning strategy is higher than those taught economy’s using the lecture. Based on the findings of the study recommendations were made to improve the achievement level of student in economics in schools.
Economics is a social science subject like sociology, political science and geography. As a social science, it is concerned with the study of how man allocates and makes use of his limited resources to satisfy his numerous wants.
Ugwanyi and Eneogu (2013) sees economic as a social science discipline that is concerned with human behavior in the poetry of harnessing trying to ensure efficient allocation and rational utilization of the scarce resources available to man in the face of his competing and innumerable wants. Economics is a school subject that is being taught from the senior secondary school level up to the tertiary institutions. This is because his behavior that due to its abstract nature, it is only learners that are up to the age of eighteen years and above that can cope with the leaning of the subject. Economics occupies a centre stage in the life of every individual, firm or government. This is because every person, firm or government with the problem of what to do in order to be able to satisfy at least some of his innumerable and competing wants (Mba, 2011).
However, a sound knowledge of economics is described and necessary for the effective management of our scarce resources and our economy. The above stated of importance of economics may have enforced the instruction of economics as one of the subject in the senior secondary curriculum. The federal Republic of Nigeria FRN, 2004:18), goes further to out line the specific objectives of economics as to:
- Equip students with the basic principle of economics necessary for useful living and higher education;
- prepare and encourage student to be prudent and effective in the management of scares resources; and
- Raise students, respect for the dignity of economic, culture and social value of the society.
Despite the impotence of economics in the senior secondary school curriculum there has been a dismal performance of student in certificate examinations student performance specifically in economics in both internal and external examination here not been impressive.
And such performance here been attributed to the use of traditional method of talk and chalk by the economics teachers (Asogwa, 2011).
The period of the teacher being a risers of knowledge has past. The world is morning at a jet speed as a result of advances in technology entails to maintain and communication which may be defined as the handling and processing of information, (texts, images, graphics, instruction etc) for use by means of electronic and communication devices such as computer, cameras, telephone etc (Ozoju, 2003)
The utilization of technologies to information handling, generation, storage, processing, national dissemination etc is indispensable in modern times. Hence, the utilization of electronic learning (E-leaning ) in the teaching and leaning is becoming one of the most important and broadly discoursed issue in contemporary education policy (theories, 2002).
The term electronic learning is the use of computer cicled gadgets to aid learning Webster (2000). N Aidoo (2003) posits that e-leaning is a tool for improving teaching / leaning and research material. He sees e –learning as a tool that makes delivery of lesson flexible, interactive and long lasting.
The need for the utilization of e-learning in teaching/learning is beneficial for preparing staff and students to be fully involved and be productive members of a world that has been and will continue to transferred by technology (Nafukho 2007). In addition, Gregorian maintains that almost every aspect of scholarship, from research activities to dissemination of ideas has been influenced by technology (e-learning) in the world of higher education. This implies that through e-learning, it is possible to instantly access useful information that will enhance teaching/learning of economics through internet.
Lecture method is based on the assumption that a teacher is an embodiment of knowledge while the pupils are ignorant and receptive, (Agwu 2005). This method of teaching is highly discouraged at the primary school and junior secondary school levels. It can only be tolerated at the senior secondary and at the tertiary institutions where the teacher can use it to introduce new topics, clarify issues or terms used and to summarize a large lesson by highlighting the vital points. It can also be used to arouse stduents’ interest and give reviews. Okoro (2001) also asserted that the lecture method does not give attention to individual differences and that there is no-in-built mechanism to measure the level of the students’ interest in and appreciation of the lecture.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study is to determine the effects of e-learning strategies on secondary school students’ achievement in economics. Specifically, the study will:
- Ascertain the effects of e-learning strategy on students’ achievement in economics.
- Ascertain the effects of e-learning strategy on the mean achievement of male and female students in economics.
Ho: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of students taught economics using e-learning and those taught using lecture method.
Ha: There is significant difference in the mean scores of students taught economics using e-learning and those taught using lecture method.
Ho: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of male and female students’ taught economics using e-learning and those taught using lecture method.
Ha: There is significant difference in the mean scores of male and female students’ taught economics using e-learning and those taught using lecture method.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related literature was carried out under the following subheadings:
Concept of framework
Concept of economics
Concept of e- leaning
Impact of e- leaning on students performance.
Review of empirical studies
Summary of literature Review
The subject of economics is a vexed question and economists differ widely in their views. This simply means that economics as a social science has been variously defined by different economists based on their own views.
Adam smith cited in Agwu and Anwukwe (2002) sew economics as the inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations
They went further to say that economics as a social science centered on how people, individual or group attempt to accurate scarce resources and how these accumulated resources are distributed to meet the need of the society Mashal in Jhing an (2001) saw economics as a study of wealth and welfare of a nation
According to him, economics is the study of mankind in the in the ordinary business of life; it examines that pert of individual and social action which is most closely connected with the attainme5nt and the use of the materials required of well being.
However, of all the definitions of economics adduced by economists, the one that is most widely acceptance by the generality of economists is that of Robinsons ( cited in Agwu and Unwakwe 2002:2) he defined “economics as a science which studies human behavior as a relation between end scarce means which have alternative use” from this definition, He emphasized that economics is a science and that economics analysis should be based on scientific and logical process rather than value judgment.
Concept of E-leaning
E-leaning (EL) is the use of information and communication technology eg. Internet, computer, mobile phone, learning management system (LMS) tele5visions, Radios and others to enhance teaching and learning activities (Nafukho 2007). E- learning according to Osiswgu (2007:98) is define as “training delivered on a personal computer, internet to improve student learning performance” Rosembery (2001) described e-learning as an emerging term which takes advantage of connectively learning delivered or received mainly through the internet, extranet, or web. According to Olaniyi (2006) e- learning is all about learning that occur at the computer . Horten (2005) defined e-learning as the use of internet and digital technologies to create experiences that educate our fellow human being
Impact of E-learning on Students performance
The introduction of e-learning into the school system is one of the innovations and changes in the national policy on education. The world has become a global village and Nigerians have top be trained in the devices and technologies to be able to follow the terms. Peggy and billis (2001) stated that e-learning when used in the teaching of economy enhances students ability to construct knowledge, assume responsibility for their own learning and to realize that learning is a personal experience that requires active and dedicated participation they concluded that learning should now be thought how to learn , how to search for appropriate information, soot it according to their needs, create knowledge from it, and then report it in a way that has individual and collective learning.
Wiggiins and Ruthmanm (2002) maintained that the introduction of e-learning in the teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools, would enable student to work with real data and access information at a time and place of their choice , and as well as enable them participate in a live online lesson were all participant are able to see and speak to one another while remaining in their locations.
Theories of learning
This study is discussed on the following theories of learning
Theories of constructivism
The theory holds, that people construct their own understanding and knowledge through experiencing things and reflecting on those experience (Close and Nelson,2000). When learners encounter something new, they recite it with the previous knowledge and experience and change what they believe. Teaching and learning of e-learning is very compatibility with const ruction social learning theory maintains that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people know as observational learning theory or modeling. This type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviours.
Review of Empirical Studies
Asogwa and Echemazu (2011) carried out a study on the effect of power point presentation on secondary school student achievement in Christian Religions knowledge in Nsukka urban local government Area of Enugu state. The study employed basic experimental pre test post test, nonrandomized and non equivalent control group during the population of the study consulted of all senior secondary one student (SSI). The sample of the study comprise sixty SSI students drawn from two secondary schools in Nsukka urban local government area using simple random sampling technique. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument used for data collection was the Christian Religious knowledge Test (RKAT). The data collected were analyzed using the mean and the analysis of variance (ANCOVA). The results of the revealed that student taught with power point presentations performed better than those taught conventionally. The result further showed that the effect of gender on the students achievement when taught with power point presentation is statistically significant. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended presentation learning strategy be introduced at all levels of education particularly the secondary school level to enhance high academic performance.
Summary of Literature Review
The review of literature in this study examined the conceptual, theoretical and empirical study.
The concept of economics, e-learning was also discussed also the impact of e-learning on the performance of students were equally examined.
The literature concludes by the review of empirical study which were carried out, but there is no work yet to the best knowledge of the researcher on the effect of e-learning strategy on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students. Thus, there is need to fill the gap.
This study adopted the quasi-experimental design. Specifically this study employed Pretest Posttest non-equivalent control group design. The design is represented thus:
Yb X Ya
Yb X Ya
Yb = Pretest
Ya = Postest
X = Treatment
X = Control
Population of the Study
The population of the study were all senior secondary class II students in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State. The choice of SS two (II) students was because their scheme of work contains the topics that was used for this research work.
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Two co-educational secondary schools were used drawn for this study. The choice of co-educational schools was because almost all the secondary schools in the zone are co-
educational and also because co educational schools were adequate in providing data on variables of gender. The researcher employed simple random sampling technique. Out of the two secondary schools that was used for the study, one was assigned to the treatment group while the other was assigned to the control group through a simple toss of coin. All the intact classes of SS II in the s schools were us for the study. The sample of this study comprised two hundred and sixty-nine (249) students. This was made up of one hundred and forty-nine (116) males and one hundred and thirty three (133) females.
Instrument for Data Collection
The instruments for data collection was a Multiple Choice Economics Achievement Test (MCEAT) which was developed by the researcher.
Validation of the Instrument
The instrument Multiple Choice Economics Achievement Test
(MCEAT) was face validated by three ex Two of the experts were from Arts and Social Science Education Department and they reviewed the items of the instrument in terms of clarity of language, adequacy of items in terms of coverage while the other expert from measurement and evaluation unit of Science Education Department face validated the instruments in terms of content coverage. The experts made corrections and amendments were accordingly effected.
The thirty one (31) item MCEAT was administered to a small group of students numbering twenty eight. Data collected were used to carry out item analysis on MCEAT and
four items were dropped leaving behind twenty seven (27) items as the final instrument for the study. Multiple Choice
Economics Achievement Test (MCEAT) was used to construct a test blue print or table of specification to show the item coverage of the contents for the treatment.
Reliability of the Instruments
Data collected (scores) from the 27 Multiple Choice
- Economics Achievement Test (MCEAT) were used to determine its reliability using Kuder-Richardsor 20 (KR — 20). A reliability coefficient of 0.97 was obtained whose internal consistency was very high, making the instrument adequate for use.
Method of Data Analysis
The analysis of co—variances (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at an alpha level of 0.05.
Table 1. Analysis o co-variance for students’ achievement in
Economics based on teaching strategy and gender.
Source of Sum of Df Mean of Fcal Fcrit
variation square square
Covariates 4816.203 1 4816.203 33.559
Pretest 4816.203 1 4816.203 33.559
Main 522.505 2 2 261.252 1.820
Method 197.978 1 187.978 8.310 3.84
Gender 255.421 1 255.421 1.780
2-Way 1504.16 1 1504.156 10.481
Method 1504.156 1 1504.156 10.481
Explained 7693.528 4 1923.382 13.402
Residual. 17796.007 124 143.516
Total 25489.535 128 199.137
In the ANCOVA table, hypothesis I shows that f calculated (8.310) k greater than the f-critical value (3.84) at an alpha level of 0.05. The decision rule is to accept: the null hypothesis whenever the calculated value is less than the critical value at a given level of significance. The researcher therefore reject the null hypothesis and accepted the alternative hypothesis and concluded that there is significant: effect, in the mean achievement scores of students taught economics using the ie learning strategy and those taught using the lecture methods.
On test of gender as demanded by hypothesis 2, summary of result in table 1 revealed that the f calculated value (1.780) is less than the f critical value (3.84). Since the calculated value did not exceed the critical value, the researcher upheld the null hypothesis and concludes that there is no significant difference in the mea achievement scores of male and female students taught economics using the e-learning strategy and the lecture method.
Discussion of Findings
On the test of significant effect on the mean achievement of students taught economics using the e-learning strategy and those taught using the lecture method, the analysis of co variance (ANCOVA), table shows that f-calculated value of (8.310.) is greater than the f-critical value of (3.84) at an alpha level of 0.05. Based on the decision rule, the researcher therefore rejected the null hypothesis and concluded that there is significant effects in the mean achievement scores of students taught economics using the individualized c-learning strategy and those taught using the lecture method. This finding is in line with the view of Naidoo (2003) posits that e learning is .a tool for improving teaching/learning and research materials. He sees c-learning as a tool that makes, delivery of lesson flexible, interactive and long-lasting.
Effect of e-learning strategy on the mean scores of male and female students’ achievement in economics.
The findings summarized in table 1 revealed that the e- the analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA), table shows that f- calculated value of (1.310) is less than the f-critical value of
(3.84) at an alpha level of 0.05. Based on the decision rule, the researcher therefore accept the null hypothesis and concluded that there is no significant effects in the mean achievement scores of students taught economics using the e-learning strategy and those taught using the lecture method. Therefore, researcher upheld the null hypothesis and concluded that there is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught economics using the e-learning strategy. The finding of this study equally deviated from the views of William (1996) who pointed out that female students in secondary schools perform better in subject like biology as opposed to mathematical subject like economics.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made
- Economics teachers’ are demanded to involve their students in e-learning strategy in the teaching/learning Economics.
This is expected to improve their comprehension and understanding of Economics contents and eventually improve their performance in the subject.
- The professional bodies should organize workshop and seminars for economics teachers to enhance their competence in the subject area.
- E-learning strategy has the ability to improve students
academic achievement in Economics, thus Economics teachers in secondary schools should integrate its uses into their instructional strategy.
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