Effect of lesson plan in teaching of economics on students’ academic performance: A study of secondary schools in Oru East L.G.A of Imo state
Background to the Study
Almost always, new Economics teachers and even some experienced ones, are confused when they are confronted with the issue of preparation of the lesson. In recent times, many arguments have ensued with regard to the problem about the lesson plan and the lesson note. The “how” of the planning, and the lesson plan and lesson note dichotomy have generated a lot of confusion and controversy among inexperienced and some experienced teachers respectively in recent times. What seems to be a major problem in this debate according to Marconnit (2000) is how the “how of planning” is viewed and understood by stakeholders in education. Often times, some inexperienced teachers, or better still, student teachers, tend to use the lesson plan as the lesson note and vice versa. Still, teachers (experienced teachers) and administrators of schools view the lesson plan in somewhat different ways.
The progress and success of any educational system is based on proper planning, efficient administration and adequate financing. The administration includes organization and structure of school system, proprietorship and control, inspection and supervision by the inspectorial board. Like all other human activities, teaching is not just a mere routine, it requires the ability to adapt boldly, to invent, to create procedures and learning situation. Therefore we can refer teaching as series of interrelated activities designed by the teacher using materials/resources drawn from the learner’s experimental background in order to enable the learner to concretize knowledge. Planning is a necessary task because it enables the teacher to predict the course of events during instruction (Izuagba, 2002).
Lesson plan is a reflection of the level of preparedness as well as the effort the teacher made in gathering information for the lesson. So a poorly written lesson plan not only indicates the quality of the teacher, but also the level of commitment to his primary task of teaching.
Lesson plans generally mean plans for a single day or period. In preparing a lesson plan for Economics, there should be a provision for enquiry, incentive to find out, to probe and also to investigate and get result. Planning is an intellectual activity that is designed to guide the teacher to carry out teaching for a successful plan, the teacher should analyse the teaching situation, study the behaviour of individuals in the class and then make effective plans based on the analysis and study. From there he should feel some degree of confidence and then develop appropriate learning experiences for the class (Lasbery, 2006).
In the planning stage, the teacher should bear in mind or make use of the planning elements such as:-
- Identification of learning objectives
- Designing of learning experiences
- Evaluating the effectiveness of those learning experiences in achieving the objectives.
- Improving the learning experiences in the light of evaluation so as to better achieve the objectives
Specifically, planning is a moment to design instructional content or topic, techniques and the instructional material that will be suitable for the age of the children. The locality, nature of the class and the time factor should be put into consideration. Planning in education should be sensitive of the fact that human beings have active innate tendencies of; understanding, insight, reflection, purpose, motivation, readiness and activity. There should be cooperative techniques of teaching, of problem salving, guided discovery and some teaching skills like induction, selection, variation, and planned repetition, non-verbal communication and closure (Nwanne, 2007).
Some regard the lesson plan to be the periodic plan for a day’s lesson, while others think it is a weekly plan that runs through three or more periods of teaching time. From the teachers view point, lesson plans are a course upon which he can steer his classroom activities, his unit goals, and his instructional methods to daily fulfillment (Delaney 2002) cited in Short and Marconnit, 2000). According to Okwuedei (2006), the importance of lesson note in the present, is used interchangeably as the lesson plan. This type emphasizes how the teacher is going to teach his periodic or daily lesson when he enters the class. Administrators on their own part, see the lesson plan as an overall plan of what the teachers are supposed to do in a given period, usually lasting for one or two weeks. This view point, according to Delaney (2002) as cited by Short and Marconnit (2000), is a means of evaluating teacher’s professional performance and as a guide for substitute teachers in emergencies.
Seemingly, this is the reason why most administrators (principals and headmasters) in Nigeria demand that advance lesson plans be presented by teachers in their institutions (Okwuedei, 2006). When student -teachers are sent out for teaching practice, for example, some school heads tend to restrict them to their “own pattern” of lesson planning. In some of these schools, the principals or headmasters, as the case may be, recommends the use of the unit plan, which invariably is a form of the lesson plan that runs through the whole of the week and covers two or more days of class work, depicting a weekly plan of their lessons. Others may recommend in their schools, the daily lesson plan which is synonymous with the lesson note, as emphasized by the teachers’ view point (Chimezie, 2001).
Confronted with the above confusion on how Economics teachers should plan for their lessons, which may be against what their institutions had taught them, some teachers tend to present as their lesson notes what the co-operating school heads mandated them to do through their master teachers (Eze, 1998).
The recent arguments in the economics field by some classical economists which based on lack of relevant textbooks Introduced in Nigeria economic system, negative concepts and leaning of what economics is all about, contribute to the problems of economics teaching and learning. Also that economics does not start from the early stage of learning.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study was to determine the Effect of lesson plan in teaching of economics on students’ academic performance: A study of secondary schools in Oru East L.G.A of Imo state Specifically, some teachers in Oru East Local Government Area secondary schools do not prepare and use lesson planning in their classroom teachings, which come as a result of most of the teachers not being knowledgeable in the current ways or patterns of writing lesson plans; some teachers who have the knowledge of lesson planning feel too big and lousy to make use of it in the classroom; Education Board made it mandatory to ensure good teaching and learning but fail to visit the schools from time to time to ascertain how well they are doing.
There are undesirable situations which makes lesson plan not to be used effectively. These dissatisfying situations include: not using lesson plan sequentially, laizze-faire attitude of the school system, lack of infrastructural facilities, non-supervision by the educational Board. All these have contributed as a hindrance towards the failure of teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools, especially in Oru-East Local Government Area of Imo State.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is the Effect of lesson plan in teaching of economics on students’ academic performance. A study of secondary schools in Oru East L.G.A of Imo state. Specifically, it is set to find out:
- The extent to which lesson plan guide the teachers in the execution of their classroom lesson.
- If the use of lesson plan affects students’ performance.
- If the use of lesson plan create the expected conducive environment for effective teaching and learning.
- If the use of lesson plan have effect on classroom management.
Significance of the Study
The result of this research work will go a long way in assessing the role of lesson plans in effective teaching and learning of economics. The result of this study is of great importance to principals, teachers, government, and ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, policy makers, students, all stakeholders and researchers.
The findings of the study will sensitize the principals and teachers on the need to adopt result oriented lesson planning methods. This study will also enable government, ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, and policy makers to know the modalities for effective management of lesson plans and notes and device ways of improving on them.
The students will also benefit from this study. This is because they will know the advantages of using proper modalities for the planning and of lessons as well as notes when preparing for teaching practice as a pre-requisite for their qualification in the teaching profession.
The study is significant to the Teachers, Students, education Board, Parents and the society as a whole. The study will enable the teacher to be aware of the potential difficulties and problems encountered from not using lesson plan or not using it sequentially and this will help the teacher to teach confidently. The outcome of this study will enrich the student’s knowledge in that it will enable the students to identify when a good prepared lesson plan is used for teaching.
With this study, educational board will know how important it is to supervise schools from time to time. As well look at their lesson plan and note and how often they make use of it.
Scope of the study
This study is on the Effect of lesson plan in teaching of economics on students’ academic performance: A study of secondary schools in Oru East L.G.A of Imo state. The study will be limited to fifteen senior secondary schools in Oru-East Local Government Area both private and public schools that is to say Oru-East Local Government Area is the main focus of the study.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- How does lesson plan guide the teachers in the execution of their lesson?
- In what ways does the use of lesson plan affect students’ performance?
- How does the use of lesson plan create the expected conducive environment for effective teaching and learning?
- What are the effects of lesson plan on classroom management?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related literature was carried put under the following sub-heading
The review was organized under the following headings
- Conceptual Framework
- Theoretical Framework
- Empirical Review
- Summary of the Literatures Reviewed