The study “Effect of work environment on employee productivity; A case of Nigeria Immigration Service, Ebonyi State Command’’ is set to ascertain how distance of employees to the command pose environmental problem to the command’s effectiveness. The study was anchored on dual structure theory of motivation as propounded by Fredrick Hertzberg in 1959. It adopted descriptive survey method using Chi-square as the statistical tool of analysis. It made use of research questionnaire as a tool to gather information from the population of two hundred and twelve employees of Nigerian Immigration Service, Ebonyi State Command. The findings revealed that Employees attitude to work is a factor of unfavourable environmental conditions; Favourable work environment improves work performance in an organization; External environment are influential in the formation of workers attitude to work than those of the immediate; internal environment likely influence workers attitude and productivity. The researcher further made the following recommendations: There should be adequate provision of infrastructural facilities to the command. There should always be environmental sanitation exercise in the command to ensure cleanliness and hygiene of the organization. Adequate security should be made available to the command to ensure access to information and other data capable of promoting the growth of the command.
1.1 Background of Study
The environment is man’s immediate surrounding which he manipulates for his existence. Wrongful manipulation introduces hazards that make the environments unsafe and impede the productivity rate of the worker. Therefore, the workplace entails an environment in which the worker performs his work (Chapins, 1995) while an effective workplace is an environment where results can be achieved as expected by management (Mike, 2010; Shikdar, 2002). Physical environment affect how employees in an organization interact, perform tasks, and are led. Physical environment as an aspect of the work environment have directly affected the human sense and subtly changed interpersonal interactions and thus productivity. This is so because the characteristics of a room or a place of meeting for a group have consequences regarding productivity and satisfaction level. The workplace environment is the most critical factor in keeping an employee satisfied in today’s business world. Today’s workplace is different, diverse, and constantly changing. The typical employer/employee relationship of old has been turned upside down. Workers are living in a growing economy and have almost limitless job opportunities. This combination of factors has created an environment where the business needs its employees more than the employees need the business (Smith, 2011).
The environmental context of public service determines, to a large extent, the character and the nature of such public service. Therefore, the productivity of public service is measured within the socio-political context of the environment in which it operates. Put differently, efficiency or otherwise of public service is a function of its environment. A country’s public service is efficient at service delivery, because its environment is efficient and corruption-free. The implication of this is that public service can neither be separated from, nor superior to, the environment in which it finds itself and so its environment continually impacts either positively or negatively on it operations.
Regardless of the approach adopted in the consideration of job satisfaction and overall productivity of the public service, it is still important to bear in mind that work related stress may bear positively or negatively on the level of satisfaction a worker may derive from his job and that this was certain implications for the public service in its effort to perform creditably well in its functions. Links between work related stress and job satisfaction have been provided by various scholars such as Beehr and Bhaget (1985), Gherman (1981), Hart and Cooper, (2001), and Hart Field, (1990). However, the construct of stress is quite complex so much so, in that researchers cannot agree on a single definition (Kahn and Boysiere, 1992).
To divest the public service of this environmental influence and achieve its major goals, there has to be rule design and other strategies developed to ensure efficiency and effective service delivery. Some of these strategies are ethical principles that guide the official conduct of public servants. Rule design is the enactment of certain ethics within which public servants must work.
Ethics or work ethics is designed, not only to ensure productivity, but also to neutralize environmental influence, partisanship, favouritism and other primordial factors that could inhibit the productivity of public servants. With this, it is saliently discovered that there is correlation between ethics and productivity. In every organization, productivity is easily attainable where work ethics is strictly adhered to. Unethical practices negatively affect the productivity.
As a matter of fact, it is not enough to have work ethics in the public service; there are other ways through which productivity could be enhanced. One of these is motivation. Motivation, as a process by which behaviour is mobilized and sustained in the interest of meeting individual needs and achieving organizational objectives, is capable of enhancing better productivity. Motivation is a tool to measure the difference between what employees have ability of doing and what they actually do if motivated. It has been observed overtime that motivation increases productivity, but such must be directed at workers’ needs. Therefore, motivation not targeted at the employees’ needs will not have effect on productivity. Based on this background, this research work is set to find out the effect of work environment on employee productivity in the Nigeria Public Service, using Nigeria Immigration Service (NIS) of Ebonyi State as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are factors that pose as threats to efficiency and effectiveness in the productivity of the job by employees in the public service of Ebonyi State command, Nigerian Immigration Services.
The problem that is encountered in the course of employees carrying out their duties effectively is the distance between the employee’s residence and Immigration service of Ebonyi State Command. As regards to the problem of distance encountered by the Nigerian public service, the ban on motorcycle applying on dual carriage roads, the time of getting to the place of work, financial involvement (transportation) and non-provision of vehicle for employee conveyance has posed a problem to the command tend to bring about low productivity and delay in accomplishing of objectives in the Command.
It is therefore important to find out if distance is among the environmental factors that have effect on the productivity of employees in the Nigerian Public Service.
Hence, the following research questions guided the study:
- What are the prospects of environmental threat to the command?
- What are the factors responsible for low productivity in accomplishing of the Command’s objectives?
- Does the distance of employees to the command pose any environmental problem to the command effectiveness?
1.3 Objectives of Study
This study is set to find out Effect of Work Environment on Employees’ Productivity in the Nigeria Public Service. Specifically, it is set to:
- Determine the prospects of environmental threat to the command.
- Ascertain the factors responsible for low productivity in accomplishing of the Command’s objectives.
- To know if distance of employees to the command pose any environmental problem to the command effectiveness.
1.4. Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses guided the study.
H01: Favorable work environment does not improve work productivity in an organization.
HAI: Favorable work environment improve work productivity in an organization.
H02: Distance is not a factor responsible for low productivity in accomplishing of the Command’s objectives.
HA2: Distance is a factor responsible for low productivity in accomplishing of the Command’s objectives.
H03: Distance of employees to the command does not pose environmental problem to the command effectiveness.
HA3: Distance of employees to the command poses environmental problem to the command effectiveness.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study on the effect of work environment on the employees’ productivity in the Nigeria Public Service will be of immense benefit to the Board in charge of recruitment in the Immigration Service, Ebonyi State Command on the effect of work environment on job productivity of the employees.
Again, to the workers of the command; it will help them to access the output levels of Nigeria Immigration Service in Ebonyi State.
Furthermore, this study shall educate the Managing Directors, The Permanent Secretaries, Head of Departments and other administrators at the helm of affairs, the importance of motivating workers to perform at their peak.
More so, the research work will add to the already existing literatures on effects of work environment in the department of Public Administration. Also, to lecturers, students, researchers and other interested users.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research work is on effects of work environment on employees’ productivity in the Nigeria Public Service and shall be limited to Immigration Service, Ebonyi State Command Abakiliki as its case study.
1.7. Limitations of the Study
On the limitations, the research experienced inadequacy of materials and information from the command since the study revolved on the total population of the command in Ebonyi State.
Secondly, time was another constraint in the course of carrying out this research work. This was for the fact that the researcher was a student (at the time of carrying out the research) and combined the research work with classroom activities which were part of the pre-requisite for academic work completion.
Another limited factor to this study was insufficient fund to support the research, high cost of transportation to and from the places of gathering material and other miscellaneous expenses. Paucity of materials no this work is also constraints to the research, the public libraries the researcher depend upon were deficient of the necessary materials needed.
1.8 Theoretical Framework
The theory considered suitable for this work is Dual- structure of motivation. The proponent of this theory is Fredrick Herzberg in 1959. The theory states that motivation is energizing force that induces or compels and maintain human behavior and make satisfied. The theory classified need for workers as a factor dependent on two concept, job enlargement and enrichment. Herzberg further identify factors which are jobs are not related to that actual work but job environment. These include such factors as company policy; type of supervision working conditions; payment and job security, while the motivators are intrinsic the hygiene factor are extrinsic
1.9 Relevance of the Theory
The relevance of Dual-structure or two factor theory to the study is that the employees will make more input if they are motivated. If the work environment is favorable, the employees will feel satisfied and enhance greater productivity in the organization. The two factors or dual structure theory will make the employees commit their moral and effective productivity to work. This theory enhances other informal relationship better leadership, efficient communication, participation in decision making team work etc. If the employees were happy, the productivity will up since the non-economic incentives play a greater role in motivation of workers because, the hygienic factors are adequate for them.