Environmental Factors in employee Recruitment Selection
1.1 Background of the Study
Business organizations as corporate entities are created with the view to achieving predetermined objectives. Every organization operates within a given environment, which to a large extent determines how it conducts its activities. In an attempt to adapt to environmental pressures, organizations are compelled to source for a right caliber of workers within a particular time period and at the least possible cost. This brings to the fold the need to recruit and select the right caliber of human resources. It is apparent that human resource is an important asset in every organization, but unfortunately its value cannot be quantified monetarily and therefore not reflected on any organization balance sheet. The conduct of business activities in most cases is a reflection of the reality of the prevailing environment.
Nwachukwu (1988) noted that organizations of whatever kind when critically observed are usually characterized with physical, materials and human resources, which together interacts among themselves to achieve the organization’s set goals in terms of production of goods, services or both. The human element of the above- identified elements has an outstanding significance. This is obvious since it is the only element that is animate among these resources and it acts directly upon other resources, which are inanimate and lack reasoning. Employment activities are integral part of the major responsibility of the human resource managers. The human resources management is concerned with the creation, development and maintenance of an effective workforce at the same time matching the requirements of the organization and responding to the environment. The human resource is seemingly seen as a critical factor in terms of mobilization and manipulation of other resources in an organization. In appreciating the role of human resource in an organization, Chinsman (1997) observed that while the growth of the physical stock may not be a principal course of economic development, the growth of human capital stock is nevertheless crucial. Also on this Devanna, Fombrum and Tichy (1984) identified the following four (4) core activities of human resources management as staffing, development, appraisal and reward. According to Ulrich (1997), the mastering of these core human resources activities at the operational and strategic levels have always demonstrated value added in employee and organization’s performance.
Staffing could be seen as a vital function of the human resources manager. Ulrich (1997) posited that staffing is a very significant managerial function as it emerges out of the belief that with testing and assessment, employees could be matched to jobs and their performance increased. In the same vein, Nwachukwu (1988) noted that this staffing function includes among others such activities are recruitment and selection processes in organizations. These activities are important and crucial in that, if they are properly carried out, the success, growth and survival of an organization will be guaranteed. This accounts for why these activities need not be handled with levity from the outset since no organization can do without qualified workforce.
Recruitment and selection processes in the staffing function are simply to get on board the organization necessary, intelligent and skilful brains to achieve organization’s goals. The essence of the recruitment process in the staffing function is basically to provide a group of candidates that is large enough to let manager’s select the qualified employees they need. Selection according to Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert (1995) is the mutual process whereby the organization decides whether or not to make a job offer and the candidate decides whether or not to accept it. The recruitment according to Schermerhorn (1996) is a set of activities designed to attract a qualified pool of job applicants to an organization. Suffice it to say that recruitment is the process of locating and attracting qualified applicants for job opening in the organization while employment selection involves the process of choosing new employees from among the pool recruited.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A majority of hotels operating in Ebonyi State. The communities where they operate similar in all ramifications in terms of socio- cultural values, lifestyle, belief system, ethnicity, educational, political disposition, and economic. In relation to the environment, business organizations such as Adig suits hotels are faced with many social problems (youth restiveness, vandalization of the hotel properties hostage taking etc,) and grapple with controversies, which can cripple its operation, recruitment and selection processes if not resolved. It is a known fact that no man is an island and under such a scenario, the company is a subset of the environments of her host communities. It is also apparent that the host communities lack the necessary known- how, skills and experience in services of the hotel which in turn inform the choice of many approaches while recruiting and selecting applicants. In most cases, the people with the required skill, knowledge and talent are not within the confines of the immediate host environment, hence the hotel may be compelled to source for workers from outside the host communities, state and the use of staffs from other state becomes necessary.
Besides, every organization has its culture and policies relating to employment. Such policies sometimes do not make adequate provisions for indigenes of the host communities. This in actual fact is responsible for the protests and frequent disruption of activities by irate youths in recent times. The agitation bothers on the hotel’s management failure to provide employment opportunities and to discharge her social responsibility.
Most Nigerian organizations have been sharply criticized for their policy of divide and rule during recruitment and selection exercises, which do not seem to be favorable to the host communities. For anyorganization to succeed in any environment, which is assumed to be dynamic, it has to strike a balance and make some compromises. The issue of loyalty to the party/ government in power may exert some forms of negative influences on recruitment and selection policies of organizations as a lot of influential politicians; government functionaries have indicated serious interest in the employment exercise of most firms.
Therefore, it is the aim of this study to determine those environmental factors militating against an objective recruitment and selection of employees into Nigerian organizations and how best they can be eliminated or reduced to the minimum.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to critically examine the environmental factors in employee recruitment and selection. It is against the backdrop of the above scenario that this study seeks to find out the following.
- The methods adopted by Adig Suits Hotels in their staff recruitment and selection exercises.
- The nature of environmental challenges that is faced by Adig Suits Hotels in recruitment and selection of staff.
- The possible ways to pacify the host communities in Adig Suits Hotels during recruitment and selection exercises.
- To make possible suggestions/ solutions that could enhance the process of recruitment and selection in Adig Suits Hotels.
1.4 Research Questions
In this study, the following research questions were deemed necessary and adopted.
- To what extent does the use of written and oral tests impact on the employment selection in Adig Suits Hotels
- To what extent does the demand of the host community impact on the recruitment and selection exercises in Adig Suits Hotels?
- To what extent does the organization’s value (employment policy) affect the recruitment and selection process in Adig Suits Hotels?
- In what ways do environmental consciousness by the host communities affect the employment recruitment and selection in Adig Suits Hotels?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypothesis were formulated for this study.
H01 The use of written and oral test has no significant impact on the processes of recruitment and selection of applicants in Adig Suits Hotels.
H02 there is no positive and significant relationship between the organizations values (employment policy) and the processes of employee recruitment and selection in Adig Suits Hotels.
HO3 The Knowledge of the impact of business activities on the environment by the host communities does not significantly influence the procedures adopted by Adig Suits Hotels in their staff recruitment and selection exercises.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The fact that research studies are conducted with the view to provide solutions to certain identified problems in Adig Suits Hotels makes this study worthwhile. In view of this, this study is expected on completion to provide an insight on the nature of environmental challenges encountered by not only the human resources mangers but also prospective and potential entrepreneurs. The findings will aid whatever bodies charged with the responsibility of formulating employment policies. It will also avail the students and the jobless youths the opportunity of knowing what goes on in the labour market. It will add to the available stock of material on employment matters in Nigeria.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research is a case study of Adig Suits Hotels, Abakaliki Ebonyi State
The study was limited to randomly selected management and Non- management staff in the different department of Adig Suits Hotels, Abakaliki Ebonyi State
. The objective was to obtain a broad view of the workforce so as to be able to evaluate the extent to which environmental factors has impacted or influenced employees recruitment and selection in Adig Suits Hotels.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This study is limited only to Adig Suits Hotels, Abakaliki Ebonyi State with respect to their recruitment and selection strategies amidst environmental challenges. This study is assumed to suffer some setback such as finance and time. The present economic reality of Nigeria society makes the problem of finance to be relatively scarce considering what it takes for a researcher to conduct a study whose findings are expected to stand the test of time. Also, the uncompromising attitude of most respondents and delay in attending to the questionnaire was so discouraging.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms were operationally defined as shown below:
Employee/ Human Resources: These are human beings employed in an organization to mobilize other resources (capital, plant, machinery, etc).
Human Resources Manager: This is an officer that is charged with the responsibility of staffing, which encompasses recruitment, selection, placement, appraisal, promotion, etc in an organization.
Recruitment: This refers to the process of locating and attracting qualified pool of applicants for job openings in the organization.
Selection: This is the process of making a choice (s) among the applicants recruited.
Employment Selection: This is the art of choosing those who are to work in organization.
Values: These are the fundamental principles that guide people regarding what is right or wrong, important or unimportant.