PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATE THE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE CHARTER OF THE OAU AND THE CONSTITUTIVE ACT OF THE AFRICAN UNION AND TO EXPLORE THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRANSFORMATION FOR THE FUTURE OF THE CONTINENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

The organization of African unity (OAU) or organization de unite Africaine (OAU) was established on May 25, 1963. It was abanded July 9,2002 by its last chairman, south Africa Thabo Mbeki and replaced by the African union. The intended purpose was to promote the unity and solidarity of the African states and act as a collective voice for the continent. It was dedicated to the eradication of colonialism and established a liberation committee to aid independence movements.

The headquarters were established at Addia Ababa, Ethiopia. At the inception of the organization 32 head of independent African states, among them members of the Casablanca group, intended in 1961 and composed of “progressive state”. At the tiers of its disbanding, 53 out of the 54 states in Africa were members; Morocco left on November 12, 1984 following the admission of the Sahrawi Arab democratic Republic as the government of Western Sahara in 1982.

The Heads of African states and Governments Assembled in the city of Addias Ababa, Ethiopia, convinced that it is the inalienable right of all people to control their own destiny, conscious of the fact that freedom, equality, justice and dignity are essential objectives for the achievement of the legitimate aspirations of the African peoples. Conscious of our responsibility to harness the natural and human resources of our continent for the total advancement of our peoples in all spheres of human endeavour.

Inspired by a common determination to promote understanding among our peoples and cooperation among our states in response to the aspirations of our peoples for brother-hood and solidarity, in a large unity transcending ethnic and national differences. Convinced that, in order to translate this determination into a dynamic force in the cause of human progress, conditions for peace and security must be established and maintained.

Determined to safeguard and consolidate the hard-won independence as well as the sovereignty and territorial integrity of our states, and to fight against neocolonialism in all its forms. Dedicated to the general progress of Africa persuaded that the charter of the united Nations and the universal declaration of human Rights, to the principles of which we reaffirm our adherence, provide a solid foundation for peaceful and positive cooperation among states. Desirous that all African states should henceforth unite so that the welfare and well-being of their peoples can be assured. Resolved to reinforce the links between our states by establishing and strengthening common institutions.

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The events of Second World War II, its lessons and the search for a way forward sparked off a wave of independent struggle among formal colonists in the 1960s to independence for many countries in Africa. Coupled with the events of cold war, it became imperative that countries which relatively share common problems of underdevelopment, poverty, domination of major powers, colonial background should come together and unite to face their common challenges.

It was against this background that regional integration becomes inevitable and ultimately a political issue in Africa. However, the organization of African unity was established on 23rd May, 1963 at a conference held in Addia Ababa, Ethiopia, with thirty one Heads of the states and Government in attendance. Before the establishment, the idea of African unity had existed as an movement called pan-Africanism in the diaspora between 1900-1958, and after this period it was brought to Africa.

The movement led to the agitation of so many Africans for African unity. In the same vein, there were centrifugal and centripetal factors of the African unity. The organization was formed after a long time of agitation, the independent countries of Africa formed two power blocs which include the Casablanca block and the Brazzaville block. The Brazzaville twelve was know primarily for their opposition to establishing integrated institutions for Africa, while the Casablanca powers were primarily an

agglomeration of the revolutionaries who favoured a dynamic approach to the solution of African problems. Apart from these ideological blocs there were also successful, formations of regional groups based primarily on geographical location and armed essentially or achieving political and economic progress.

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATE THE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE CHARTER OF THE OAU AND THE CONSTITUTIVE ACT OF THE AFRICAN UNION AND TO EXPLORE THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRANSFORMATION FOR THE FUTURE OF THE CONTINENT

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

The problem is the need for regional integration to solve common African problems. Others include, the events of Second World War II, its lessons and the search for a way forward sparked off a wave of independent struggle among formal colonial territories. These struggles culminated in the 1960s to independence for many countries in Africa. Coupled with the events of cold war, it becomes imparative that countries which relatively share common problems of underdevelopment poverty domination of major powers, colonial background should come together and united to face their common challenges. It was against this background that regional integration becomes inevitable and ultimately a political issue in Africa.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated by the researcher.

  • What are they challenges that confront people of African continent in the spheres of social, economic and political issues?
  • Can African union be able to protect and promote the peoples institutions in order to ensure good governance?
  • Can it be able to take all necessary measures to strengthen our common institutions?
  • How do we encourage regional integration?
    • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is to evaluate the differences and similarities between the charter of the OAU and the constitutive Act of the African union and to explore the economic, political and social implications of the transformation for the future of the continent. Ibe Ibeike-Jonah, observed that the AU is loosely modeled after the European union. The AU will establish a number of organs including a Pan-African parliament, an executive an assembly, a court of Justice, and in the economic sphere, from a common market with an African central bank monetary fund and ultimately, a simple currency (the “Afro”) for the entire continent.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 It is believed that this study will be of vital significance to the Government Administrators, the Heads of Government foreign Affairs ministers, the political class, as well as the members of the publics in all walks of life. The findings of this study will be of importance to the Head of government as they will be to know how effective to defend their sovereignty and territorial integrity. To the government Administrators, this research work will intensity their cooperation and efforts to achieve batter life for their people.

More so, the foreign Affairs ministers, the study will assist them on sharing ideas on communication transport. Cooperation is areas of education, culture, Health, science and technology as well as defence and security. And for the general public, this research will enable them to rise in defence of their fundamental human rights when the need arises. Also “total war against hunger, poverty and dreaded disease should be a news flash in their day to day publications. Finally to the political class the study will intensity their effort toward more meaningful political and diplomatic cooperation.

  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

          The following hypothesis were formulated to serve as a guide in the course of this study.

  • The government, individual and corporation organizations should encourage regional integration.
  • There is need to provide adequate material and financial assistance to the region affected with socio-economic problem to enable them lead an economically productive live.
  • The African union if encouraged will address the political economic and social problems of the region.
  • The organization of the African unity has failed to live up to the expectation due to political crises of the region.
    • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study is the entirety of African nations. The research work is centred on the analysis of the constitutive Act of the African union. The African states are confronted with the problems of colonialism, poverty, hunger, underdevelopment etc. Therefore the focus of this research work is how to integrate African nations to solve their numerous problems collectively.

  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The research of this nature cannot on smoothly without encountering some difficulties. It is not possible t gather all that is needed for the study. However, one of these limiting factors is time. It is the major limiting factor for this study. This constraint does not make it possible for this work to be given the through touch, the research only make use of the available secondary data. Another constraint is non-availability of adequate information resulting from the inability of the research to get in touch with the relevant data needed for this study.

Therefore, the work is limited to the information available from the media house, journals, websites etc. Besides is the financial constraint, which makes it impossible for researcher to transport him in search of material for this study and other logistics. In view of the above, the outcome of this research depends on the information from journals, magazine Newspapers etc.

1.7     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The theory of this research work will be structural functionalism. This theory was developed in sociology and is prominent in the work of Augusto Comte (1798-1903), Emile Durkheim (1902-1979) and Talcott parsons who was said to have refined the theory. However, this theory structural functionalism views the society as a system, that is as a set of interconnected parts, which together form a whole (M. Haralambos and R.M. Heald, 1980:521).

The concept of structural functionalism was however adopted in political science and specifically in the field of comparative politics. It sees the political system as inter-related and reciprocally regulated patterns action and orientation patter that have needs for the maintenance survival of the system. According to Nwosu and Ofoegbu (1986), functions as generally used by scholars in political science refers to the contributions of an activity or patterns of behaviour to the maintenance of the system in as given society.

They went further to state that, it is he observable effects of an activity that are necessary to the sustenance of the system. To them, functions implied a positive contribution towards system maintenance, while dysfunction is used to refer to negative contributions, for Okuiyi (1997) structural functionalism when related to politics can be described as a means of explaining basic functions of the political structures in the political system and it is a tool of investigation.

He further states that it explains the relationship between the parts (structure) on one hand and between the parts and the whole (political system) on the other. The relationship is explained in line with the basic functions of each. This is because it is the contribution of each structure (part) that helps to sustain the political system (whole), The emphasis of this theory is on the collective responsibility of the various components of the society in solving their common problems. This follows that African Nations should come together for better solving of their common problems rather than trying to tackle it individually. So the African union was formed to solve common African problems.

  • OPERATION DEFINITION OF TERM

          The operational definitions of terms are as follows:

  1. African Union: Integration of African nations to solve common problems.
  2. Charter: A written statement describing the rights that a certain group of people have or should have.
  3. Constitutive Act: It is documents that specify African Union objectives, principle and its organs. Also a legal instrument establishing the OAU and African union.
  4. Region: Administrative division of a country
  5. Continent: Each of the main landmasses of the earth.
  6. Colonialism: The policy of acquiring colonies and keeping them dependent.

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATE THE DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE CHARTER OF THE OAU AND THE CONSTITUTIVE ACT OF THE AFRICAN UNION AND TO EXPLORE THE ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE TRANSFORMATION FOR THE FUTURE OF THE CONTINENT

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