Extent of availability of instructional resources needed for the teaching and learning of Economics in Secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Instructional resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. It is also very vital to have sufficient and adequate human resources in terms of teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum.  Without the teachers as implementing factors, the goals of education can never be achieved.  In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigerian National Policy of Education (1992), schools should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable textbooks, qualified teachers, libraries which are adequate should also be provided for schools.  Scarcity of these, according to Coombs (2000), will constraint educational system from responding more fully to new demands.  In order to raise the quality of education, its efficiency and productivity, better learning materials are needed.

Any established school curriculum calls for and means of implementing it in order to reach the objectives at the various levels. Methods of teaching and learning are planned activities involves in the presentation of the curriculum. The discussion, tutorial, lecture, discovery or demonstrations are examples of bringing the students into contact with the subject matter. The effectiveness of this contact demands activities and instructional materials. This may be in the form of symbolic and pictorial presentation, real objects and specimens, experiment and demonstration.

        According to Onwuka (2001), one of the principles that teachers have to continually bear in mind is that man learns through his senses. He further stated that some students learn better by one or the other of the senses. To some, seeing is believing, to others, the senses of hearing, touch, smell and taste dominate in acquiring knowledge. For the intended learning to take place, the teacher must communicate effectively with the learners. In order to achieve the efficient communication between him and the learners. The teacher must understand something of the communication process to the extent that it will enhance a wide choice of his way of transmitting his message to his students. According to Onyejemezi (1981) the best way of helping students to learn is to bring them face to face with world, which the education intends to introduce to them. Using real things in real life situation does this. In Nigeria society, the study of Economics is very important because it teaches us how to manage our limited resources effectively. The knowledge one acquires in Economics will enable one to be useful to oneself; to the family and the society as a whole. Besides, individuals and government take a number of economic policies which bring about rapid improvement in our social and economic lives. These could be seen in the areas of distribution of national income, the prices of key commodities, the level of employment, the availability and quality of rural health, education and other social amenities. Also, Economics is explained as the study of human behaviour, firms and government and as such, its continued poor performance by students gives parents, teachers and society a great concern.

Clark (2006) said that the understanding of Economics is necessary for citizenship. The prime concern of teaching Economics ought to be the provision of basic economics knowledge that is necessary for responsible citizenship. So both leaders and followers ought to understand basic economics ideas and principles which will enable them understand, and appreciate the importance of Economic. Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek (“management of a household, administration”) from (oikos, “house”) (“custom” or “law”), hence “rules of the house (hold)”. Marshall (2007), Political economy was the earlier name for the subject, but economists in the late 19th century suggested “economics” as a shorter term for “economic science” that also avoided a narrow political-interest connotation and as similar in form to “mathematics“, “ethics”, and so forth.

        Instructional materials are those materials, devices or techniques that enable the economics teacher to make realistic approach to his Job. Whether real or substitutes, these representations have a common goal. They help the teacher to cover the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the students so that the students receive, understand, retain and apply the experience gained to reach overall educational goal.

        From the foregoing the study is an assessment on the extent of availability of instructional resources needed for the teaching and learning of Economics in Secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state.

Statement of the Problem

          Economics is one of the vital social science subjects in the school curriculum. It plays its roles in the society for the development of the nation. It is unfortunate that the subject is not properly taught in the secondary school as a result of the extent of availability of instructional resources needed for the teaching and learning of Economics in secondary schools.

          Instructional materials in some secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state are not readily available for use. Some cases where there is instructional materials, they are not adequate and in most cases are not utilized by the teachers in teaching and learning of Economics.

          Again, there is no adequate provision and use of economics text-books in most secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state. The available ones are outdated, out fashioned and archaic. Most of the theories and practices in those books are no more supported. Hence, the need for administrators to do something and know the extent new economics textbooks and other tools used in teaching and learning of economics are been provided.

          Therefore, the problem of this study is to carry out an assessment of the extent of availability of instructional resources needed for the teaching and learning of Economics in Secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state.

Purpose of the Study

This study tried to assess the extent of availability of instructional resources needed for the teaching and learning of Economics in Secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state. Specifically, it was meant to:

  1. Ascertain the influence of instructional materials and facilities used in teaching Economics in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state.
  2. Determine the extent of available instructional resources used in the teaching and learning of Economics in Mbaitolu LGA of Imo State.
  3. Ascertain the adequacy of economics text-books in secondary schools found in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state.
  4. Determine the influence of the projected and non -projected media in the teaching-learning of Economics.

Significance of the Study

          Results of this study will be utilized by students, teachers, School authorities, parents and government. The study is expected to create awareness to teachers, the school authority, the Ministry of Education, and the Government of Imo State on the extent of availability of instructional resources in teaching and learning of Economics in secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo State. This will make teachers rise up to the challenge; it will also make the school authority and government to intervene, strategize and consequently supervise and monitor the classroom teachers on the use of these materials to facilitate learning in the schools.

          To the students, it will help them discover the best way things around them can be used to improvise where there is inadequate instructional resources as well as make efficient use of available economics textbooks.

          To the parents, it will help to let them know the areas they need to come in to assist the school in acquisition of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of economics.

Scope of the Study 

          This study is on the assessment of the extent of availability of instructional resources needed for the teaching and learning of Economics and focused in Secondary schools in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state. Hence, it shall look at influence of instructional materials and facilities used in teaching Economics, effect of availability, adequacy and use of economics text-books in teaching and learning of Economics, adequacy of economics text-books in secondary schools and the influence of the projected and non -projected media in the teaching-learning of Economics.

Research Questions

          The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the influence of instructional materials and facilities used in teaching Economics in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state?
  2. To what extent are the available instructional resources being utilized in the teaching and learning of Economics in Mbaitolu LGA of Imo State?
  3. How does the adequacy of economics text-books in secondary schools affect the teaching and learning of Economics in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state?
  4. What are the influence of the projected and non -projected media in the teaching-learning of Economics in Mbaitolu Local Government Area of Imo state?

 

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