Factors that influence your job satisfaction as a secondary school teacher in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
- Background of the study
Job satisfaction has been conceptualized from an array of perspectives. It has been conceptualized in relation to vocational needs and job reward. Conceived from a vocational need perspective, Atkinson (1992) viewed job satisfaction as the internally or externally aroused desire or urge to act in a vocational setting in order to produce as effect which is expected to prove very beneficial to the individual involved. According to Atkinson (1992), there may be individual differences which may influence interest and extent of job tends to satisfaction in a given setting.
Basically, this tends to represent, a test of the third proposition of the theory of adjustment Lewis (1994) which states that satisfaction is a function of the correspondence between the
reinforce system of the work environment and the individual’s needs provided that the individual’s abilities corresponds with the ability requirement of the work environment.
Job satisfaction was conceived by Crites (1994), in the pleasant stimulus that is obtained upon the successful performance of a task. Remarkable difference however, may exist among jobs as to the degree of their potentials to gratify specific needs due to the characteristics of the task, the circumstances and the environment in which they are performed from the generalized point of view. Morse (1993) defined job satisfaction as effective response of an individual or employee toward liking or disliking his present occupational position.
It may be regarded as an internal indicator of correspondence representing the individual’s appraisal of the extent to which the work environment gratifies his needs.
Secondary schools by recruiting teachers must also accept the responsibility of assisting them not only in realizing their vocational aspirations but also in becoming self-fulfilled individuals. The major guidelines therefore for the administered and organization of school teachers welfare should be based on a close and continuing study of the dynamic characteristic of secondary school teachers.
The implication of unfulfilled needs for secondary school teachers is occurrence of tension within the staff populace regardless of the level act which the need occurs.
Secondary school teacher whose environment offers little by way of need satisfaction may withdraw from the system thereby hindering academic activities and the accomplishment of the objectives of the secondary education. The implication of this phenomenon to entire nation is quite grave.
Recent research reports Abisoye (1995) and Akpan (1997) revealed that the secondary school teachers in Nigeria are very much dissatisfied with their job. Between 1995 and 1998 more than 50% of experience teachers abandoned their job for greener pasture Akpan (1999). The system also experience constant job apathy, which culminated in what could be best described as an epileptic secondary system. The major complaint is that the secondary system has failed to provide the school teachers with adequate job incentives and enrichment programmes, adequate accommodation and conducive working environment devoid of stress and overt insecurity Olaitain (1998) and Nwoye (1992). As a result of these development the jobs of secondary school teachers in Nigerian secondary schools is characterized by boredom and poor commitment since their job has become unpleasant.
Considering the geography of Ebonyi State, it must be understood that while some schools are located in the cities, others are within the rural setting. Available research evidence Nwakam (1999) has revealed that need satisfaction are to a large extent dependent on school location. As such arguments earlier advanced by Udeinya (1989) that job satisfaction of employee may very according to immediate environment of the employee ought not to be taken for granted. It may be worth speculating that the level of job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in urban an rural settings in Ebonyi State may not be the same. Research evidence has proved that male and females and of varying emotional sociological and economic dispositions. As such factors that studies on job satisfaction of any sort need not focus of the possibility of differences across gender categories.
To improve the quality of education and constant supply of competent high level manpower for all categories of teachers, it is imperative that there should be constant evaluation of structure, organization and management of the Nigerian educational system so that loopholes be remedied. As secondary schools are responsible for preparing individual for specialist programs at the university level, attention should be given to those teachers who prepare them through the crucial course of secondary education, during when choices about life careers are made. As serious efforts should be geared towards exploring all possible avenues to improving the work condition of the teachers. There is therefore factors that influence job satisfaction of school teachers of Nigerian secondary schools.
- Statement of The Problem
The increasing level of job apathy, Mass exodus, poor job adjustment among secondary school teachers in Nigeria are issues of great concern to the entire nation.
The situation symphonized by poor adjustment of secondary school students arising from inadequate activities in teaching tends to suggest that the teachers are not actually performing their duties as expected of them.
Low level of productivity as a result of employee ineffectiveness, poor orientation of secondary school students and associated maladaptive behaviours of students have been leveled on the secondary school teachers by some individuals and groups in the society.
According to Olaitan (1987), the fact remains that secondary school teachers have not been enjoying good working environment nor good conditions services hence they tend to be dissatisfied with their job when compared with observed satisfaction of some members of the public not as educated as the secondary school teachers.
Although available research has revealed that the school teachers in secondary level are not satisfied with their conditions of service which has grossly affected their job performance current research effort has not been directed towards the exploration of the factors that influence the satisfaction of the teachers. In the same vein, which it is appreciated that school location, job experience and professional qualification may have some implication on job satisfaction, the extent to which job satisfaction of secondary school teachers are influence by these variables is also in doubt. As such factors affecting job satisfaction of the secondary school teachers have merely been speculated and some times contradictory, Gruenberg (1992) and Herzberg (1992) implying that the major factors are yet to be confirmed. This study therefore, is faced with the problem of exploring using appropriate research procedure the various factors that influence job satisfaction among the secondary school teachers in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- Purpose of The Study
The general purpose of this study is to find out the factors affecting job satisfaction among the secondary school teachers in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
This study specifically find out the following:
- The influence of teacher’s salaries, remunerations and soft loans on job satisfaction.
- The impact of in-service training and conferences on job satisfaction of teachers in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- The effect of environment/location of the schools of the teachers on their job satisfaction.
- The way in which job experience influences job satisfaction of the teachers.
- The impact of modern instructional materials on job satisfaction of teachers.
- Significance of the Study
The need to improve the quality of secondary education in Ebonyi state is very indispensable.
This is because the Nigerian secondary education which prepares manpower for specialist courses at the higher level of education has very important roles to play in the recovery of the state educational backwardness and the country’s dwindling economy.
The findings of this study will have lot significance for the improvement of the work conditions and efficiency of teachers especially those in secondary schools, which will manifest its gains in the country’s manpower development.
For instance, the study will assess the factors that influence job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Ohaukwu Local Government Area. This will also provide a focus and a template on which efforts at improving job satisfaction will be designed.
This study will also explore the extent to which factors influencing job of secondary school teachers depend on their school location, job experience, prompt payment of salaries and granting of housing loans among others.
In general, this study will contribute a lot by providing possible ways of improving the conditions and job satisfaction of the teachers. This will curb the problem of mass which has become a major problem with secondary system.
- Scope of the Study
This study will be limited to the secondary schools in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. In terms of content, the study will encompass job characteristics, financial rewards, experience and environmental factors in job satisfaction.
As for research subject, the scope will be limited to only the school teachers of the secondary schools.
- Research Questions
- To what extent do salary, remunerations and other incentives such as soft loans influence job satisfaction of teachers of secondary schools in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- To what extent do in-service training, excursions, seminars and local/international conferences influence job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Ohaukwu Local Government Area?
- To what extent do environment and location influence job satisfaction of the teachers?
- To what extent do job experience influence job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Ohaukwu Local Government Area?
- To what extent do modern instructional materials influence job satisfaction of the secondary school teachers?