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Impact of information communication technology in teaching and learning of science: problem and prospect.

Impact of information communication technology in teaching and learning of science: problem and prospect.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       According to Yusuf (1998), science education could mean different thing to different people but one thing that is sure is combining of science knowledge with the study of education. Science education therefore implies acquiring both scientific knowledge and education to be able to share this scientific knowledge with individual or community who are not traditionally in science. Better still, science education is the study of biology, chemistry and physics with method of teaching  in other to be able to impart scientific knowledge to any individuals or community. The moment methodology is excluded from learning of biology, chemistry or physics it is no longer science education but only science. Science education should be able to teach science concepts and also address learners’ misconceptions about these science concepts. Science education is very important to technological development of any nation because of its numerous benefits (Omosewo, 2009; Awolaju, Akinloye and 1Iori, 2010). Developed nations of the world are not taking science education with loosed hands: they invest on it and that is why they remain developed. For Nigeria to attain a position of developed nation we cannot afford to joke with the development of science education as the case is presently; there is the need for a positive change. Nothing is static in the world again, everything changes almost every second of the day; so should be educational activities (teaching and learning). Gone are the days when teaching and learning is only based on chalk and books packed somewhere called library; today everything has gone computerized to retrieve, store and transmit information. Aina (2012) pointed that method of teaching has gone beyond traditional method of talk and chalk method, no wonder Shedd (2004) has suggested that people preparing to become teacher must incorporate technology into their class. To become great among the committee of nations Nigerian must change her method of teaching and learning of science education from traditional way of talk method and reading by carrying books around. The world is in the era Information and Communication Technology [ICT] where information is not restricted by time. Space and channel (Ajayi and Ojo, 2010); teaching and learning are not restricted to time, space and channel. Teaching and learning could be done in your bedroom, on the sea even in the air; teaching and learning is no longer restricted into classroom any more. Now that students are losing interest in learning and the teachers are no longer committed (Awolaju, Akinloye, and IIori 2010) to teaching; we need a modern way of teaching and learning so that student academic achievement in science can improve in all our institution. Science is dynamic, new discoveries are coming up every day both in science and teaching method; we can only benefit from these new development when we are connected to the world through ICT. It is not an overstatement if one says “without ICT scientific knowledge would not be taught adequately in any school of the world,” not surprising Olugbenga and Adebayo (2010) argued that ICT has become a central focus in many developed and developing countries. Countries of the world such as Austria, Finland, Sweden, Denmark and UK, teachers and students have a generally positive attitude towards e-learning and relatively advanced IT competences (European union, 2005).

 ICT is defined by Olugbenga and Adebayo (2010) as collection retrieval, use and storage and communicating information through the use of computers and micro electronic system. UNESCO in Meleisea (2007) viewed ICT as a technology of creating displaying, storing, manipulating and exchanging information. Importance of ICT in our society today is enormous as underscored by Abebayo (2010) that ICTs is an indispensable part of contemporary society; allows access to information anywhere in the world; promote networking that is not restricted by boundary, language and culture; foster communities’ empowerment and spread knowledge. ICT offer citizens the mean to organize themselves and produce culture codes to represent themselves (Ajayi and Ojo, 2010). It is worthy to note, that no body can talk about ICT without computer. This is because computer is the only device that is use to utilize the effective work of ICT. Therefore no computer no ICT.

       Computer is derived from the word “compute”, which mean to calculate. Mbam (2000) sees computer as a fast accurate and manipulating device that accepts and stores input data, processes them and produces output under the influence of stored programme of instruction. Ezeliora (2004) described computer as a machine capable of embarking on repetitive procedures, produce desired output without human intervention when it is running.

       The society today has progressed from the age of automation to that of micro electron, the apex of which is the computer. This means that we are in the computer age, a time when the same technology that aided and landed the astronauts on the moon, is now being used in all fields of human endeavour. Everyday, information is being released and a lot of benefits is being derived form computer as computer literacy such as ability to source information, which is the greatest benefit. Computer has helped greatly the development of man by making the world a global village. For this reason there is the need to not only improve the teaching of computer in the Nigerian school but also investigate how students achievement has been moderated by the different methods of teaching it.

       Computer has central use of all ages as an indispensable reckoning machine that is capable of handling numerous amounts of data, process them and display the results. The scope of computer usage has continued to widen in education. Computer is used to teach and learn, store document like students’ bio-data, staff bio-data. Expenditure record, etc. And can be retrieved when the need arises. In business, computer has helped to increase the productivity as the time it takes to accomplish certain task have greatly reduced. Accuracy has increased and the quality of goods and services also improves tremendously, to handle accounting, inventory, generate payroll and run word processing. In medicine it serves as biomedical control for monitoring experiment. In industries computer is also applied in controlling of power generation of petrochemical discoveries and developing theories. Considering the degree of importance attached to computer education in our society today, many individual schools, government and non-governmental organization have made efforts towards the provision of facilities and enabling environment for better achievement in computer education. Such effort includes production of textbook, workbook, teachers’ guides conducting researches that would facilitate computer teaching and learning. It is thus expected that learning achievement in computer science should be very encouraging. However, this has not been the case the reason for such low achievement include among others, use of inappropriate method to teach computer (Abimbade, 1995).

       The implication of this is that ICT should be studies as activity oriented course for students to acquire meaningful, functional and relevant knowledge and as such ICT should be practically studies.

       Based on the above assertion, there is need to find out if the impact of ICT in teaching and learning science in secondary school: problem and prospects, in Ezza North Local Government Area, and either positive or negative in achieving Educational objectives.

Statement of Problem

       Education has been defined as an act of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills, as a profession. Another definition of education is that education is a field of study involved in the pedagogy of teaching and learning. It is a well known fact that education is important to the society as no human being can survive without education. Also education can help anyone to develop his potential to a maximum extent. ICT have had a huge influence in the advance of the use of technology in education. There are many advantages and disadvantage using ICT in learning. In education, the uses of ICT are now integrate with the teaching and learning process. While some people agree that ICT could enhance the teaching and learning process, others stress the integration of the ICTs in the teaching and learning process might bring some disadvantages. It is on this background that the researcher aims at examining the issue of ICT Studies and its effect in secondary schools. It is also aimed at determining the ICT literacy level of the students and teachers of secondary school in Ezza North local government area and highlighting the positive and negative impacts of ICT studies on the teaching and learning process and by extension the society at large.

Purpose of the Study

       The main purpose of the study is to determine the effect of ICT in teaching and learning of science in secondary school: problems and prospects in Ezza North Local Government Area. The specific study sought to:

  1. Determine the mean achievement score of students taught with computer application and those taught with lecture method?
  2. Determine the mean achievement score of male and female students taught computer using simulation game?

Significance of the Study

       The researcher believes that the findings of the study would be of immense value to all ICT researchers. The finding of this research will be useful to the students. Teaching and learning would be fun after this research has been carried out, the aim of teaching would not be achieved without the fun of simulation game interfering with the academic achievement of the students in ICT education. Students would be in better positions to assess their academic performance and know when, where and how more effort will be needed to achieve greater performance in ICT.

       On the side of teachers, this research would aid them with immediate evaluation on every topic that will be taught with simulation. The researcher is going to create an atmosphere of students and teachers participation in the teaching and learning process. It will also help the government to make good and relevant policies on simulation on students’ achievement in ICT education.  Computer scientists would create software, write programme and invent simulation to aid the teachers and students in the teaching and learning of computer education. This will create a better atmosphere for creating amongst ICT scientists.

Scope of the Study

       This study delimited to finding the impact of ICT in teaching and learning of science in secondary school: problem and prospects in Ezza North Local Government Area.

       This study focuses on SS1 students of the sampled schools. The study equally considered possible effect of gender as a variable that might affect the achievement of the ICT student.

Research questions

       The following research questions guided the study

  1. What are mean achievement score of students taught with computer application and those taught with lecture method?
  2. What are the mean achievement score of male and female students taught computer using simulation game?

Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of students taught with computer application and those taught with lecture method.

H2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of male and female students taught computer using simulation game.

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