Impact of women Education in the Society in Afikpo North Local Government Area
Background of the Study
The term education is not amenable to a single meaning. According to Uduigwomen (2004), education means, training and bringing up. He went on to equate education with either training modification or schooling. Many contemporary analysts have resorted to the normative sense, this is done by considering the characteristics of an educated man or woman, examine the process of education itself, identifying the characteristics of the activities and to make them educational. Thus the process in education has been described as the internal transmission of something worthwhile or desirable in a morally acceptable manner.
Ocho and Peter (2000) see women education in Nigeria as bedrock of the society. It goes further to argue that education is all round development of a person, physically, intellectually, morally and spiritually. He concluded by viewing education as a lifelong process through which individuals acquire the relevant skills and knowledge which enables them to be useful to themselves, their families and the society. It is in this line that Fafunwa (1999) views education as the aggregate of all processes in which one develops the abilities, attitude and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to family and society in which one live in Education is a powerful tool for development, growth and improvement of the nation. The introduction of western education has high effect on their families. A woman with education reasons and thinks more than her counterpart. Education is a strong weapon that has shaped1 the course of history of women and produced a highly positive effect on their families. No wonder, it is said that educate a woman, then you educate the whole nation.
In Afikpo LGA as in other parts of Nigeria, education was perceived as an exclusive preserve for boys. Many parents and society resisted education of the girl-child, which came along with missionary workers and their school at large. The girls that attended school in the early times pursued subject’s related to home economics and management and other skills and subjects that will prepare them for their future roles as wives and others. The pictures of female education in Afikpo LGA were very discouraging with a wide gap between boys and girls.
According to Fafunwa(1999), gender disparity in Nigeria at the primary, post-primary and tertiary level of education was wide. The United Nation Chapter on Fundamental Human Rights and the United Nations General Assembly Resolution No.1386 declared that every child has a right to education’.(Jegede 2002). Nigeria as a signatory to the United Nation Chapter since Independence has not only strived to meet the objectives of this declaration but has also introduced various educational policies and programs to meet her socio-economic development needs.
It was stated in Federal Republic of Nigeria of (2004), that there will be equal educational opportunities for all citizen of the nation, at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels both inside and outside formal and informal school system, a provision for a positive discrimination in education opportunities for girls from primary to tertiary level, and it also created awareness of all citizens to the fact that equal opportunities existed irrespective of gender, age, locality or social status and should therefore be made available to all.
The government was also committed towards promoting the education of girls in the field of science technology and mathematics (Williams,1992, Aminu,1988). In the case of Ebonyi State in General and Afikpo in particular, despite growing pressure to improve the socio-economic status and opportunities of woman by the past and present government of Ebonyi State through mounting, monitoring and sustaining free and compulsory primary and secondary education, the dominant view remains that priority should continue to be given to boys especially at tertiary level of education. Nwakpa (2001), state that this is buttressed by the same wrong notion that a woman’s education ends in the kitchen and in her husband’s house. However, even if, it is assumed that the ideal role of a mother and care giving education at all levels is still important for her since living in ignorance would constitute great danger to her survival, her family and the society at large. Every nation must, therefore, recognize the need to educate the girl-child’ who will eventually become that resourceful woman in the society. Education will ensure the maximum utilization of the value of womanhood -(Uche, Akanu and Egwu;2008).
Today, development has really come to Ebonyi women in general and Afikpo women in particular. The creation of Ebonyi State in 1996 could be said to be the catalyst for this development women of Ebonyi State has seen so many things that influence their academic aspiration. Against this background, it becomes necessary to investigate the Impact of Women Education in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Statement of the Problem
Nigerian women had remained backward towards education that would have led them to women development and be part of nation development due to certain factors. Traditional and cultural heritage constitute barrier to women aspiration towards education. Many traditions and customs that impede on women’s right had remained unchallenged and unquestionable even in the face of women’s sound health, better education, meaningful especially in Afikpo North Local Government Area remained trapped in position of powerlessness, disadvantages and consequently remained poor, over worked, ignorant and uneducated.
In spite of recent advances in the enhancement of women’s status, our society still perceives women generally as housekeeper and second class citizens, and this perception, coupled with the well-documented handicaps of low education and low income continually militate against the rise and recognition of women in the country’s development.
Statistics have shown that despite government efforts and investment in the .education of girls and women in the country, the female still have no hope of winning their struggles for equality with the their counterpart. Women’s development indicators continue to show deficit on the balance sheet with the fact that low access to school and early drop out are characteristics of girls than boys. The school curricular are dysfunctional to the girls in terms of needs, interests and aspirations. Based on the above, this study therefore is set to find out the Impact of Women Education in the development of Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to assess the impact of women education in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Ascertain the impact of education on the social life of the women in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
- Examine the impact of education on moral life of women in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
- Examine the impact of education on the financial status of women in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
- Determine the impact of education on the political life of women in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
Significance of the Study
This research work, which investigated the impact of women education in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi state is very significant in many ways.
Researchers will find this work valuable. This is because the findings will provide a secondary data and also form reference materials in further investigation on the problem or other related ones. The findings of the study will help Ministry of Education, Ministry of Women Affairs and others parastatals within the Ministries who will need the findings so that they will use same to sensitize communities that have low girl-child enrollment and retention in schools.
The findings of this study will expose the Afikpo people to the various ways by which education has affected the educated women by placing them in a better position to assess in their life in terms of political, socio-economic, health, academic and structural development. Finally, the study will help the Local govt. since literacy is a part of development process in any society.
Scope of the Study
The area covered by the study was in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Afikpo North Local Government is fairly large, thickly populated by the people of Afikpo, Amasiri, Akpoha, Unwana and shares boarder with Abia and Cross River State respectively. It comprises of Urban and Rural Area of Afikpo. The study investigated the impact of Women Education in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study:
- What impact does education have on the social life of women?
- What impact does education have on the moral life of women?
- What impact does education have on the financial status of women?
- What impact does education have on the political life of women in Afikpo North Local Government Area?
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the related literature to the present study was reviewed. The reviewed literatures were organized under the following sub-headings:
- Conceptual Framework
- Concept of Women Education
- Review of Empirical Studies
- Summary of Review of Related Literature