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This seminar paper deliberated on child abuse and neglect. It reviewed the various forms of child abuse, which includes,  physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, social abuse and cultural abuse are also reviewed which include among others. The causes of child abuse which includes age of the parent, poverty, single parents, mental health problem among others are discussed in this paper. The health consequences of child abuse are also reviewed include among others. Physical health consequences, psychological, societal etc. the measure to prevent child abuse in the society are also reviewed in this paper, this includes educating the parent, management of conflict without the use of force, training the male and female on skills of parenting etc.


Children are precious gift from almighty God. They need to be cared for, loved, cherished, appreciated and adored in a reliable manner. In African context, children are so regarded that a family without a child is seen as incomplete institution. Ononuju (1993) stated that children are not enemies of adults irrespective of their misconducts, which are mostly age oriented. As an important arm of the society, they should be seen as objects of love and parental happiness.

Who is a child? Onuzulike (2002) generally stated that a child is an individual under the age of eighteen years. Child abuse is defined as the portion of harm done to a child, which may be from human action, or inaction that is proscribed or proximate and preventable. Preventable here implies that it is not accidental but intentionally inflicted on the child by perpetrator who do not care about the outcome Alabi (1986).

On the other hand, the ANPPCAN (1986) stated that child abuse is the intentional, unintentional or well intentional acts, which endanger the physical health, emotional, moral and educational welfare of the child. According to Maduewesi (1993) stated also that child abuse is both planned and sometimes unplanned acts and activities directed against the child, which can cause emotional harm.

Based on these definitions, this write up stated strongly that child abuse is any action, which prevents a child from achieving his physical, emotional or psychological potentials. Therefore, child abuse involves total of ill treatments and neglect that is emitted to the child including what ought to have been done to enhance the child’s development but was not done. Various forms of child abuse. These includes (i) physical (ii) sexual abuse (iii) emotional abuse (iv) social abuse (v) cultural abuse etc.

Physical Abuse: Physical abuse involves maltreatments such as kicking the child with leg, burning, strangling and disfiguring the child. Abuse can also occur through neglect. However, physical force that is used to discipline or control a child or adolescent can cause serious physical injury. Examples of these abuse take place in some homes even among caregivers and surrogate parents.

Sexual Abuse: These includes forced marriage, female child circumcision, rape, fonding of genital parts for sexual satisfaction by adults, exposing the child to blue films and others. Sexual abuse of children may result in depression, anxiety and general dysfunction later in their lives.

Emotional Abuse: These involve stripping naked the child publicly, confinement in a locked room, inadequate care, giving him/her various names and illicit verbal abuse. Kalish (1988) children some times exhibit childish behaviours. On the least provocation, some adults and caregivers emit emotional abuse on the child through their reckless use of words. Such words as you are hopeless, a bastard, useless, stupid, good for nothing, idiot and a fool; I brought you from your poor parents and many other offensive utterances are used by some caregivers. In some instances, the child is abused in spite of his innocence.

Consequently, the abuse gets into the child’s subconscious being and starts nurturing until it comes to pay. According to Hangard and Reppucci (1998), the child stamps the abuse into him/herself and behaves likewise. He/ she sees their self as stupid, good for nothing and believes he/she can never do well. He therefore does not see the need to work hard in the school and elsewhere.

This is in line with Nwachuku (2000) when he observed that children whose emotions are grossly abused have poor academic performance due to lack of confidence produced in them by the abuse. They develop negative self-emotion. Other negative influences on the child emotional includes depression and low self esteem which affect his work, other habits and general life also, hostility, poor relationship with peers, loss of appetite, fearfulness and suicidal reactions.

Social Abuse: Social abuse include abandonment by parents or guardians, exploitation, prohibition from playing or associating with peers, over protection of the child going to lesson from school without adequate rest or relaxation after the rigorous long hours of the regular school activities. Child trafficking, deprivation from going to school, looking tattered, humiliating, intimidation or terrorizing the child and over restriction form self expression. For examples language is used for self-expression but children unfortunately, are restrained from using language to freely express their feelings. Culture supports this by imposing a lot of restriction on children and their use of language.

Cultural Abuse: Different cultural beliefs play role on the risk of child abuse. Lack of knowledge and skills about childcare may predispose parents to child abuse and neglect possibly because of frustration and stress created by the needs of the child and its apparent lack of co-operation. Contributing reasons for child abuse seem to be social isolation, lack of friends, dangerous neighborhoods or lack of access to transportation etc.

Neglect: This simply means abandoning the child. The parents don’t care about the children basic needs. Neglect may be physical e.g failure to provide necessary food or shelter or lack of appropriate supervision. Neglect children are left on their own without adult supervision and many neglect children engage in self destructive behaviours.


Causes of Child Abuse and Neglect

        Cause of child abuse and neglect include the following

1.     Age of the Parent: Teenage parent are at high risk for abusing their children because they themselves are not fully development adults. They are not as well equipped to respond to the needs of their children because their have not been met.

2.   Poverty: This can cause child abuse in a family where food is not available, the mother may decide to send the child for hawking when others are in school learning, the child will be on the way  

3.     Single Parent: Children of single parent were at a high risk of physical abuse and of all types of neglect and were over represented among seriously injured moderately and endangered children. Typically a single parent family has less income than a two-parent household and the single parent is trying to do the job of two parents. Thus, in the worst cases, their lack adequate social and economic supports which may make the condition ripe for abuse. For example if a women is the one that is taken care of her children. Because she is doing the job of two parent alone, some times she may feel annoyed and she may now raise the annoyance on the child by abusing him.

4.     Mental Health Problem: Parents suffering from depression or a psychiatric illness are at a much high risk of abusing and or neglecting their children’s needs.

5.     Emotional: When parents are not emotional balance. They will neglect the need of their children. And if their children request for something because they are not emotional balanced they will abuse the child by either kicking the child, which will also cause abuse.

6.     Drugs and Alcohol Problems: Parent with drug and alcoholic problems are at mush high risk of abusing their children. Parents with drugs and alcohol problem are three times more likely to physical or sexual assault their children than those parents without such problem.

Health Consequences:

i.      The impact of child abuse and neglect is often discussed in terms of physical consequences.

ii.      Psychological consequences

iii.     Behavioural consequence.

Physical Consequence: Physical health consequences such as damage to a child growing brain, severe broken bones, heamorrhage or even death can have psychological consequences such as cognitive delays or emotional difficulties. Psychological problem often manifest as high-risk behaviours depression and anxiety, for example, may make a person more likely to smoke abuse, alcohol or illicit drug or over eat. High risk behaviours in turn can lead to health long term physical health problem such as sexual transmitted disease cancer and obesity.

Physical Health Consequence: Physical affect of abuse or neglect can be relatively (minor bruises or cut) or severe broken bones, haemorrhage or even death. In some cases the physical effects are temporary, however, the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discount. Meanwhile the long term impact of child abuse and on physical health is just beginning to be explored.

Psychological Consequence: The immediate emotional affect of the child abuse and neglect includes isolation, fear and an inability to trust can translate life long consequence including also low self-esteem, depression, anger etc.

Behavioural Consequence: Not all victims of child abuse and neglect will experience behavioural consequences. However, behavioural problem appear to be more likely among this group even at a young age. Children aged 3-5year in foster care found these children displayed clinical or border line level of behavioural problem at a rate of ever more than twice that general population.

Societal Consequence: While child abuse and neglect, almost always occur within the family, the impact does not end there society as a whole pays a price for child abuse and neglect, terms of both direct and indirect cost. Direct cost includes those associated with maintaining a child welfare system to investigate and respond to allegation of child abuse and neglect as well as expenditure by judicial law enforcement health system.

Prevention of Child Abuse

i.      Educating the parent on how to care for their children and how to avoid abuse.

ii.      If people are able to manage conflict without using physical force, the risk of child abuse will be lower.

iii.     They should be training in life and social skills

iv.     They should be training in parenting skills for both males and females


Child abuse and neglect is just the portion of harm done to children, which may be from human action or inaction that is proscribed or proximate and preventable. Various forms of child abuse which includes physical, sexual, emotional and social child abuse. Causes of child abuse, which are as, follow single parent, mental health problem etc. prevention of child abuse educating parent on how to care for their children and how to avoid abuse. Parents should be educated on how to care for their children and how to avoid abuse. Counseling services should be made available to parents, caregivers, society in the process of determine specific causes and reason for parent abuse of their children with the view to solve them


This paper revealed that child abuse has severe negative impact on the child’s emotion and consequently, disrupt behavior and relationship of the child because emotion have powerful influenced on motivation, parents and caregivers should be careful about their emotional relationship with the child. Unfortunately, some parents inflict long lasting emotion scars when they persistently neglect humiliates, intimidate, terrorize or subdue their children in the name of taming training or discipline the child, by using punishment, which hinges on emotional abuse, the chances of such severe emotional scars and injuries with it associating damaging effects are increased, it is therefore necessary that parents, caregiver and the society at large have a chance of attitude towards emitting such stimulus that result to emotional abuse on the child.


In view of the above, this work recommends as follow

1.     Parents should be educated on how to care for their children and how to avoid abuse.

2.     Counselling services should be made available to parents, caregivers, society in the process of determine specific causes and reason for parent abuse of their children with the view to solve then

3.     The church, the school and the mass media should be encourages to serve as a resources agents to parent child abuse.

4.     Government should establish child abuse centres where reports on child abuse could be made concerning the society.


African Network for Prevention against Child Abuse and Neglect. (ANPPCAN 1986).

 Alabi J. (1986) Abuse of the Child and Neglect

 Haugard & Reppuccn (1988) The Sexual Abuse of Children.

 Onouju J. (1993) Child Abuse and Neglect Against his-Right to Protection.

 Onuzuike (2002) Who is a child.


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