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INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

 ABSTRACT

This study focused on the indispensability of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The objective of the study were to find out; the instructional materials that could promote the teaching of social studies; and ways of promoting effective use of instructional materials of social studies learning.

Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The design of the study was descriptive survey. The population of the study consist 200 social studies teachers and twenty (24) social studies teachers were randomly selected from 10 schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire mean and frequency distributions were used for data analysis.

The findings of the study revealed that textbooks, community resources, globs, maps and tape recorders among others are instructional materials that could promote social studies teaching. Based on the findings of the study, some recommendation made

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The teaching and learning of social studies in schools has been faced with a lot of problems. Aguokogbuo (2008) defined teaching as a deliberate effort by a mature or experienced person to impart information, knowledge, skills, so on to an immature or less experienced person. On the other hand Omebe (2009) defined learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour which is a function of previous behaviour usually referred to as practice.

Aguokogbuo (2008) stated that teaching involves some complex activities on the part of both the teacher and learner in the classroom.

These activities, according to him, must be designed and guided so as to promote learning. According to Okoro (2009) one of the problems militating against the teaching and learning of social studies is non-availability and use of instructional materials. The general purpose of classroom instruction is to help teachers achieve set instructional objectives. According to Mezieobi (2007), effective interactive process demands appropriate utilization or commitment of instructional materials and resources.

Sarah (2008) instructional material is defined as audio-visual materials or as innovations in teaching and learning and others as curriculum materials It involves the use of human effort, appropriate choice design and utilization of things/objects to ensure effective communication between an educational agent (the instructor) and the learner.

Onwuka (2007) and Mkpa (2008) see instructional material as materials used to facilitate teaching and learning by way of saving instructor’s time and efforts a way of capturing learner’s interest, a means of promoting effective retention of subject matter learned, a way of keeping students busy and active and a way of stimulating imagination.

National Teachers Institute defined instructional materials as those materials (audio, visual, and audio visual) which promote the effectiveness of instruction and help the teacher communicate more effectively. Instructional materials therefore are teaching aids which aid teaching and make the concept taught more real to the learner which also facilitate teaching and learning. These instructional materials according to Fadeiye (2005), bring life to learning by stimulating students to learn. Fadeiye added that instructional materials are not an end in themselves but they are means to an end.

Nweke (2008) stated that teaching is instrumental to learning and learning is more permanent when more of the senses are involved in the learning process. To facilitate clear comprehension of social studies instructional materials, Bozimo and Ikwumelu (2007) categorized them into two groups, namely, reading and non-reading materials According to them, reading materials include textbooks, magazines, newspapers, and references among others while non-reading materials include pictures, maps, globes, and field trips among others, including all types of community resources such as industrial plants, museums, zoos, parks and resource persons.

Karma (2006:61) outlined the importance of instructional materials as follows:

  • Instructional materials appeal to different senses in children thereby involving them all the learning process.
  • They help to make learning more permanent.
  • They make the lesson more lively and interesting.
  • The complement and supplement the teaching process.

Despite the indispensability of instructional materials in the pedagogy of social studies, there appear to be problems militating against the effective use of instructional materials in social studies. One of such problems according to Fadeiye (2008) is non availability of such materials. However, Agu (2006) lamented that instructional materials focused on the use of chalkboard and foreign textbooks by teachings. He also stated that most of the teachers of social studies lack the needed experience in the use of certain instructional materials.

To promote effective use of instructional materials in social studies, Fadeiye (2008) state that encouragement should be given to teachers to improve some of the instructional materials from local materials. Teachers cannot shy away from this challenge and the earlier they rise to the occasion, the better for our country. The improvisation of some teaching aids from local materials, to the best of the researcher’s knowledge, will go a long way to promote effective teaching particularly in social studies. Hence, the need to carry out this study on the indispensability of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza south Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Statement of the Problem

The overriding goal of what social studies teacher genuinely do in the classroom setting is to cause effective learning to occur. This is in line with the description of Ezeoha (2006) of the classroom as the power-house in which the success of learning process is generated.

Unfortunately, while most teachers and administrators adopt social studies their means of teaching citizenship, it is ironical that most of them differ remarkably when it comes to the application of appropriate instructional materials that are used in social studies. Some teachers according to Fadeiye (2005) teaching without instructional materials either because of non-availability of such materials of because they lack knowledge as regard the relevance of instructional materials in teaching. This leads to poor understanding of important concepts in social studies.

This is therefore, a serious challenge to the concerned agencies and authorities. If the problem is not properly identified and checked, students may likely develop apathy for social studies education even at a higher level. It is based on this background that the researcher is motivated to study the indispensability of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies with a view to promoting the effective use of instructional materials in teaching.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study, is to find out the indispensability of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study is specifically designed to;

  1. Find out the instructional materials that could promote teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
  2. Find out the influence of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyl State.
  3. Find out ways of promoting effective use of instructional materials in social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

 

Significance of the Study

The study is significant to teachers, students, ministry of education, curriculum planners etc The result of the study will expose the teachers to various instructional materials that could be used in the teaching of social studies The result of the study will equally acquaint the teachers, as well as students with the knowledge of the influence of instructional materials on the teaching of social studies in schools.

The study will also help the Ministry of Education as well as school authorities to develop and put to use appropriate instructional materials which will help promote teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary schools The study will serve as a guide to other researchers who may wish to carry out research on a related aspect of the topic or study.

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the indispensability of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools. The study seeks to find out the instructional materials that could promote the teaching and learning of social studies and ways of promoting effective use of instructional materials in the teaching of social studies. The study is delimited to junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Research Questions

The following research questions are formulated by the researcher to guide the study:

  1. What are the instructional materials that could promote the teaching of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
  2. What is the influence of instructional materials in the teaching schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State? of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
  3. What are the ways of promoting effective use of instructional materials of social studies in junior secondary schools in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

INDISPENSABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN EZZA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

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