The influence of audio-visual materials in teaching and learning of computer studies in some selected secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

From time immemorial, audio-visual materials existed but were not incorporated into educational system. According to Green (2012), the advent of audio-visual materials is long but it is the use that has been limited until in the 1960s and 1970s that libraries realized the use of these materials and started incorporating them into the library collections for future use. Summer stressing on the advent of the materials stated that “before man developed speech as a means of communication, he expressed himself in terms of drawings, signals and symbols”. The point here is that the use of audio-visual materials started as early as man’s civilization began. This is evident in their attempt to communicate ideas. Green (2012) has this to say; “in time of antiquity, man carried pictures on rocks for conveying ideas”. Ani (2010) supporting the introduction of audio-visual aids observed that as far back as the 1920s audio-visual materials came to be used in teaching in the United State of America. According to Dike (2013), the various methods of teaching informally such as observation, participation and the use of the senses are forms of audio-visual resources in our indigenous Nigerian Education. The child is asked to observe carefully without verbal instructions and to participate in domestic science, craft, and agriculture, the child is able to grasp knowledge from different fields unconsciously. Thus every child has the right to knowledge and information especially that which concerns his cultural heritage”. It is imperative therefore that in cultures whose traditions are essentially of the oral rather than the writer kind, knowledge and information transfer be affected by using verbal instructions and the preservation of their cultural arts. This is the meaning of the story telling sessions in our indigenous African education. In modern times, the value of instructional materials has been realized of late in this country and attempts are being made by all organs connected with education to see that audio-visual materials are used in teaching and learning situations. For examples, University of Nigeria, Nsukka has established Curriculum Development and Instructional Materials Centre (CUDIMAC) to promote the utilization of various types of audio-visual resources and media in the school. In advances in librarianiship, (Hallett, and Faria, 2006) points out that, books are not the only way the libraries can extend the available information to the public but other means such as pictures, filmstrips, slides, recording etc. should be acquired to supplement book resources and to substitute for books when they are not available on a particular topic. That is, in the modern educational methods modern technologies have given rise to various means of teaching which make it easier for both the teacher and learner to achieve their aims of teaching and learning. The Encyclopedia of library and information science asserted that libraries serving formal education have tended over the years to broaden their inventories of non book or audio-visual materials rapidly and to accept increased responsibilities for distribution of audio-visual equipment, e.g. emotion pictures, projectors as well as establishing local duplication and production services.

In education, a teacher is a person who provides schooling for pupils and students. The role of a teacher is often formal and on-going, carried out by way of occupation or profession at a school or other place of formal learning. Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviour, skills values, or preferences and may involve synthezing different types of information which is the crux of teaching (Adeyanju, 2007). Learning and teaching is the concern of any trained science teacher. Learning is a complex process. It can be defined as a change in disposition; a relatively permanent change in behavior over time and this is brought about partly by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skills, knowledge, perception, facts, principles, and new information at hand (Adeyanju, 2007). Learning can be reinforced with different teaching/learning resources because they stimulate, motivate as well as focus learners’ attention for a while during the instructional process.

Teaching/ learning resources are instructional materials and devices through which teaching and learning are facilitated in schools (Agun, 2009). Examples of teaching/ learning resources include visual aids, audio aids, real objects and many others. Visual aids are designated materials that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of, for example, wall-charts, illustrated pictures, pictorial materials and other two dimensional objects. There are also audio-visual aids. These are teaching machines like radio, television, and all sorts of projectors with sound attributes .Television and radio programmes provide another useful geography teaching/learning resource. Films, likewise, are a popular teaching/learning resource (Agun, 2009).

In addition to helping students remember important information, teaching/learning resources have other advantages. When properly used they help gain and hold the attention of students. Audio or visual aids can be very useful in supporting a topic in computer studies, and the combination of both audio and visual stimuli is particularly effective since the two most important senses are involved (Burrow, 2006). Teachers should keep in mind that they are like salesmen of ideas, and many of the best sales techniques that attract attention of potential clients are well worth considering. Clearly, a major goal of all teaching is for the students to be able to retain as much knowledge of the subject as possible, especially the key points. Numerous studies have attempted to determine how well teaching/learning resources serve this purpose. Indications from the studies vary greatly from modest results which show 10-15 percent increase in retention to more optimistic results in which retention is increased by as much as 80 percent (Burrow, 2006). Good teaching/learning resources can help solve certain computerized problems as they provide accurate visual image and make learning easier for the student (Chacko, 2011). Another use of teaching/learning resources is to clarify the relationship between material objects and concepts to understand. Symbols, graphs, and diagrams can also show relationships of location, size, time, frequency and value. By symbolizing the factors involved, it is even possible visualize abstract relationship.

Instructional aids have no value in the learning process if they cannot be heard or seen. Recordings of sounds and speeches should be tested for correct volume and quality in the actual environment in which they will be used, but for visual aids, they must be visible to the entire class. All lettering and illustration must be large enough to be seen easily by the students farthest from the aids’. Colours, when used, should provide clear contrast and easily be visible. The usefulness of aids can be improved by proper sequencing to build on previous learning. Frequently, good organization and natural patterns of logic dictate the sequence. However, use of standardized materials, including a syllabus, is recommended. Sequencing also can be enhanced simply by using overlays on transparencies, stripping techniques on charts and chalk or marker boards, and by imaginative use of magnetic boards. Sequencing can be emphasized and made clearer by the use of contrasting colors (Burrow, 2006).

The effectiveness of aids and the ease of their preparation can be increased by initially planning them in rough draft form. Revisions and alters are easier to make at that time than after their completion. The rough draft should be carefully checked for technical accuracy, proper terminology, grammar, spelling, basic balance, clarity, and simplicity. Instructional aids should also be reviewed to determine whether their use is feasible in the training environment and whether they are appropriate for the students. It is interesting to note that a large percentage of trained teachers and those undergoing professional training courses in computer can teach these teaching/learning resources since computers are also audio-visual gadgets. They would want to do so consciously because they know they have a positive effect on learning outcomes as their cognate experiences as revealed during teaching practice supervision of these computer science teachers themselves (Agu, 2013). Making and using teaching/learning resources is an important aspect of good teaching. Even in classrooms with few resources; teachers can use locally available resources to improve pupil/students learning. Learning takes place in an exciting and active environment. The mere use of these materials however, does not guarantee effective communication, nor effective teaching. It is their careful selection and skillful handling of teaching/learning resources by the teacher that renders the usefulness in facilitating learning (Brown, 2012). It is therefore, important for teachers especially at the beginning, to become familiar with the various types of instructional materials as well as the values that can be derived from their proper use. This study therefore, investigates the Influence of Audio Visual Materials in the Teaching and Learning of Computer Science in Ikwo Local Government Area in Ebonyi State.

Statement of Problem  

The act of teaching computer studies in secondary schools is fundamentally concerned with passing technical ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, especially in less developed areas like local government secondary schools for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes for computer students in these schools. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been mass failure in computer studies. There are parts of computer studies that pose problem of comprehension to students especially things like corel draw, photoshop, and even hardware coupling and repairs. These cannot be taught effectively without audio-visuals instructional materials. Mutebi and Matora (2004) indeed affirmed that we learn and remember 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. This contention is underscored by the often quoted age old Chinese deduction

          What I hear, I forget

          What I see, I remember

          What I do, I know

Purpose of Study

The main purpose of this study is to identify the Influence of Audio Visual Materials in the Teaching and Learning of Computer Science in Ikwo Local Government Area in Ebonyi State. The specific purposes include:

  1. To examine the extent to which audio-visual materials are available for teaching and learning computer studies in the secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area.
  2. To ascertain the effects of using audio-visual materials in teaching and learning of computer studies in the secondary school in Ikwo Local Government Area.
  • To determine whether there are benefits of using audio-visual materials in improving qualitative computer education in the secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area.

Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were generated to guide the investigation:

  1. To what extent are audio-visual materials available for teaching and learning computer studies in the junior secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area?
  2. What are the effects of using audio-visual materials in teaching and learning of computer studies in the secondary school in Ikwo Local Government Area?
  • What are the benefits of audio-visual materials in improving qualitative education in the secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area?

Significance of Study

The use of audio-visual in the classroom is at present strong emphasized. The use of instructional materials will give the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the course of teaching and learning encounter. It is necessary therefore to see that knowledge passed unto the students at different level of educational instruction are well planned and meaningful. Hence the researcher intends to point out the relevance of this study to the following: students, teacher, curriculum planners, educational system and society at large.

  • To the students, if there is effective use of instructional materials, the students should be able to learn effectively and also retain what they have learnt. Nwadinigwe (2000) asserts that “learning is a process by means of knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized. The only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.
  • The study will be of benefit to the teachers because there will be increase in productivity if effective teaching and learning takes place. Ekwueme and Igwe (2001) say, “It is only the teachers who will guarantee effective and adequate usage of instructional material and thereby facilitate success. Consequently a teacher of English language who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance quick and creative thinking, sharpen students’ imagination and this helps the learners to be spontaneous and enthusiastic.
  • The educational system and society at large will also benefit from the study because when the teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students speak and communicate better at home and in their place of work. The standard of education will also improve. The mass failure in computer studies will also be minimized.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The study investigated Influence of Audio Visual Materials in the Teaching and Learning of Computer Science in Ikwo Local Government Area in Ebonyi State. Due to the vast and universal nature of this study, the researcher concentrated on Schools in Ndufu-Alike Ikwo and Amagu Ikwo and Echara. The study involved teachers and Senior Secondary School students from four randomly selected schools.

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