Influence of Motivation on teachers’ performance in Secondary Schools in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State
Background of the Study
Motivation involves the energy and drive to learn work effectively, and achieve potential (Martin, 2003). The motivation of a teacher is therefore, very important as it directly affects the students. In order for teachers to maintain a high level of professional performance, they must assume personal responsibility for their own performance, growth and development (Alam, 2011).
Teacher motivation is viewed as a variable which has a strong impact on learner’s motivation (Gardner, 2005). The extent to which teachers are able tomotivate their students depends on howmotivated they are (Atkinson, 2000; Bernaus, Whson,&Gardner, 2009; Guilloteaux&Dornvei, 2008). High motivation may enhance school teachers’ efficiency and effectiveness leading to improved teacher and student performance (Kusereka, 2003). Teachers‘ low motivation may lead to apathy, reduced performance, request for transfers to other schools, increased value on material rewards, hostility to school officials, and working for promotion to other positions with better prospects (Frederick, 2001).
Nadeem; Rana, Lone, Magbool, Naz and Ali (2011) observed that poor salary, excessive workload, poor infrastructure, lack of library facility, lack of teaching and learning material, teachers morale, working relations with, staff and head teacher and working environment are the factors which affect the female teachers’ performance negatively. Other factors include politicalinterference, responsibilities at home, distance of residing area, stress, status of teacher and respect in society. Moharity (2000) indicated poor pay, low status and morale as the key causes of poor performance and corrupt behavior in the public sector.Across the world, millions of teachers, most of them women, are working tirelessly for low wages educating the next generation.
Further, Institute for International Economic Policy (2004). Noted that teachers also complain about the lack of variety and role differentiation. In their careers, the limited incentives for them to improve their practice and develop as professionals, and the limited linkages between their performance, teacher compensation and teacher development. Dinham and Scott(2000) also showed that factors that affect teachers’ motivation include pay, interpersonal relations, authoritarian administration, teaching load, class size, supervision, promotion, student interest and behaviour, administrative efficiency, school facilities, community support and nature of the job.
Motivation is stimulated by a particular behaviour and satisfaction is the product of that behaviour. The level of intrinsicmotivation stimulated by working with children, ·seeing their progress and achievement and making-contribution to society are among the factors attributed to teacher’s satisfaction, andmaintaining a good level of motivation in the job (Zembylas&Papanastasiou, 2003). Satisfaction tends to motivate teachers toaim for higher performance and achievement to fulfil theirsense of accomplishment. Teachers need self-actualization because without it may lead to teacher burn-out and teachers therefore prepare to be provided with opportunities to enhance self-actualization. Self-actualization is the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities and potentialities. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves and to be doing the best that they are capable of doing.
According to Nieto (2003), self-actualization is the need for achieving full potential, personal and professional success and, reaching the peak of satisfaction. The greatest enjoyment inteaching comes from seeing students who have achieved success academically, and in seeing the students developing their personal characters and identities (Dornyef, 2000). Excellent teachers are motivated to continue teaching because they, are able to fulfill their personal accomplishment by seeing students’ successes. Motivation is associated with satisfaction (Dinham & Scott, 2000).
As stated by Wolfenson (2000), Education is a fundamental human right and the key to sustainable development, peace and stability within and among countries is the provision of education to the populace, of such countries. The learning environment and teachers’ motivation upon knowledge development relatively need attention in teaching and learning secondary school students. What happens in the classroom between psychological implication of teachers concerning their motivation and the student ability to study well has an impact on students’opportunity to learn. The activities in theclassroom, the repeatedactions in which students and teachers engage as they learn are important because they constitute the knowledge that is produced (Cobb, 2008).
Availability of teaching/learning resources and teachers’ motivation enhances the effectiveness of schools as these are basic things that can bring about good academic performance in the students. The educational effortthat will be helpful in developing human resources needed is not given much attention. Maicibi opined that all institutions are organization is made up of human beings (workers) and other non-human resources (Maicibi, 2003). He further asserts that when the right quantifies and qualityof human resources isbrought together, it can manipulateother resources towards realizing institutional goals and objectives. Consequently, every institution should strive to attract and retain the best of humanresource. The implication of these opinions is that well trained and motivated teachers in mathematics if well deployed to the secondary schools will bring about well-rounded students who will perform academically well in mathematics. Most teachers are trained and have clear goals to guide their teaching, but good motivations for the teachers and teaching/learning materials seem to be inadequate.
The relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, centre competencies educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance. Professional knowledge, skills and centre competencies occur when one feels effective in one’s behaviour. In other words, professional knowledge, skills and competencies can be seen when one is taking on and mastering challenging tasks directed at educational success, and performance(Filak &Sheldon, 2003). The above factors are closely similar to efficacyand of course it is well known that any teachers lose or fail to develop self-efficacy within educational settings (Dweck, 1999).
Statement of the Problem
Job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance.
Beginning from the last three decades to the present, various renowned writers have come to associate teacher’smotivation with the satisfaction of’ need of the workers. Odia (1977), writing in this regard contended that people/teachers are motivated to perform through financial incentives. He further contended that most Nigerians are at the lower order needs, which makes them to desire financial rewards’ before doing things.
It is pertinent however, to note that once the needs of the teachers are neglected in school, the beneficiaries of education such as government, parents/students and entire society will bein a state of chaos. Under this dreadful condition, teachers undoubtedly expected perform below expectation.
Purpose of the Study
- Identify the factors of motivation that influence teachers’ job performance in Secondary Schools in Abakaliki LGA.
- Determine the influence of school environment in motivating teachers Performance in secondary school in Abakaliki LGA.
- Ascertain the role of instructional materials provision as a motivator to the performance of secondary school teachers in Abakaliki LGA.
- Examine the influence of incentives on job performance of Secondary school Teachers in Abakaliki LGA.
Significance of the Study
For administration to be effective and productive, teachers must be effectively motivated. There are many problems that relate to motivation of teachers in our schools. Such as job-dissatisfaction, workload, salary structure, promotion retardation etc. These problems have contributed immensely to the low productivity in our schools.
Since there is hardly any text specifically on the topic, it is hoped that findings from this study will serve as a source of inspiration to those aspiring to go into teaching’ profession. It will also be beneficial to individuals, educational system, and to entire nation.
Furthermore, this research work will serve as a germane literature for educational administrators and those responsible for the financing of education whenever the need arises.
Consequently, the government especially those responsible for educational planning and administration and those responsible for financing of education will now be more aware of the kind of problem teachers face when their counterpart in companies and Government parastatals enjoy more fascinating and regular salaries.
Finally, this research work will go a long way in making the teachers to put in their best and also be dedicated to their duties.
Scope of the Study
The study is to examine the Motivation and Teachers’ performance in Secondary Schools in Abakaliki Local Government Area. The scope of the study is limited to motivation factors such as school environment, instructional materials, good incentives and teachers’ performance.
The following research questions guided the study:
- What are the motivational factors that affect teachers’ job performance in Secondary Schools in Abakaliki LGA?
- How does school environment motivate teachers’ performances in secondary school in Abakaliki LGA?
- How do provision of instructional materials influence performances of secondary school teachers in Abakaliki LGA?
- How do incentives improve job performance of Secondaryschool Teachers in Abakaliki LGA?