INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF PARENTS ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE.
- Background of the study
Social economic status is a very good indicator of school achievement as for as the family is concerned and it is believe that the higher the socio-economic status of the child’s family, the higher the child is expected to achieve in the school. This is expected because according to Boocock in dubey, D, L., Edem, D.A. and Thakur, A. S. (1999) the relationship of socio economic status to achievement is always consistent, even if our measure of status is occupation of the father, education of parents, income of the family or combination of these things. Socio economic status remains the most important predictor even in the face of that significant variable known as ability.
According to cerrel (1991) findings, education aims at individual development, that is, if gives an individual all the opportunities, mentally, socially, physically, morally and other means of preparing the students for adult live. The national policy on education (2004) (section 1:5) stresses this further when it says that one of the national educational objectives is the acquisition of appropriate skills, ability and competences both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of the society. If the socio economic status of parents is poor the children individual abilities will not develop because of financial inability, the students may drop out of school. When this happen the child will end up hawking or other business activities for survival in the society.
Mugrave (2004) stated that what education means to a child depends on the parents’ level of education, the level placed on it by parents and the motivation and reinforcement by adult in child’s life. Studies also indicate that, educated parents seem to be more democratic in that child learning practice. In this, more freedom is given to a child to contribute in decision making as a part of independent training, which will be usefully to him in the school.
Okediadi (1990) emphasized that, parents of higher educational level show more interest in the education of their children and even go to inquire and discuss their programmes. In addition, children from educated parents are expected to make greater use of their initiatives and to experiment and explore their environment and these initiatives, independences, experimentation and exploration enhances the expression of good academic performance but the student from less privilege homes do not benefit.
However, the socio economic status of parents has a very great influence on the academic performance of their children because parents with low income tend to have limited ability in maximizing opportunities for their children. Okediadi (1990), observed that, a family may even require the direct assistance of their children in earning money through hawking or other economic activities and may in most cases be unable to provide opportunities that are not available within public schools.
On the contrary, children from wealthy homes have the opportunities of attending school early in life and are provided with resources in a manner of creating preschool condition necessary for successful school performance they may provide their children with a comfortable atmosphere, rich in amenities like audiovisual aids, books, magazines, newspapers, spacious and personal rooms that is conducive for studying.
Thompson (1997) say that many of the fundamental beliefs, attitude and ways of thinking which a child will carry with him to adult life are inculcated in him long before he goes to school. He further stressed that the education the children receive from parents is mostly likely to have highly significance and dominant effect on their behavior in latter life. Because the way a child behaves or responds depends on the attitude and behavior they acquire from home.
So, the influence of parents socio economic status on child’ primary and secondary education has a lot do on the child’s academic performances. Some students may be intelligent but due to poor socio economic status of their parents they will not perform creditably in the school.
Social classes and economic status of parents enhance the academic performance of their children. Dockwill (2002), stated that, there are many different kind of education as there are social milieus in any given society. He further proves that differences in social class orientation has adversely affected the academic performance are the root to all the inequalities that exist in our society.
The inequalities in our students’ academic performance seem to be as a result of socio economic status of parents.
- Statement of the Problem
Many societies held the view that the academic performance of students depends more on their parent’s socio economic status and their level of education on their children. These academic Performances do not depend on the quality of instruction at school or the teacher’s teaching method but it also depends on the home. In looking into the environment which gives good academic performance, one could ask or be tempted to ask, to what extent does the parents’ socio-economic status affect the students academic performance? The researcher therefore, looked at the influence of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in Ikwo local government area.
1.3 purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in secondary school in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
Specifically, the purpose is to find out.
(1) How parental level of income influence the academic performance of students in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
(2) How parental occupational level influence the academic performance of students in Ikwo Local Government area of Ebonyi State.
(3) How parental social class influence the academic performance of students in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
1.4 Significance of Study
To the students, this study is intended to help the students from the poor parental background to understand that coming from poor economic background is not the end of everything, rather they should always be regular in school and pay greater attention to their teachers and also make effective use of school libraries and other available instructional materials within the school.
To the parents, this study will help the poor parents to understand that, Education is for all and it is not meant for the rich alone, therefore they should be encouraged to always provide their children within their capacity. Also poor parents have to encourage their children to put their best in pursuit of knowledge irrespective of circumstances surrounding them.
To the curriculum planners, this study will help the, to ensure that the curriculum is planned in such a way that it will take care of the divergent better placed or the higher class should always try to assist those students from disadvantaged homes. This study will also help in solving some of the differences in the student’s performance resulting from parent socio economic status.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study investigated the influence of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. In terms of scope and content the study investigated parental level of income, parental level of occupation, parental level of education, parental social class and family size as influence, socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Ikwo local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
1.6 Research Question
The study is guided by the following research questions.
- To what extent does the parental level of income influence the academic performance of students?
- To what extent does the educational level or qualification of parents affect the academic performance of students?
- To what extent does the social class of parents influence student’s performance at school?
Review Related Literature
This chapter reviews related literature on the influence of socio-economic status of parents on the academic performance of students. Many researches carried out on child’s performance during school years show that the socio-economic status of the child’s home background influences the child’s performance. This chapter review related issues such as:
- Empirical studies on socio-economic background of parents.
(i) Parental level of education
(ii) Parental level of income.
(iii) Parental level of occupation
(v) Family size
- Nigeria economic status vis-à-vis socio-economic status of parents
- Appraisal of literature
2.1 Empirical Studies on socio-economic background of parents.
Onyia (2002) defined socio-economic status as the social and economic position of an individual or a family in any given society determined by such factors as the level of education, occupation and income. It is believed the higher the socio-economic status of the child’s family the higher the child is expected to achieve in the school. The parental socio-economic background influences the academic performance of their students.
2.1.1 Parental Level Education
Parental level of education towards the education of their children has been seen to be more important variable in the family. Douglas (1999) says. That parental interest is a motivating factor for success. It can be measured by the number of limes parents visit the school to discuss their children progress and supervise their academic work and guide them in their education. Students from high socio-economic status observe and handle a variety of things which broaden their knowledge, sense of understanding and perception which contribute to high academic performance.
Sexon (1990) says, that child’s opportunity for education may be influenced by his parent’s level of education. Educated parents are aware of their responsibility to the education of their children’s progress at school and so help them with their school work. They visit them occasionally in school to inquire and discuss their student’s performance and progress of which uneducated parents have no time for.
Foster (1998) stated in his findings that there is a relationship between a child access to secondary school and the educational level of the parents. He stated that, the offspring of parents with urban pattern of residence appear to have greater chances of obtaining access to secondary school education than other group in the society. Further, he said that it is becoming clear that the more society. Further, he said that it is becoming clear that the more educated parents are, the more educated they want their children to be. The uneducated parents do not see the importance of formal education on development of positive attitude of schooling, which will encourage their children to persevere in school until the end of the course. The uneducated parents do not realized that the higher the educational level is completed the better the child’s chance of securing a lucrative job. Educated parents do not influence the academic performance of their children because they know the importance of education.
- Parental Level of Income
It is a clear fact that poverty can adversely affect the education performance of students. According to muagrave (2001) children from low income home to school with two-folder handicaps. Their innate intelligence is under developed in certain aspect that is important for success in present day educational systems.
Their personality is so structured that they are likely do well at school and the low social class students have a very general notion of the future that is capable of pursuing long term goals.
Wedge and posse (1999) summarized the cumulative handicap of children who suffer from poverty and poor family. He noted that the medical history of these students were hardly conducive to educational success compared with other students. Many children from low income home are sent home from school or deserted from certain activities because of lack of income to provide prescribed materials.
In terms of material circumstances parents of the relatively higher social class are able to supply their children with more opportunities to have those materials which aid them in learning in school.
Boyle (1998), states that poor education of children of poor parents is due to inequality of resource among the rich and the poor. He further said that no amount of compulsory education can overcome educational disabilities imposed on the poor status by their class origin. Parents of high socio-economic background are financially capable of providing early schooling opportunities for their children, they have positive attitude towards the schooling of their children. In addition, they are more likely to possess the financial means and willingness to provide these learning materials for them. Therefore, they are psychologically and socially demoralized and these affect their school achievement adversely.
Duncan (1998) says that the income of the parents measures their ability to provide their children with a stimulating environment. Children from high socio-economic background of parents enjoy better stimulating environment than children from low socio-economic background of parents. For example in a high socio-economic status family the members of the family are literate and are likely to encourage the child to learn at home. They may be a television set, radio, pictures reading and writing materials which stimulate the child to learn at home in readiness for the school work. Parents of socio-economic upper class may have more positive attitude towards their children’s schooling and have higher expectations and standards for their children due to their level of income Dubey (1979). According to him, the upper class child eats a balanced diet and thus is healthy. Therefore, he is better prepared for academic work than the child from cower class who may find it difficult to prepare also for academic work because of the parents level of income.
2.1.3 Parental Level of Occupation
According to Hurlock (2001) the parent’s level of occupation is an important factor to a young child. Because it has direct impact on the child’s welfare. He said that, when a child is ashamed of his occupation either because of the level of works done or the type of clothes demanded by the work the child attitude towards his parents home and himself will be adversely affected
According to Jencks (1998) occupation are a much studied component of socio-economic background of parents. Occupations are closely related to education, earnings and compared with single year income may better measure a family’s permanent economic position.
- Family Size
Family size is an important factor that influences student’s academic performances. According to Douglas (1999) there is correlation between family size and measure in children academic performance in school. He said that the relationship between family size and measured intelligence is not the same for all social classes.
Wilkins (1992) illustrated the academic implication of the large sized family. He observed form his study that, as family get larger parents cannot give their children the same amount of individual attention and they cannot give their children the same amount of individual attention and they cannot give their children the same amount of individual attention and they cannot afford to provide them with the same money which will help them to make the best possible use of their fees in school. Children’s of a large family learns verbal skills less effectively form their parents than the children’s from smaller family.
According to Ezewu (1993) families differ much in terms of their significance in the social order. Some family have more prestige, money knowledge of how to operate within their environment some families are therefore in a better position to help members of the family. The family continues to exercise influence over the child even when he is under the influence of other socializing agents such as the school.
In a family that can severely afford enough food, shelter, clothing and the basic needs of life pressure is exerted on the young ones to leave school early in order to secure employment and thereby help the family.
- Parental Social Class
The parental social class has a great influence in children development. According to Sorenon (1992) progress in school is facilitated more for the children of upper and middle class parent middle and upper class families typically expect their children to achieve high level of education. While lower class families typically expect their children to drop out of school at some point and enter the labour market to because independent financially or contribute to the family budget. These different patterns of family expectations explain why members of upper class families attain higher level of educational achievement than children from tower social class families. According to onyia (2002) family expectation concerning educational success can therefore be said to be related to the socio-economic background of parents.
Kennedy (1991) says that after intelligence social class is probably most critical variable in the determination of achievement and social class out with differential emphasis upon academic performance which is extremely important at upper social class level and relatively less important at the tower class.
According to Rickard (1994) on series of investigation on family variables indicated that children from upper and middle from tower class. Rickard (1994) further said, that it is an established fact that the class to which a child belongs determiners the type of social interaction he will academic performance. Children that come from upper and middle class obtain high grades. In school that those children from tower social class.
Kaly (1993) in his findings on the relationship between parental social class and children’s chance of getting through a secondary school. He finds that the higher the parents social class the greater the students chance of performing well in school.
Afejuku (1992) stated that some children from tower social class do not perform well, but most of them include in trading after secondary school career thereby lacking academic motivation. On other hand, children from high social class families attend the best schools. Some schools are providing with very good facilities, good desks, chains, chalkboards, books paper and libraries including well qualified teachers. While other schools which are better equipped are reserved for children of high social class parents, such schools attract high fees and only parents of high class do everything possible to ensure that their children attend the best schools. In this way they are able to gain admission into special secondary schools which provide the best avenue to university education. Finally the children of parents of high social class are able to gain access to prestigious occupation and high income which retain them in the high social class position.
General (1991) in his finding on the social class influence, says that low class individual is inhibited form utilizing his talents fully due to class discrimination and that, as a result of this background develops attitude and values that inhibit him from making the best opportunity available to him.
Kely (1993) in his own observation says that the lower class parents find it difficult to train their children in school because they believe that keeping them too long in school means contemned expenses and also loss potential earning power. According to him, lack of parental aspiration founds the education among the children of low socio-economic group result to an increase in school dropout among there group. Kaly 1993 further stated from his finding that, the low socio-economic group do not take the pressure upward mobility and so many of the children from low socio-economic background are not interested in academic achievement and they ended up dropping out of the school.
The socio-economic background of parents can either facilitate or militate against their children academic performance.
- Nigeria Economic Status vis-à-vis
Socio-economic status of parents.
The structure of an economy may be regarded as the basic organs and processes of reaching decision as to how production and distribution in the economy are to be undertaken. Toward (1992) defines the structure of an economy as the organizational, institutional and the actual framework of any economic system which includes the nature of resources ownership and control. Specifically, the structure of any economy refers to the norm, conducts of production activities or established by an economic system.
Nigeria economy is characterized by dualistic production systems whereby informal formal curb market system exists with modern formal system. This modern system is more productive and deficient.
According to Augustus and Philip (2004) the contribution of the oil sector to Nigeria economy are higher than other section.
In 1970 the Nigeria economy grew relatively almost for good because the emergence of the boom in crude oil production was responsible for impressive growth.
However, the happy situation could not retained for long due to gross economic mis-management is the most important and the immediate cause of the difficulties which the economy has been going through since 1991. but the domestic structural imbalance and the external dependence of the economy as it has developed over the decades were responsible for the external collapse, Olaoku (1994).
According to Alumode (2002), children are psychological and socially demoralized when their parents do not possess the financial means to provide for their learning materials and these affect their school achievement adversely.
Moreover, socio-economic status of parents influence children’s academic performance so much as a result of income, occupation and education, family size and social class. Further more, the Nigeria economy contributed as well because when the economy of the country is imbalance the parents finds it difficult to eat, not even to take of training their children academically. But when Nigeria economy is balance the parents send their children to school and also encourage them by providing the materials that is needed for learning because they have financial means.
- Appraisal of literature
Having reviewed the bulk of literature related to this study, it has been observed that much has not been said about the socio-economic status of parents and how it influences the academic performance of students. To this effects, the research is poised to fill the gap through this study by taking a delve to carry out an in-depth study on the socio-economic status of parents and students academic performance. The purpose is to find out what influence the former has on the letter.
However, the researcher appreciates the effort of the various authors whose works were cited, for the scholarly write ups which were in attempt to address the socio- economic status of parents and its influence on the academic performance of students.
This section described the methods adopted in this study. It specifies the research design, the source of data and the procedures adopted in data collection and analysis, population of the study, sample size, research instrumentation, validity and reliability of the research instrument, questionnaire and interviews structure.
This study adopts a quantitative approach in analyzing the research questions. The study adopts a survey approach through a set of questionnaires which were designed to elicit opinions of the population. The researcher deems it fit to use sampling techniques because of impossibility of making the whole population of the students for study.
Area of Study
The area of study is Model Comprehensive Secondary School Agubia Ikwo. The proximity of the school has also contributed to the choice of the area of the study.
Sources of Data
The collection of data for this study was mainly gathered from the primary and secondary sources. Both were judiciously used for the purpose of drawing empirical conclusion or arriving at dependable solutions to the problems.
These are data arising from questionnaires and direct interview. The researcher maintained friendly outlook and environment while getting the original vital information from the management or students of the institution. The researcher went a long way in playing certain research instrumentals such as oral interview, questionnaires, observation among others so as to source valid and reliable information for the production of this work.
These data are already existing facts documented by other authors for the purpose of arriving at dependable solutions to the problems. They include data collected by looking into literature reviews related to the study giving credit to other author’s works. Seeing what others have done and picking what relates to this research topic.
Population of the Study
The population of this study comprised mainly the students of model secondary school Agubia Ikwo. The researcher interviewed and distributed eighty five questionnaires with a random selection.
Instrument for Data Collection
The researcher used information already reviewed by other researchers. In addition, the researcher used a simple descriptive survey method, interview and questionnaire with the students of the school. This survey method was used to source relevant data, these data together with some obtained from the literature review were summarized, analyzed and interpreted to proffer solution to the problem of the study. The researcher distributed a set of eighty five questionnaires out of them a total of eighty questionnaires were completed and returned. The researcher distributed the questionnaires to students and staff. The questionnaire were in form of ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions.
Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Valid and reliable research instrument is one proved to be accurate, consistent and timely. The questionnaire, oral interviews, articles, journals and text books by renowned authors are proved to be relevant, true and consistent to prove the validity of this research works.
This analyzes data was based on the number of questionnaire completed and returned using simple statistical tools like table and percentages. Testing for the data was done using chi-square (x2) tests. The chi-square test is one of the most standardized statistical distributions used in testing hypothesis karl person developed it in 1990.
The researcher was able to find out the relationship between the parents socio economic status and the students performance. Stating that the status (economic) determines the standard school that will be learner and learning friendly.
Also from the finding the researcher also noted that the performance of the child will be enhanced or jeopardized depending on the extent or level of exposure since it has to do with the economic status of the parents to provide for the child’s needs that has to do with the society.
The researcher also believes that students from well educated parents are being encouraged by their parents in their educational. Their parents provide them with education materials, necessary facilities and stimulant which enhance their reading and learning abilities but students from low social class do not have all the facilities that will help them in their educational pursuit.
The main aim or purpose is this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic status of parents on the academic part of students in Ikwo L.G.A of Ebonyi State. There are five variable in parental level of education parental social class, occupation, income and family size there are positive relationship between the student academic performances and parental socio-economic Status.
Students from low class level are found to come from un-conducive educational environment. However this un-conducive education environment found to be contributing to their poor performance. The low class parents are their students Raymore on nature rather than nurture for their up-brining. It was found that, students from of upper socio-economic class, inform better academically than those from of poor socio-economic-background.
Based on of results of the findings, the interpretation, the implication and the summary, the researcher recommends the followings:
Government should provide some incentive that will encouraged more people into education such scholarship, building of more schools and even free transportation to school for students whose home are far from school.
Government should provide enlightenment program through school administrators the enlivenment programme should aim at educating of parents on the important of education and this step help in fostering health attitudes towards the secondary education of students.
Difference in socio-economic status of the students should be called for employment of guidance and counselor in every secondary school. Knowledge of socio-economic status of the students enables the counselor to trace of causes of certain deviant behaviors and to seek remedies.
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Dubey, D.L. Edem, D.A. and Thakur, S. (1999) An Introduction to the sociology of Nigeria education. London and Bashringstroke: The Macmillan press ltd.
Duncan, G. (1998). A sociology of education. Lagos: Longman Nigeria limited.
Ezewu, E.E. (1993). A sociology of education. Lagos: Longman Nigeria limited.
Granel, D. (1991). Social class origin and academic success. Ibadan:calveriarum press.
Kaly, J.A. (1993). Social class origin and academic success. Ibadan: calveriarum press.
Onyia P.C. (2002). Sociology and society. Enugu: five Senses production.
Richard, S. (1994) trends in parental socialization values. American Journal of sociology, 90,359-382.
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Wedge, D. and posse, S. (1999). The effect of income on child development. The review of economics and statistics, 8 261-27.
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