INFLUENCE OF POOR ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS EDUCATION OF FEMALE IN NGBO WEST DEVELOPMENT CENTRE IN EBONYI STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is the process of becoming critically aware of one’s reality in a manner that leads to effective action up it. An educated man/women understands his/her world well enough to deal will it effectively, such men/women if they existed in sufficient numbers would not leave the absurdities of the present world unchanged. In the opinion of Edukugho (2002), stated that prosperity of a country depends not on the abundance of its revenue, nor the strength of its, fortifications, but on the numbers of its cultivated citizens, men and women of education, enlightenment and character.
Women empowerment can only be achieved through the provision of adequate and functional education to the women folk. This is crucial because no matter how rich or vast a nation is, without an effective, efficient, adequate and financial educational for all its citizens (men and women) education which is relevant to its immediate needs goals and objectives such a nation would find it difficult to stand on its own.
The brand of education being advocate is that type of education in which is embedded the spirit of self realization and all that needed for the country’s over all development like mass literacy, economic empowerment (Esere, 2001). The need for women education is also informed by the fact that purposeful occupational achievement and satisfaction is ensured by deep self-awareness and understanding which can only be achieved through the provision of effective and functional education and/ on guidance and counseling.
This, has been noted is likely to guarantee women empowerment with its root based on women struggle to improve their status. The empowerment suggested is such that entails the process of challenging power relations and of gaining wider control over source of power. This, however, cannot be achieved without the provision of reasonable access formal and functional education to the women folk. This is based on the premise that education has been adjudged to be a viable instrument of change in the positive direction.
In the spirit of universal basic education (UBE), provision of formal and functional education is needed for the women folk because: it would empower them to fight against every form of discrimination against their folk, assert themselves about their right to equal treatment with their men counterpart as bonfire citizens of this country, Nigeria, it will also empower them to known and ask for their right to education, health, shelter food, clothing,
With regards to women education special effort will be education made by ministries of education and local government authorities in conjunction with ministries of community development and social welfare and of information to encourage parents to send their daughters to school (FGN, 1998:14).
The tract reference made to women education in the national policy on education is contained in the primary section of the document; it must be observed here that no further reference was made to the provision of women education in this all important document on education.
Nagees (1995) opined that the absence of a policy statement on women education as reflected in the national policy on education (NPE), make NPE full short of women expectations and it amounts to a total disregard for that section of the population in this country. The plight of women, in terms of education is further compounded by the negative attitude of parents towards female education. Some parents are usually reluctant to send their girl child for formal education especially to higher levels like their male counterpart. An open secret today that Nigeria women are educationally backward when compared with the male ones. According to (1991) national population census, women alone constitutive 49.790 of the overall population with 70% of this being illiterate. It has discovered also that 7% of Nigerian women 35 years and above are illiterate.
INFLUENCE OF POOR ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS EDUCATION OF FEMALE IN NGBO WEST DEVELOPMENT CENTRE IN EBONYI STATE
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is regrettable and unfortunate that parental attitude towards heir female children education particularly in Ngbo west development centre of Ebonyi state has attracted a lot of controversy and a great concern. Some parents in Ngbo west do not value female education, their prefer giving out their daughters to early marriage, their believe that educating female is wasting money and resources because after educating female child it become another man property and the parents has nothing to gain from educating the female once. This negative attitude of parents has drastically reduced the number of female folk in the female education and it has increased illiterate house wives to 70%. This is the problem this research work is set to evaluate.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.
- This study is aimed at finding out the influence of poor attitude of parents toward education of female in Ngbo west development centre in Ebonyi state.
- The research also aimed at finding the factors that influence parents against female education in Ngbo west development centre in Ebonyi state.
- To find out if parental educational background has any remarkable influence on female education.
- Finally, to find out if parents encourage female education in Ngbo west development centre in Ebonyi state.
1.4 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY.
The finding of this research will be useful to both parents and stakeholders in educational administration on the influence of parents attitude towards female education who will use this opportunity to encourage women education in our society.
Paradoxically, there are female ones that have the opportunity to attained high levels in education but couldn’t utilize it. So women will benefit from this study since it contains some relevant information that will encourage them to be more serious.
1.5 REVIEW OF RELATE LITERATURE.
In this literature review, the researcher will review different related works of some scholars so as to gain enough intellectual background and focus which will provide a framework for the present study.
PROBLEMS AGAINST WOMEN EDUCATION.
In Nigeria today especially in Ebonyi state women faces a lot of challenges towards their education, those problem includes:
Restricted access to education: restricted access to education by women in this country is profoundly rooted in history, religion culture, the psychology of self, law, political institution and social attitudes which interact in several ways to limit women’s access to formal education when compared with their male counterparts. For example, it has been observed that Nigerian women are lagging behind their counterparts in developed and some developing nations due to the late state in educating them. This is caused by our traditions and culture which are hostile to women. This tradition reduces them to kitchen manageresses and producers of babies. Thus, their education ideally, is expected to end in kitchen a condition which ironically is detested by many parents thereby discouraging their investment in girl- child education.
According to Oniye (1993), Reluctance to aspire is a major problem against women education. This is the main manifestation of African wrong socialization which tends to impress upon the subjects and professions are the exclusion preserve of men. Our socialization at the same fine confines women to certain roles (e.g. cooking, baby making, baby nursing, hone keeping etc.). This state of affairs is definitely a negation of the scientific discovery that women or not intellectually inferior to men. This is because of the factor that both male and female have 42 chromosomes in their genes. Furthermore, science has revealed that there is no innate biological or psychological reason why girls should not do as well as boys if given the opportunity and if provided with adequate motivation.
Other problem against women education include the familiar problems in Nigerian education like lack of founds, inadequate facilities, inadequate manpower, sexual harassment, conflicting societal role expectations, government polices and lack of political will power to implement the entire educational programme.
According to Oniye (2000), the inferiority complex observable in Nigeria women can be attributed to the influence of environmental manipulation for example through the traditional socialization process of the typical African society, women are made the accept negative self-fulfilling prophecy, stereotyping and stigmatization that they are members of a weaker sex. A present, the forces which combine to hamper women education and development in Nigeria could be viewed broadly to include denial of access to education, early marriage, confinement to solitary living, subjugation by culture to accept choices forced on them, discrimination and harassment at work, political disenfranchisement from elective and political appointment and explosive to cruel mourning rites upon the death of their husband.
Okebukola (2004) stated that resistance to women advancement within a patriarchal system is a further manifestation of our cultural practices which overtly and covertly interact to hinder women advancement especially from educational view point. This resistance is further engendered b cultural impediments imposed on women by her traditional assigned roles of housewife, mother baby sitter, member of inferior sex, stereotyped gender victim, among other. Thus, it is stated that the problem of resistance to women advancement are culture based and they include those brought about by homework conflict; ignorance on the past of many parents, erroneous belief that religion is against the provision of sound formal education to the girl child, gender stereotyping and stigmatization socio- economic constraints and poor attitudes of some parents.
It is pertinent to note at this juncture the greater access of men in Nigeria to education is none than their woman counterparts have very negative consequences on the lattes. In fact, it has been observed that this unwholesome situation is the principal factor that is responsible for the preponderance of women in lower positions in work organizations and less paid jobs. For instance, it has been noted by Ohadunni (1999) that Nigeria women are found predominantly in such occupations as teaching, nursing services, agriculture, small scale food processing, secretariat duties, clerical duties note counting in banks, cleaners and middle level professional occupations; consequently, it has been opined that majority of them are therefore poor, impoverished and susceptible to attack by a number of debilitating disease such as Vesto virginal Fisfuala (VVf) etc. and intellectual advancement. Apart from this, she is equally susceptible to being employed or engaged in low paying jobs or ventures which would translate into poor/weak economic base for her and her family. The uneducated woman is not likely to be in any position to influence decision, policies, and opinion which are likely to affect her welbing and those of her family. It has also been revealed that with poor educational attainment, the average Ebonyi State women is likely to encounter marital instability as a result of imminent spousal incompatibility between the educated man and his uneducated or poorly educated wife. The relations contained in this writer up imply that professional counselors would have to be ever alert to combat the negative repercussions of poor education base for Ebonyi State women.
IMPLICATION OF POOR WOMEN EDUCATION.
The quantity and quality of education available to Nigeria women will invariably determine the development pace of Nigerian families; children from such homes and the Nigerian nation at large. It has been noted that what they will be tomorrows depend on what plans Nigeria has for her women. Nigeria is craving for patriotic citizen to develop her potentials politically, economically socially and technological. The actualization of these goals is dependent on the provision of functional education of the citizenry especially the women who, as mothers are the teachers of the child in his/her first and last school (i.e. home). Thus unless the mother herself is adequately enlightened, she cannot inculcate in the child the spirit and principle of true patriotism –a basic requirement for national development. According to Masha (1994), among the factors militating against the development of the spirit of true patriotism are: Home indiscipline, tribalism, corruption in public life and lack of national ideology. It has thus been argued that Nigeria cannot develop fully without mothers who are patriotic and sincerely committed to the training of the young ones in the patriotic norms. The spirit of true patriotism advocated a socio-ethical value which inclines a citizen to the enlightened and legitimate love of his home, communities and native land.
According to Ugbede (1997) marital conflict is heightened among couples who are educationally incompatible. It was observed that educational difference between the sexes further aggravate. The social and economic differences between husband and wife for instance, educated men now discover to their dismay that their uneducated wives are unable to fit into their social and public life in the sense that such wives are incapable of responding to the requirements of their husband’s new ideas, status, and official position.
Another implication of the poor education opportunity for women is involvement in low paying ventures. It has been noted by oladunni (1999) that because of societal stereotype and stigmatization on certain professions and subject as the exclusive preserve of man and or women most Nigeria paid jobs like nursing services, teaching etc. It was submitted that some of the effects of this is that some of the effect of this is that majority of these women are poor and impoverished. This is critical bearing in mind level of education and poverty with most of the illiterate women being poorer than the educated counterparts.
According to Agbakaru (2002) education equips one with marketable skills thereby lifting possessor up from the poverty arena. essentially through education, the individual learns goods health habits, principles and practices which promote health living and longevity as well as acquire marketable skill that confer economics power on the education.
The low access to education automatically denies them the opportunity and power of influencing significantly public policies and programmes unlike their male counterparts. It thus implies that women will continue to play second fiddle in the exploited it can thus be said that the poor educational opportunity for Nigeria women would rob them of two things, the ability to positively affect their children’s educational development and extension the overall national development of the country.
Factors that influence women education in Nigeria.
There are a lot of factors that influence women education in Nigeria especially in Ebonyi state, those factor could be economic or social factors at this juncture, we shall examine the economic and social cultural factors impinging on women’s education in Nigeria. Currently statistics have continued to point to the fact that Nigerian women face control hardships which are often linked to their gender, while gender inequality continues to be rooted in traditional practices, values and norms exemplified in women’s reproductive and productive functions, especially those which underlie gender division of labour in the society. Generally, women’s contributions to the labour force is unrecognized, reduce or hampered, today, with the deepening economic cones in Nigeria, women continue to be the hardest lit.
Economic factor: for economic reasons, many parents consider women’s education as a waste of fund. Such parent believe that money open on girl education is a waste, snile she will soon marry into her husband’s family, thus leaving only boys in their original family to cater for their parents. Therefore, when families are faced with option of choosing between son’s and daughter’s are usually the victims.
Male chauvinism: another factor impinging on women’s education is male chauvinism. Some men are misogamists who do not believe in the education of women including their female children and wives. The “place of the women is in the kitchen” have compromised women’s desire for quality education for making thing difficult for women when it comet to educational development. Such men prefer to marry illiterate as wives for fear that the educate women is too assertive, domineering, free and in general a threat to the male dominated society.
Gender differentials in education Wiliams (1986) noted that existing data on Nigeria showed that all level of education, fewer girl than boys are enrolled at school despite the girl than boys are enrolled at school respite the numerical advantage of females for exampled girls drop out more often from school due to pregnancy’s, early marriages, heaving demand on girl’s time to perform household tasks, and economic reason, and because of limited occupational choice for female student. The educational in balance between men and women in Nigeria is also due to societal tradition and myths which relegate women’s education to the background vis-à-vis men.
Religious constrict: the forces of relation are also party responsible for the present plight responsible for the present plight of women’s education in Nigeria. According to Ojuolape (2000) stated that, a namely, Christianity, Islam and traditional religion in practices endorses equality between men and equality between men and women. Genesis 3: 16 is one of the planks at the base of the oppression of the women by men: in sorrow these shall bring forth children; and they desire forth children;
And they desire shall be to they husband and he shall be to they husband and he shall bring forth children; and he shall rule over thee.
The exemption of women from priesthood to most Christian denominations further confirms this submission. The practices of purdah Islam makes it difficult for married Muslim women to fully benefit from the educational system similarly, in traditional religion women must always stay in the background. That perhaps explain why women are usually kept out of shrines and the cuts of traditional religion.
House keeping, family and school life constraints: Nigerian society believes primarily in the role model of women as perfect house wives.
Akinsete (1995) stated most women, therefore, struggle to be successful house wives in some situations, such struggles keep women out of the school system. May women, in their bid to play multiple roles such as house wives, mothers proving household labour, worker, often have little time for educational advancement the family child works thrice as mush as, or even more than the men child. This is because house keeping is considered a central feature in the upbringing of the girl child, while the boy’s child is often free of this fine censuring engagement. So when the chips are down, the boy child has more time for school work than the girl child. House keeping assignments may often make the girl child to become too tired to concentrate on her studies. Thus may be one of the reasons why the educational wastage rate of girls is often higher than that of boy. The career development of women is often tailored along specific occupations, traditionally-stereotyped as female occupation. Without saying it loud, the school system encourages the girl child to become a gentle nurse are primary school teacher.
TRADITIONAL/ CULTURAL CONSTRAINTS:
According to Fadeiye (2001), stated that culture and traditions of May ethnic groups in Nigeria are full of obvious of gender stereotyping. Education for girl’s right from the very beginning was designed to make them primary effective mothers and housewives. Hence girls were brought up in the traditional family set up to be passive, obedient, “ladylike” and always submissive to men. Boy on the hand, were encouraged to be aggressive as her ultimate goal and ambition, from birth to betrothal, her whole life is just are long preparation for assuming the role of wife and mother. In sonce ethno culture in Nigeria for example, she is molded for a life of anonymity and sacrifice.
Early marriage in some part of the country, particularly in the North, early marriages are a permanent festive, in which case, girls are given for marriage at the age of between twelve and thirteen years this condition can lead to serious health hazards, especially the popular vesicular vagina fistula (VVT) condition and other social developments. In this case the girls opportunities are destroyed she them misses the chance of furthering her educational careers and this no doubt can upset her other wise, peaceful life.
IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN EDUCATION:
The benefits derivable from education include the following: enhancement of the quality of living, food, housing, clothing, health, transport, communication, entertainment and gainful use of leisure. If the vast majority of our women folk were educated, their personal development would have been enhanced remarkable; children and husband also stand to gain tremendously.
Ali (1995) states that, the importance of formal and non-formal education is predictable and acknowledged in Nigeria even since the pre-colonial era. Even the illiterates in Nigeria now appreciate the importance of education, not minding they do not have it. The appreciation has come a long way indeed, the founding fathers of Nigeria include: chief Awolowo, chief Herbert Macauley Azikiwe, Allaji Amino kano, Mazi Mbonu Ojike and a host of others play very important roles in ensuring the establishment and nurturing of a variety of schools catering for a variety of personal and national needs particularly before and after independence in 1960.
MARITAL OBLIGATION: According to Ojiakor (1997), stated that education helps in the fulfillment of women’s obligation. A married woman is expected to take care of her home, husband and children she is expected to use whatever knowledge and skills she has to cook, clean and rear her children. There is no doubt that a women who is able to read about health care, nutrition, body changes, modern household equipment etc, will perform creditably to the will her God given responsibility to the home and society at large. Educated women will be able to help her children with their school assignments. She may also go beyond that to further enlighten them in their school world, attend parent’s teacher association (PTA) meeting and inquire about the academic performances of her children. This will ensure blissful homes; will educate and well behaved children, contented husbands and an endowed nation.
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: Half of the world’s populations are women and two thirds of the work is done by them. About 75 percent of agricultural output in Nigeria is produced through women’s efforts (Adeyeye, 1995). Ironically the people that participate most in agricultural production are the least educate. Therefore, provision of basic literacy skill acquisition for illiterate female will no doubt ensure bumper agricultural production.
Health, Alao (1998) stated that mothers help in on small measure in securing health for the children and by so doing for the entire community and nation. Attaining good health starts right from the womb. It starts from the pregnant mother knowing and taking what constitute balance diet, abstaining from damaging drugs, and actions inimical to the health of the baby. A woman can be aware of all these harmful conditions if she of educated, since most enlightenment companies against disease are transmitted through the radio, television, new paper, posters, pamphlets or magazines, in the local languages or English language. If women are educated they will have knowledge of basic health care and will be in a position to help others to maintain and improve their own health.
NATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION: If women were educated, they would be able to assist in the nation building and reconstruction a few women are currently holding powerful positions in our country today and elsewhere in the world. There is still room for improvement if more women were educated. Perhaps with more women holding the mantle in a male dominated political arena, the socio-political state of affairs the world over will definitely improve.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: The importance of women education to a balance human development cannot be over emphasized. “The aim of re-orienting the women population is to help reform the society”. The improvement of society could be effected through the development of the potentialities of the women folk. Ibe (1995) quoting the 1978 general conference of UNESCO meeting said.
Increasing educational opportunities for women boost equity and foster national development. The potential contribution of educate and trained women to labour force and the importance of their education in the improvement of family welfare and planning are factors still under estimated in national development.
It is also pertinent to mention here that the higher the level of education, the greater the likelihood that a women will stay in the labour force. The participation of women with university degree is more than double that of women who have only primary education. This creates an increasing pool of experienced and skilled personal from which supervisory and management positions can be filled.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: in the economic sphere, most women engage in small scale or large scale business. Also women who are married to entrepreneurs and by time businessman will be able to help such husbands if educated; they husband intelligently and offer useful advice to them concerning their jobs. Such women will able to deal their husband’s business partners, friends and other highly placed associated without the slightest feeling of inferiority or share furthermore, if women are educated and are gainfully employed, they can assist their husbands in financing the home and in the education of their children.
1.6 EMPIRICAL STUDIES.
Having established the importance of education in national development, it is opposite to maintain that girl- child or the female gender has been dastardly affected. Within the literacy limit, the literacy level of boys or the male gender far exceeds that of the female gender. Since the female child metamorphoses into the women folk, the literacy level among Nigerian women especially in Ebonyi state has been very low compared to that of men. Nigerian women have very low educational status compared with their male counterparts. Despite efforts at increasing the supply of female education, building of more schools, subsides for female pupils etc. The demand her female education is still very low (Odili etal 2000). Gender disparity with girls and women as the disadvantaged is a well-known feature of Nigeria’s educational landscape. This has often been compounded by geographical and social disparities, with the disadvantaged states and the socially disadvantaged groups in the population bearing a heavier burden of gender inequality.
According Onyemelukwe (1995) stated that female education, however still lags behind that of males in many respects. For instance, female enrolment rates at all the levels of formal education remain below those of male; girls have a higher drop out rate; girls are much fewer in the important subject area of science, technology and mathematics and their career choice is still largely confined to the feminine’ area of teaching, nursing, secretarial studies, catering etc.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK.
Education is the shaping of behavior or modification of behavior of the individual for adequate adjustment in the society.
Okafor (1999) defines education as a process of acculturation though which the individual is helped to attain the development of all his potentials and their maximum activation when necessary, according to right reason and thereby achieve his perfect self-fulfillment.
Women education is defined as education geared towards developing the abilities, attitudes, values, and skills, acquired knowledge, and other forms of behaviors of the female that will have both positive and meaningful effects on the society to which she belongs. There is no other a women can develop inner lying talents except through education. These is no way in which marginalization and discrimination will affect a well educated women, because she knows her right and believes in herself and sky will be her limit. It is self concept orientation, as well as educational attainment level that will determine whether discrimination and cultural negative attitudes will have effect on her or not.
A woman empowerment according to Suko (1999:32) is defines as a process of enabling women to develop the capacity to actualize their potentials. Those women should be looked at as individual that possess some hidden potentials for greatness and so should be encouraged to develop such to the fullest. It is also a process of opening up something that has unlimited potentials. It means giving traditional and legal status to the efforts of women to develop and contribute to the creation of wealth, taking and participating in decision making of their families and societies at large and to reduce their families and societies at large and to reduce their present state of vulnerability, decrease dependency and passivity and be at the centre, not at the periphery.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
This study concentrated on the influence to parents attitude towards on female education in Ebonyi state. Some communities will be sampled in Ngbo west development centre of Ebonyi state as area of the study.
1.9 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:
This research is aimed at answering the following questions.
- Has attitude of parents towards their female children any influence in their education?
- What are the factors that influence parents against female education in Ngbo west development centre in Ebonyi state?
- Has parental educational background any remarkable influence on female education?
- Do parents in Ngbo west development centre encourage female education?
INFLUENCE OF POOR ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS EDUCATION OF FEMALE IN NGBO WEST DEVELOPMENT CENTRE IN EBONYI STATE
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