MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ISSUES
Management information system (MIS) is a concept that has been building in popularity for the last 20 years. This progress has coincided with technological innovations that enable information to be used and stored more affectedly than previously. Entrepreneurs need to understand the issues impacting information systems if they are to be effective in contributing to the economy of the county.
A management information system manages the information a business needs to run effectively. While these systems have existed for hundreds of years, the MIS is referred to in recent times is more indicative of a consistent approach to developing an information framework replete with guidelines, polices, procedures and standards supportive of the society’s goal. Hence MIS is could be said to be a strategic information system that if used effectively, manifests itself as a tool that builds profit margins (ehow. Com, 2012).
Given the numerous advantages and contributions, of MIS, one of the biggest issues facing MIS either in its development or its usage, lies in the fact that the systems do not have a concrete definition or a quantitative measure. Without ways to make its use measurable and understandable, how can its success (or lack of success) be engaged? And much of the research into MIS has neglected to look at the myriad of different types and focus on how each would apply. MIS research tends to look at issues in such a narrow way that practical applications to a given business are few if any.
MIS AND WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP
More interestingly, the focus on women is not only because they have not been reached as substantially as male entrepreneur’s but also because research has shown that women exhibit more “fumaroles” traits (e.g. tenderness) (Ben 1981), which distinguished than from other user groups. The meta-analysis of Paylor and Hall (1982) suggested that there feminine traits correlate with “expressive” behaviors. There is substantial evidence in organizational behavior and management information system research (e.g. Davis, 1989; Davis et al 1989, Mathieson, 1991; Paylor and Todd 1995) suggested that the key underlying cognition determining an individual’s attitude toward the behaviour of adopting and using a new technology in the world of technology. Specifically the link between usefulness perceptions and attitude towards using a new technology has been shown to have path coefficients ranging from 50 (Davis et al 1989) to 79 (Taylor the Todd 1995). Given these stop results, it could be concluded that an individual’s altitude towards using a technology in the workplace reflects in instrumentality and intrinsic motivation to use technology. Venkatesh et al (2000) reported higher instrumentality (i.e. outcome) for men and higher process orientation (ease of use difficultly) for woman as determinants of technology adoption. Their findings support the notion of earlier research (such as Henning & Jardim 1977, Rotter a Portugal 1969) the women tend to foes on the methods used to accomplish a task-suggesting a greater process orientation. Given the process-orientation of women and the lower levels of could (Mirowsky & Ross 1990) generally perceived by woman in the work environment, the perceived ease of use or difficulty of using technology is expected to have an important influence over their decisions to adopt or to reject a new technology (Venkatesh et al 2000). Further, there is evidence to suggest that women display somewhat higher level of computer anxiety (Bozionclos, 1996; Morrow et al 1986) and lower computer aptitude (Felter 1985) compared to men (Chen 1985). Both computer anxiety and computer aptitude have been related to perceptions of effort, thus suggesting that constraints to technology use (perceived difficulty) will be more important than usefulness to woman in technology adoption and usage if women are more interested in process than outcome. However, a body of research (Delarlo & Lyons 1979; Homaday & Aboud 1971) has shown that entrepreneurs have high need of achievement. Because of the advancement needs of entrepreneurs and other entrepreneurs’ traits, women entrepreneurs are likely to be influenced by instrumentality in decisions making processes about a new system. Hence, the traits of women entrepreneurs may have different implicates for their perception of technology usefulness and ease of use.
WOMEN AND RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Women have owned and operated business for decades, but they were rarely recognized or given credit for their efforts. Often women entrepreneurs were “invisible” as they worked side by side with their husbands.
Due to growth of educational level, professional education, industrialization, urbanization, and democratic values awareness the tradition bound Nigeria society is now undergoing a change and women are coming out more freely to take challenges and face risks of entrepreneurship, (Oduma, 2012). In rural areas, the gender issues is usually a more stronger hindering factor to potential female entrepreneurs than it is in urban areas, their self esteem and managerial skill being lower when compared to urban women and access to external financial resources more difficult than in urban areas. Generally, the number of women entrepreneurs has grown over a period of time in utilization of management information system, investment; creating of employment for other women entrepreneurs in the organized more of important untapped source of the economy gave rise to the concept of women entrepreneurship. It could be noted that women entrepreneurs and others and also by being different.
Women being seeing as interior beings as regains their work places, their payment when compared to their made competent and the notion that women should be just home makes most of than declined from doing, employment as police women, driving teachers, sales repetitive, interior decorators etc.
According to Oduma (2012) women entrepreneurship is also an area where Nigeria cannot be compared to the developed countries. The simple equation is related to social freedom. He continued by stating the entrepreneurial opportunities for women as thus:
- Special bedspreads/making
- Embroidering and apparel design
- Batik paintings/dyeing
- Catering services
- Sachet water production
- Running tutorial classes, typewriting/shorthand institutes etc.
Rural women try to start something suiting to their resources and knowledge. In this category we find diary products, pickles, fruit juice, ice cream production etc. (oduma, 2012). Rural women’s participation in agro-based activities is much more than the statistics reveal this is mainly due to the fact that most of the work done by the women at form and home is disguised as daily chores.
YOUTH AND RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Oduma (2012) stated that rural entrepreneurship is the establishment of industrial business units in rural sectors as 70% which means that it is very important that the rural sector develop. It could be noted that for proper participation of youth in rural entrepreneurship transformation, the future lies in the person who holds the business and some one with a vision. These skills required for starting and managing a successful enterprise includes but not limited to:
- Ability to visualize opportunities in rural areas
- Responsibility and
More opportunities could be harnessed by investing in rural youth who often leave for opportunities in cities-by providing them with technology and entrepreneurial skills to grow local businesses and develop professional careers locally.
The issues and challenges of youth rural entrepreneurship is that few programs in the country target youth in rural areas. Again, most of these people lack reliable access and up-to-date information. This could be taken care of if these barriers are transformed into opportunities by helping competent youth leaders build businesses and develop expertise to create information, energy and market-driven products.
WOMEN AND YOUTH OPPORTUNITIES
Potentials of MIS for rural transformation: the term information technology can be interpreted as including a wide range of media. Management information system is becoming more accessible and users can obtain information from various sources and one computer could meet needs of a large rural community.
Although the internet is not a panacea for food security and rural development problems, it can open new communication channels that bring new knowledge and information resources to rural communities (Bie, 1996). Traditional communications channels have been used successfully but these have been Monologic and have not allowed for much interaction with users. For example, radio has been very effective for dissertation information to all types of audiences but broadcasting times are sometimes not appropriate for most people. But radio could be linked to the internet, and a few initiatives have been stated on this concept. This enable user to access programs on the web at a convenient time and send feedback through e-mail, instant messengers or chat. Broadcasters could then disseminate the latest information promptly. Areas that information technology could play a catalytic role in developing rural areas as regards women and youth entrepreneurship include:
- Decision-Making Process: – Sound decision making is dependent upon availability of comprehensive, timely and up-to-date information. Food security problems facing rural areas demonstrate the need for informed youth and woman entrepreneurs.
- Market Outlook: Women and youth who find themselves in facing work could promote than products and handle simple transactions such as orders over the web while payment transactions for the goods can then be handled off-line (0’ Farrell et al 1999:4)
iii. Empowering Rural Communities: Information technology can empower rural communities and give them a voice that permits them to contribute to the development process. With information technology rural communities can acquire the capacity to become motivated through training and dialogue with others to a level where they make decisions for their own development (Balit 1998:30) giving rural people a voice means giving them a seat at the table to express their views and opinions and become part of the decisions making process. When the approach is participatory, it could lead to improved policy formation and execution.
- Targeting Marginalized Groups: Most rural poor people lack the power to access information. Information technology could benefit state holders including the civil society in particular the youth and women (UNDP, 2000).
- Creating Employment: Through the establishment of rural information centers. Management information system can create employment opportunities in rural areas by engaging telecaster mangers, subject matters specialists, information managers, translators and information technology technicians. Such centers help to bridge the gap between urban and rural communities and reduce the rural-urban migration problem. The centers can also provide training and those trained may become small-scale entrepreneurs.
MIS NEED OF THE RURAL DWELLERS THAT COULD SPUR ENTREPRENEURSHIP
There are many differences in rural communities so deep their information needs multidimensional. It is very important to determine the totality of their information needs. There has been a case of neglect because of lack of comprehensive document on the information needs .There has been a case of neglect because of lack of information needs of the of the rural inhabitants. Hence, has been made to explore the needs of individual rural communities for the purpose of research.
The better utilization of management information system for rural development could provide information needs categories of Nigerian rural communities as: The health information on how individuals can prevent diseases that affect them and awareness of available healthcare delivery and what it cost.
* Education need: information needs of the existing rural schools, needs of the illiterates and semi-illiterates. They need to have relevant information that will develop in their interest and support of teaching and learning processes.
* Crime and safety: Information is required on how to prevent crimes, report crimes, role of the law enforcement agents etc.
* Housing: Rural public need information about where they can obtain loans to build houses and the type of materials to be used and where they can be easily obtained.
* Agriculture and allied occupations: The greatest area of information needs by rural Nigerians is in agriculture. Such information need include soil conservation, farm machineries, recommended training practices, marketing techniques, comparative activities and other agro cultural activities.
* The neighborhood; information needs in the neighborhood include problems of water supply, electricity supply, environmental sanitation, refuse disposal, road maintenance and drought.
* Employment: Rural communities need information on employment opportunities on taxation, investment opportunities, banking and other financial activities.
* Information is needed by rural Inhabitants in almost all human endeavors. As listed above development and transformation can only be possible, effective and relevant when information needs of the rural dwellers are met positively.
*Transformation: They need information on the cost of bicycles, motorcycles and validness and where to obtain than. They need information about road construction and maintenance.
*Legal Maters: Information is needed on laws that affect the rural duelers. Such law ranges form marriage to land.
*Religion, Recreation and Culture: Information is required on religious, recreations and cultural activities.
*Policies and Government: Information is needed on political rights of the people and how they can exercise such right.
*Land: Information is needed on land tenure system acquisition and transfer of land etc.
The youth and women in rural areas hunger for information which could be made possible by information technology that will on the long run spur entrepreneurship. The huger for information in this area is prevalent and biting hard or rural communities, which has resulted in poor living conditions, illiteracy and poverty. Diso (1994:42) holds the view that “rural areas in Nigeria are generally characterized by poor living conditions- absolute poverty and absents of almost all amenities of life. The literacy in Nigeria is about 35-40 percent, but is much lower among women and in rural comities. Report on scarcity of learning facilities, including basic textbooks and Journal, in school and libraries including academic libraries, show critical situation.
Management information system is a general term for the computer systems in an enterprise that provide information about its business operations. It is also used to refer to the people who manage these systems. The focus on youth and women entrepreneurs being precipitated by the fact that entrepreneurs are a distinct and important information technology user group. Because their businesses are small in size, most entrepreneurs are short of resources, capital and expertise, which constrain exorbitant deployment and experimentation with sophisticated technologies. Women and youth increasingly run their own enterprises, yet their socio-economic contributions and entrepreneurial potential remain unrecognized and untapped. Due to lack of or under utilization of information technology. They tend to concentrate in informal, micro-size low productivity and low-return activities. Enabling and gender responsive policies service and business, with environment are crucial to stimulate the start up and upgrading of woman’s businesses and thereby help generate decent and producing work, achieve gender equality, reduce poverty and societies. For rural transformation, there is need to in cooperate youth as well as women in the entrepreneurial opportunities though management information system.
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