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MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR ACHIEVING MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN EBONYI STATE.

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR ACHIEVING MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN EBONYI STATE.

 

ABSTRACT

The study appraises Millennium development goals and universal primary education in Nigeria (an appraisal of the education program for achieving   MDGs in Ebonyi state). It became necessary due to the fact that the time frame set by United Nation (UN) for the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria and indeed Ebonyi state especially in the area of Universal Primary Education having elapsed, this work was divided into five chapters in order to deal with the problem extensively.

Chapter one introduced the topic portraying the background, statement of the problems that actually instigated this research with the questions that the research is meant to answer; the posed three null hypothetical statement on the topic; purpose or objectives of the study; the significant of the study to the society; and the scope and limitations of the study. The principal objective of this study is to ascertain the level of achievement or progress made by Millennium Development Goals and Universal primary education in Ebonyi state.

Which its number three (3) target was that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary education. The method adopted for the collection of data in this research was through, questionnaire distribution. A total of 380 questionnaires were distributed while 350 were returned. Chi –square (x2) inferential statistics was used in data analysis.

The study discovered that millennium development goals goal two (2) was not achieved in Ebonyi state in the year 2015. The study has proof its efficiency in appraising the activities of Millennium Development Goals goal two (2) in Ebonyi state, by revealing major findings to help achieve the goal two (2) of Millennium Development Goals in the future. Based on the researcher’s findings the following recommendations were offered:  prompt payment of teacher’s salaries and gratuities should be encouraged and adequate budgetary allocation to UPE should be provided by the government to enhance efficiency at primary school level.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the study

In September 2000, building upon decades of major united nations conference and summits, world leaders came together at united nations headquarters in new York to adopt the united nations millennium declaration, committing their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty and setting out a series of time bound targets with a decline of 2015 that have become known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The United Nations reaffirmed their commitment to working towards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority.

The United Nations however, establish a yardstick for measuring results, not just by developing countries, but for rich countries that help to fund development programs and also for the multilateral institutions that help in implementing them. The goal of achieving Universal Primary Education (UPE) as embedded in the goal two (2) of the millennium development goals has been on the international agenda since the universal declaration of human right affirmed in 1948, that elementary education was to be made freely and compulsory available for all children in all nations.

This objective was restated subsequently on many occasions by international treaties and in United Nations conference declarations (education for all, global monitoring report 2008). Prior to the establishment of these goals, the Nigerian government had introduce the universal basic education (UBE) program in 1999 targeted to make education free and compulsory from primary to junior secondary education as basic education is the ultimate liberator, empowering individuals to make personal and social choices that will enhance their living standard.

As noted by Frederick (2002) no country in the world has achieved at least an average of five to six years of basic education among its adults. The goal of basic education is to raise the literacy level. It can be said that literacy is a pillar on which the major part of an economy empowerment among the citizens, the anomalies and inequalities in developing nations can be reduced very easily and the economy will multiply through basic education. Meeting the education goal will speed progress towards every other millennium goal, educating children will help in reducing poverty and promote gender equality, and it will in lowering child mortality rate and promote concern for the goal three (3) which is gender parity.

Education is a powerful instrument for reducing poverty and inequality, improving health and socio-wellbeing and laying basis for sustainable economic growth, it is essential for building democratic societies and dynamics, globally competitive economies (World Bank 2002). An educated country is a developed country. Literacy level plays a major role in the economic development of a nation. According to Qurratulain (2006), literacy brings all the positive changes in variable factors of production as well as in infrastructure development; it also minimizes or may wipe out negatives.

It is therefore not surprising to understand the reasons why the goal two (2) of millennium development goal was allocated with the highest priority among all other goals to be achieved by 2015. As rightly observed by Haushek and Kimbo, that:

Significantly, adding other factors potentially related to growth including, aspects of international trade, private and public investment and political instability leaves the effects of labor force quality unchanged. The result also proves robust after allowing for other factors that can cause both higher growth and better educational performance”.

The principal goal development policy is to create sustainable improvement in the quality of life for all people while raising per capital incomes and consumption level are also important goals to be achieved. All these cannot be accomplished without education (Universal Primary Education). In this vein, the research work is an attempt to examine or appraise the impact or achievements made by Millennium Development Goals in enhancing universal primary education programs in Ebonyi state.

1.2   Statement of the Problems

Despite the unprecedented global prosperity, most developing nations in Africa are facing some myriad of social, political and economical problems, and Nigeria is not an exemption. In 1999, there were still 120 million primary school age children not in school, 53 percent of them were girls, and 74 percent living in south Asia and Sub-Sahara Africa (World Bank development indication 2002).

Even though successive administrations in the country have worked to the grindstone towards ensuring that compulsory universal basic education becomes the right of every Nigerian child, achievements so far in the sector leave much to be desired. Poverty is the main underlying cause of tens of millions of preventable child deaths each year, it is the causes of tens of millions of children going hungry, missing out of school or being forced into child labour.

This is why poverty reduction must begin with the protection and realization of rights of children to compulsory education. In other words, investing in children is the best guarantee for achieving equitable human development. Children gross rate in primary school enrolment both boys and girls alike is the priority of the goal two (2) of the millennium development goal. The millennium development goal set a more realistic but difficult deadline of 2015 when all children everywhere should be able to complete a full course of primary education.

So addressing the education problem means that other problems highlighted by MDGs can be tackled easily and conveniently.

To address the problem of this study, therefore, it is pertinent to ask the following questions:

  1. Has Millennium Development Goals and its targets been achieved in Ebonyi state in the year 2015?
  2. What are the efforts put in place over the years to achieve Millennium Development Goalsand Universal Primary Education in Ebonyi State?
  • What challenges confronted the achievement of Millennium Development Goals goal two (2) in Ebonyi state in 2015?

What are the successes recorded by Millennium Development Goals and UPE in Ebonyi state in the year 2015

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR ACHIEVING MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN EBONYI STATE.

 1.3    Objectives of the Study

The principal objective of this study is to ascertain the level of achievement or made by Millennium Development Goals program on Universal Primary Education in Ebonyi state; However, the specific objectives are as follow:

To Find out whether or not Millennium Development Goals and its target have been achieved in Ebonyi state.

To identify the efforts put in place over the years for achieving school enrolment objective embodied in Millennium Development Goals 2 D in Ebonyi state.

To identify the challenges that confronted the achievement of Millennium Development Goals goal two (2) in Ebonyi state in 2015.

To identify the level of successes recorded in respect of Millennium Development Goals in Ebonyi state.

1.4   Statement of Hypothesis

H0: Millennium Development Goals did not achieve its goal two (2) of Universal Primary Education in Ebonyi state in 2015.

Hi: Millennium Development Goals achieved its goal two (2) of Universal Primary Education in Ebonyi state in 2015.

1.5   Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study examines Millennium Development Goals and universal primary education in Nigeria, but for convenience of data collection and analysis, this research is restricted to the appraisal of the activities of millennium development goals on universal primary education in Ebonyi state. The study covers a period of ten (10) years (2005-2015).

It is worthy of mention here that, despite restricting the scope of the study to Ebonyi state certain factors further limited the extent of the findings in this study, one of which is lack of sufficient data and insufficient funds available for the purpose of this study which is practically impossible to embark on comparative studies of several states at the same time.

Thus these limitations necessitated the choice of Ebonyi state. However, it is not out of place to say that the challenges faced by universal primary education scheme in Ebonyi state are similar to other areas or states in the country at large. Ebonyi state therefore, serves as a representative sample from whose induction research findings will be generally applicable.

 1.6  Significance of the Study

The international agreed framework of eight (8) goals and eighteen (18) targets was complimented by forty eight (48) technical indicators to measure progress towards the millennium development goals. These indicators have since been adopted by a consensus of experts from the United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank. These goals, targets and indicators define what the MDGs intends to achieve.

However, the justification for this study is to appraise the level of progress made by millennium development goals in the goal two (2) of the MDGs. This research is therefore of great importance to appraising council in terms of effective management of millennium development goals and universal primary education scheme in attaining desirable increase in progress of the program, for instance in children enrolment.

The research would also give more detailed understanding of what MDGs and universal primary education is all about, its process, techniques and rational for establishment of the program. Similarly, the submission in terms of proffered solutions as contained in this study would serve as guiding point to the management of millennium development goals program and universal primary education in Ebonyi state to redefine their policy agendas.

The study would also be useful to scholars who intend to embark on similar research, as it will give them insights on the entire research work. The study will also contribute to the existing literature on developmental issues and policies.

Definition of Terms

In this study the following concepts and their meanings applies:

Development: it can be defined as the transformation of the society from the worst state of being to an egalitarian and modernized society with the aim of attaining sustained growth.

Sustainability: sustainability can be defined as a steady state of economic condition in a manner that such steadiness will be maintained with the basic ecological support system.

Millennium Development Goals: these are programs set aside by the United Nations to tackle issues and other challenges affecting human development such as poverty, education, unemployment, underemployment, health, gender equality, HIV/AIDS and malaria, environmental sustainability, development ventures e.t.c.

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: AN APPRAISAL OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR ACHIEVING MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN EBONYI STATE.

 

 

 

 

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