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Motivation and Teachers’ performance in Secondary Schools in Ikwuano Local Government Area in Abia State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

As stated by Wolfenson (2000), education is a fundamental human right and the key to sustainable development, peace and stability within and among countries is the provision of education to the populace of such countries. The learning environment and teachers’ motivation upon knowledge development relatively need attention in the field of mathematics teaching and learning. What happens in the classroom between psychological implication of teachers concerning their motivation and the student ability to study well has an impact on students’ opportunity to learn. The activities in the classroom, the repeated actions in which students and teachers engage as they learn are important because they constitute the knowledge that is produced (Cobb, 2008). Availability of teaching/learning resources and teachers’ motivation enhances the effectiveness of schools as these are basic things that can bring about good academic performance in the students. The educational effort that will be helpful in developing human resources needed is not given much attention. In particular, low quality education in mathematics is an urgent issue to be addressed. Maicibi opined that all institutions or organization are made up of human beings (workers) and other non-human resources (Maicibi, 2003). He further asserts that when the right quantity and quality of human resources is brought together, it can manipulate other resources towards realizing institutional goals and objectives. Consequently, every institution should strive to attract and retain the best of human resource. The implication of these opinions is that well trained and motivated teachers in mathematics if well deployed to the secondary schools will bring about well-rounded students who will perform academically well in mathematics. Most teachers are trained and have clear goals to guide their teaching, but good motivations for the teachers and teaching/learning materials seem to be inadequate. As a result, there has been a public outcry about poor performance in Mathematics at secondary school level.

Motivation involves the energy and drive to learn work effectively, and achieve potential (Martin, 2003). The motivation of a teacher is therefore, very important as it directly affects the students. In order for teachers to maintain a high level of professional performance, they        must assume personal responsibility for their own performance, growth and development (Alam, 2011). Teacher motivation is viewed as a variable which has a strong impact on learner’s motivation (Gardner, 2005). The extent to which teachers are able to motivate their students depends on how motivated they are (Atkinson, 2000; Bernaus, Whson, & Gardner, 2009; Guilloteaux & Dornvei, 2008). High motivation may enhance school teachers’ efficiency and effectiveness leading to improved teacher and student performance (Kusereka, 2003). Teachers’ low motivation may lead to apathy, reduced performance, request for transfers to other schools, increased value on material rewards, hostility to school officials, and working for promotion to other positions with better prospects (Frederick, 2001).

Nadeem; Rana, Lone, Magbool, Naz and Ali (2011) observed that poor salary, excessive workload, poor infrastructure, lack of library facility, lack of teaching and learning material, teachers morale, working relations with, staff and head teacher and working environment are the factors which affect the female teachers’ performance negatively. Other factors include political interference, responsibilities at home, distance of residing area, stress, status of teacher and respect in society. Moharity (2000) indicated poor pay, low status and morale as the key causes of poor performance and corrupt behavior in the public sector. Across the world, millions of teachers, most of them women, are working tirelessly for low wages educating the next generation.

                     Further, Institute for International Economic Policy (2004). Noted that teachers also complain about the lack of variety and role differentiation. In their careers, the limited incentives for them to improve their practice and develop as professionals, and the limited linkages between their performance, teacher compensation and teacher development. Dinham and Scott (2000) also showed that factors that affect teachers’ motivation include pay, interpersonal relations, authoritarian administration, teaching load, class size, supervision, promotion, student interest and behaviour, administrative efficiency, school facilities, community support and nature of the job.

                     Motivation is stimulated by a particular behaviour and satisfaction is the product of that behaviour. The level of intrinsic motivation stimulated by working with children, · seeing their progress and achievement and making-contribution to society are among the factors attributed to teacher’s satisfaction, and maintaining a good level of motivation in the job (Zembylas & Papanastasiou, 2003). Satisfaction tends to motivate teachers to aim for higher performance and achievement to fulfil their sense of accomplishment. Teachers need self-actualization because without it may lead to teacher burn-out and teachers therefore prepare to be provided with opportunities to enhance self-actualization. Self-actualization is the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities and potentialities. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves and to be doing the best that they are capable of doing.

       According to Nieto (2003), self-actualization is the need for achieving full potential, personal and professional success and, reaching the peak of satisfaction. The greatest enjoyment in teaching comes from seeing students who have achievedsuccess academically, and in seeing the students developing their personal characters and identities (Dornyef, 2000). Excellent teachers are motivated to continue teaching because they, are able to fulfill their personal accomplishment by seeing students’ successes. Motivation is associated with satisfaction (Dinham & Scott, 2000).

       As stated by Wolfenson (2000), Education is a fundamental human right and the key to sustainable development, peace and stability within and among countries is the provision of education to the populace, of such countries. The learning environment and teachers’ motivation upon knowledge development relatively need attention in teaching and learning secondary school students. What happens in the classroom between psychological implication of teachers concerning their motivation and the student ability to study well has an impact on students’ opportunity to learn. The activities in theclassroom, the repeated actions in which students and teachers engage as they learn are important because they constitute the knowledge that is produced    (Cobb, 2008).

       Availability of teaching/learning resources and teachers’ motivation enhances the effectiveness of schools as these are basic things that can bring about good academic performance in the students. The educational effort that will be helpful in developing human resources needed is not given much attention. Maicibi opined that all institutions are organization is made up of human beings (workers) and other non-human resources (Maicibi, 2003). He further asserts that when the right quantifies and quality of human resources is brought together, it can manipulate other resources towards realizing institutional goals and objectives. Consequently, every institution should strive to attract and retain the best of human resource. The implication of these opinions is that well trained and motivated teachers in mathematics if well deployed to the secondary schools will bring about well-rounded students who will perform academically well in mathematics. Most teachers are trained and have clear goals to guide their teaching, but good motivations for the teachers and teaching/learning materials seem to be inadequate.

       The relevance of job satisfaction and motivation are very crucial to the long-term growth of any educational system around the world. They probably rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, centre competencies educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance. Professional knowledge, skills and centre competencies occur when one feels effective in one’s behaviour. In other words, professional knowledge, skills and competencies can be seen when one is taking on and mastering challenging tasks directed at educational success, and performance (Filak & Sheldon, 2003). The above factors are closely similar to efficacy and of course it is well known that any teachers lose or fail to develop self-efficacy within educational settings (Dweck, 1999).

Statement of the Problem

       Job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance.

The performance of the student towards achieving educational goals is said to be very important in most society today. The negative performance of student towards an educational aims and objectives could be associated to the low motivation of teachers most especially in the area of mathematics. It is generally believed that children from high and middle socio-economic status parent are better exposed to a learning environment at home because of provision and availability for extra learning facilities and attended a private school while children from a very low socio-economic status family will attend a public school and may not have any opportunity to expose to a better learning environment where teachers are highly motivated. Teachers have the biggest impact on the success and flaws of students` academic performance because their teaching motivations are instrumental in helping them learn and one approach is likely to produce different results from another. Teachers’ motivation to undertake a task depends on their expected reward. Efficient teaching and moral will take place when there is strong motivation in terms of wages and innovation from both employers, also the students` performance in mathematics sometimes may serve as a motivation for the teachers in other to perform efficient in the subject. This motivation may be aroused by either extrinsic or intrinsic stimuli both of which are important in directing and regulating the learner’s behaviour towards attainment of the desired goals. Teachers must therefore be motivated through various ways which may include the organisation of seminars and workshops, upgrading test, performance appraisal, timely payment of salary and wage, providing the required physical facilities like laboratories and verbal encouragements for student etc. It is pertinent however, to note that once the needs of the teachers are neglected in school, the beneficiaries of education such as government, parents/students and entire society will be in a state of chaos. Under this dreadful condition, teachers undoubtedly expected perform below expectation. From the foregoing, the study is set to find out Teachers’ motivation on the academic performance of students in Secondary schools in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Umuahia, Abia State.

Purpose of the Study

       This research work is set to ascertain Teachers’ motivation on the academic performance of students in Secondary schools in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Umuahia, Abia State.

Specifically it is set to:

  1. Identify the factors of motivation that affects teachers’ performance in Secondary Schools in Ikwuano LGA.
  2. Effect of school environment in motivating teachers Performance in secondary school in Ikwuano LGA.
  3. The role of instructional materials provision as a motivator to the performance of secondary school teachers in Ikwuano LGA.
  4. Effects of incentives on teachers’ performance in Secondary school Teachers in Ikwuano LGA.

Significance of the Study

       For administration to be effective and productive, teachers must be effectively motivated. There are many problems that relate to motivation of teachers in our schools. Such as job-dissatisfaction, workload, salary structure, promotion retardation etc. These problems have contributed immensely to the low productivity in our schools.

       Since there is hardly any text specifically on the topic, it is hoped that findings from this study will serve as a source of inspiration to those aspiring to go into teaching’ profession. It will also be beneficial to individuals, educational system, and to entire nation.

       Furthermore, this research work will serve as a germane literature for educational administrators and those responsible for the financing of education whenever the need arises.

Consequently, the government especially those responsible for educational planning and administration and those responsible for financing of education will now be more aware of’ the kind of problem teachers face when their counterpart in companies and Government parastatals enjoy more fascinating and regular salaries.

       Finally, this research work will go a long way in making the teachers to put in their best and also be dedicated to their duties.

Research Question

       The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the motivational factors that affect teachers’ job performance in Secondary Schools in Ikwuano LGA?
  2. What are the effects of school environment in motivating teachers’ performance in secondary school in Ikwuano LGA?
  3. What effect does provision of instructional materials have on the performance of secondary school teachers in Ikwuano LGA?
  4. How does incentive improve teachers’ performance in Secondary school Teachers in Ikwuano LGA?

Scope of the Study

                     The study is to examine teachers’ motivation on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Umuahia, Abia State.

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2 Comments

  1. Yvonne July 28, 2015
    • Project Topics July 28, 2015

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