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Photochemical constituent of indigenous medicinal plants icacina trichantha and Uvaria chamae

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.0   PHYTOCHEMICALS

1.1     Medicinal plant have been used as traditional treatment for numerous human diseases for thousands of years in many part of the world.

In rural areas of developing countries, herbal materials continue to be used as the primary sources of medicine (Chitme et al 2003).

          About 80% of the people in developing counties use traditional medicines for their primary health care (Kin, 2005). There are approximately 500,000 plant species occurring worldwide (Palombo, 2006), but only 1% has been phytochemically investigated.

          Moreover, there is great patented for discovering novel bioactive compounds from the rest of the plant kingdom. However, according to the United Nations environment programme world conservation, mentoring centre, current extinctions rates of plants means that the world is losing one major durg every two years (Grormbridge and Jenlcins, 2002). Is estimated that 27 millions of south and western African depends on traditional herbal medicine from as many as 1020 plant species. (Dant Skardt, 1990; Meyer et al, 1996; fennel et al 2004).

Photochemistry assist in the development of new drugs.

          Medicinal plants contain some organize compounds which produce definite physiological action on the human body and these bioactive substance include tannins, alkahoiids, carbohydrates steniods, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, (Edoga et al 2005).

In most cases these substance appear to be non-essential to the plant producing their but are of great importance to the health of individuals and community (Edeoga et al, 2005) many of these indigenous medicinal plants are used as spices and food plants (Okwu, 2001).

Phytochemical are non-nutritive plants chemicals that have protective and preventive properties and occur naturally in plants (Barown, K.M., et al 2001). They are non essential nutrients which are not required by humans for sustaining life. But plant produces these chemical to protect themsches.

Hence it is expected that through low-engineering’s, new plants will be developed which will contain higher levels to make it easier to incorporates enough photochemicals with our regard to these research work emphasis is livid mainly on the two medical plants are indigenous medical plants used traditionally in the treatment of malaria parasite and diabetes mellitus (Donatus, et al 2009).

Traditionally icaina trichantta and Uvaria chamae have anti-malaria and anti-diabetic properties in preference to some anti-malaria drugs (Ezigbo; et al 2010).

The folk use of these plants in the treatment of malaria has been proved experimentally (Doniatus Okwu, et al, 2009). Icalina trichantta and Uvaria chamae are anti-malaria medicinal plants that has a diverse use of both medical and nutritional values the seeds, leaf stem and root post are used, the seed, stem pods are widely consumed as food especially the fruit and the roots used vy the Igbo tribe in Nigeria as purgative and vermifuge, (iroabuchi et al 2009). The bank extract is used with jusic extract as a phytomedcine for treatment of pilles, menrrhegia heamutria and heamolysis.

These two plants are indiyerous medicinal plants which belong to the family annoriacceases, and pftamzenfarm respectively found in the tropical rain forest of west Africa especially moisture region, an evergreen plants that grow about 3.6 to 4.5m high above the gowned, with braches leaves and has been used for centunes of health promoting purposes (Njoku and Ezeibe, 2007).

The common names of these plants in Nigeria include Eriagbo (Urumbia) meaning it includes vomiting in Igbo land, Gbegbe in Yoruba and Edia Ekok in Efik.

1.2     AIMS OF THE RESEARCH.

The aim and objective of these project research was to validate the Photochemical constituent of indigenous medicinal plants icacina trichantha and Uvaria chamae. The specific objectives were as follows.

  1. Comparism of phytochemicals present in these two plants icacina trichantha and Uvaria chamae.
  2. To evaluate and investigate the phytochemical composition of these medicinal plant when compared with known phytochemicals.
  3. To determine the phytochemical compositions of these indigenous medicinal plant.
  4. Comparism of phytochemicals present in these two plants icacina trichantha and Uvaria chamae according to Crierson and Afolayan (2000), information on traditional herbal practice in Eastern (Igbo) and Western part of Nigeria is passed from generation to others through oral tradition without examining the phytochemical constituents. Considering the rate of deforestation and loses of biodiversity. In cause of development, and there is a need for accurate scenes documentation of the knowledge and experience of these herbalist for the treatment of malaria and other disease and to document the local scientific names and as well method of perpetrations as repeatedly mentioned as the prominent plant use for the treatment of malaria and diabetes.
  5. To evaluate and investigate the phytochemical composition of these medicinal plant when compared with known phytochemicals.

The fact remains that natural products have been source of antibiotic but the increasing acceptance of herbal medical as an alternative form of health care, the screening of plant extracts for anti-malaria and anti-chabetic activity has shown that higher plants represent a potential source of new anti-ineffective agents (pool, 2001).

  1. To investigate the phytochemical constituents is alkahoids, tainins, glycoside etc. which is the bioactive constituent of icaina trichantha and Uvaria chamae.

 

1.3     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH.

          The significance of the study based on these research is that the bioactive (phytochemical) composition of these indigenous medicinal plants icacina trichantha and uvaria chamae are quantified. Hence the high present of flavor night alkaloid shows that these plants are of high medicinal value.

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