The term piggery is the act of domesticating or rearing of pigs.
TERMINOLOGIES USED IN PIGGERY
- Wallow: This is a rectangular pound designed for batting and keeping pigs warm.
- Drinker: It is a container where water is reserved for pigs drinking.
- Pork: The meat of pig.
- Farrowing: The act of parturition in pig
- Bacon: Smoked or salted meat of pig.
- Inpig: A pregnant pig.
- Litter: A set of piglets given birth at the same time.
- Lald: Fat from pig
- Wearning: The act of separating piglets from the mother mainly after 6 weaker of birth.
- Piglets: The young or baby pig
- Serving: Introducing a mall pig to the female onces on heat for mating.
- Gestation period: This is simply the pregnancy period in pig.
BREEDS OF PIGS
This involves the different varieties of pig, which include: Duroc, large white landrace, Hampshire, Chinese breed etc while Yorkshire (large white) is the one reared in Umuebe farms college Ltd.
YORKSHIRE (LARGE WHITE)
This breed is widely used more than any other breed. It adapts to varying climatic conditions. The breeds are large in size and white in colour. It is a good pork producer. They sows are good milkers and good mothers. And they are very good for cross- breeding.
SYSTEMS OF PIG PRODUCTION
- One litter system: This is the process whereby a pig farrows ones before saling off.
- Two litter system: This is the condition where pigs are divided into two groups both with each farrowing twice in a year.
- Multiple farrowing Systems: In this place, the pigs are divided into different groups with each farrowing twice in a year.
GENERAL SANITATION OF PIGS
For good healthy living of pigs, and fore a clean environment of the pen and the entire house, the piggery attendants in collaboration with the student trainees in Umuebe farms ltd usually engage in a mandated sanitation activities in the piggery unit such as; sweeping and packing of the pigs drooping flushing of the wallows and drinkers with water and as wall adding new water to the wallows and drinkers. This regular sanitation reduces the affects of disease and odour.
DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN PIGGERY
Drugs are giving to pigs based on their signs and symptoms of disease they display.
In Umuebe farms limited, the following drugs are administered to pigs.
|(a) Wearners, weak and not responding to feed||Multivitamin mixed with ox tetracycline|
|(d)environment diseases||Anti biotic|
|(e) Piglets diarhea||Adamacine|
|(f) Milk let down||Oxystocine|
|(h) For strongness of body after wearning||Iron injection and Embocycline||2ml/0.5ml|
FEED FORMULATION IN PIGGERY
Feed formulation refers to the mixing of feeds with the view of improving and considering the nutritional requirement of the pig. It also involves the act of putting together all the feed ingredients that will supply the basic nutritional requirements of they body maintenance and growth. The table below shows the pig feeds ingredients and their functions.
|1||Spent cream||For carbohydrates and vitamins|
|2||maize||Carbohydrates and some vitamins|
|3||P.K.C||For lipids and protein|
|4||Fish meal||For protein and vitamins|
|5||Cassava meal||For protein and vitamins|
|6||Soya beans||For protein|
|7||molysis||As an additive to sweeten the feed.|
|8||Salt||For addition of mineral like (Nacl) and Calcium|
TECHNIQUES AND PERIODS OF FEEDING
the amount of feeds given to pigs depend on the condition (such as pregnant once, mother pigs) age, number of piglets and number of pigs in a pen when feeding, one should be carefully in avoiding where they drooping are:
This table shows the feeding period of pigs in umuebe farms ltd
|From 4 30 pm down||Evening|
REGULAR INSPECTION OF PIGS IN UMUEBE FARMS LTD
- Weighting of pigs: The weight of pigs are taken and recorded on routine basis in order to determine the slaughtering weight and age of pigs in livestock unit.
The table below shows the different weight and age of pigs in umuebe farms ltd.
|1||4 weeks – 8 weeks||20kg|
|2||3 months- 4months||3okg|
|4||1 year -2 years||65kg|
|5||3- 5 years||75kg|
|6||5 -7 years||125kg|
|7||7 years – down||diminishing in weight|
SYSTEMS OF PIG MANAGEMENT
- Extensive system: The pigs are allowed to move and feed on its own.
- Semi intensive: This combines the intensive and extensive qualities.
- Intensive: this is the best way of razing pigs. It involves rearing of pig in a well ventilated building this requires a large capitals. Capital and a well sophisticate tools and materials. And this is the type been operated in Umuebe farms Ltd.
SERVING OF FEMALE PIG ON HEAT
On my industrial training at umuebe farms ltd, I learnt technical and practical ways of identifying pigs on heat. This heat period can be discovering through their restless and screening signs. When this is discovered, the attendant or the student trainee is to introduce a male pig (boar) to the pen for mating.
MATING METHODS IN PIGGERY
Mating is the act by which the matured, male and female animal’s reproductive organ comes together. (Corpulation). In pigs this can last for 5- 25 minutes.
TYPES OF MATING IN PIG
(1) Natural mating and
(2) Artificial insemination
This comprises of hard mating and (b) herd mating
(a) Hard mating: This is the type of mating in which the female is brought to the male, and after mating, she is taken back to her pen.
(b) Herd mating: This is the process by which the both sex are kept together.
(AT) Artificial Insemination: This is the introduction of the sperm into the vulva of the female pig without the presences of the male one; this requires high level of skilled personal in carrying out the operation.
(1) It is cheaper to import sperms than the male animal.
(2) The risk of diseases spread is reduced.
(3) Ejaculation from one boar can be used to service many soars.
(4) Sperm (semen) can be used over a long time even after the death of the male animal.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN PIG PRODUCTION
(1) Favourable condition
(2) Moderate weather condition
(3) Topography of an area.
(4) Provision of shed
(5) Availability of water
(6) Availability of amenities
IMPORTANCE OF PIG
(1) Source of income to the farmer
(2) As a source of foreign exchange.
(3) The hairs and skin are used for the production of leather used in production of bays and shoes etc.
(4) Pigs are good source of nutrients
(5) Pigs have a high rate of fats and protein.
(6) They give prestige to the farmer when kept in a large scale intensive system.